Luca Mauri's wiki contributions uuid:37b4a44f-48d6-4329-8add-e6ce3507bcce;id=1 2024-07-15T06:06:12Z https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Sawandi_Wilson?diff=3161612 Sawandi Wilson <p>Lucamauri: IMDB link</p> <hr /> <div>{{Real world}}<br /> {{sidebar actor<br /> |name = Sawandi Wilson<br /> |image = Leto Booker.png<br /> |caption = ...as Leto Booker<br /> |birth name = <br /> |birthday = {{d|22|March|?}}<br /> |birthplace = Westbury, New York, USA<br /> |roles = Actor<br /> |characters = [[Leto Booker]]<br /> }}<br /> '''Sawandi Wilson''' {{born|22|March|?}} is an actor who played [[Leto Booker]] in the {{s|DIS}} [[DIS Season 5|fifth season]] episode {{e|Life, Itself}}.<br /> <br /> {{stub-production}}<br /> <br /> == External links ==<br /> * {{el|www.sawandiwilson.com SawandiWilson.com}} &amp;ndash; official website<br /> * {{imdb|name/nm4007560/||external}}<br /> * {{instagram|sawandiwilson||external}}<br /> * {{facebook|SawaldiWilsonpage||external}}<br /> <br /> {{DEFAULTSORT|Wilson, Sawandi}}<br /> [[Category:DIS performers]]<br /> [[Category:Performers]]</div> 2024-05-31T14:44:15Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=ItWikiCon/2024/Gruppi&diff=26734202 ItWikiCon/2024/Gruppi <p>Lucamauri: Mi aggiungo</p> <hr /> <div>Partecipa ai gruppi di lavoro della [[ItWikiCon/2024|ItWikiCon 2024]]!<br /> <br /> Se vuoi dare una mano e rendere possibile questa itWikiCon per favore '''iscriviti''' a uno o più di questi gruppi!<br /> Ogni gruppo elegge al suo interno un referente.<br /> :'''Attenzione''': se invece vuoi semplicemente proporre un intervento durante la conferenza, un po' di pazienza: apriremo a breve la richiesta di proposte.<br /> <br /> Non è indispensabile risiedere nella regione dell'evento o avere esperienza per offrirsi come volontari. E' sempre benvenuta (anzi necessaria!) l'esperienza di persone che abbiano partecipato all'organizzazione di edizioni precedenti.<br /> <br /> == Programma ==<br /> Questo gruppo ha il compito di raccogliere le proposte per gli interventi della conferenza, selezionarle, stilare il programma e assicurarsi che gli interventi si svolgano al meglio durante la conferenza.<br /> <br /> *--[[User:Sciking|Sciking]] ([[User talk:Sciking|talk]]) 12:11, 6 May 2024 (UTC)<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> == Fuori orario ==<br /> Questo gruppo si occupa di organizzare e animare tutti gli eventi &quot;extra conferenza&quot;, come le visite guidate e la cena di sabato.<br /> Almeno una persona dovrebbe risiedere nei pressi dell'evento.<br /> <br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Threecharlie|Threecharlie]]<br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Marcok|Marcok]]<br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Torque|Torque]]<br /> *...<br /> <br /> == Accoglienza e logistica ==<br /> Questo gruppo si occupa di organizzare dal punto di vista pratico l'accoglienza dei partecipanti e la logistica prima, durante e dopo conferenza; quando necessario anche ricevere/trasportare le merci e (se serve) le persone.<br /> E' necessario che almeno alcune delle persone di questo gruppo risiedano nei pressi di Padova o nel Veneto.<br /> <br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Marcok|Marcok]]<br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Adert|Adert]]<br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Piergiovanna|Piergiovanna]]<br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Voschix|Volker Schmidt]] (OpenStreetMap)<br /> * [[s:it:Utente:OrbiliusMagister|OrbiliusMagister]] — '''[[:it:s:Utente:OrbiliusMagister|&lt;span style=&quot;color:orange;&quot;&gt;&amp;epsilon;&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span style=&quot;color:blue;&quot;&gt;&amp;Delta;&lt;/span&gt;]][[:it:s:Discussioni utente:OrbiliusMagister|&lt;span style=&quot;color:brown;&quot;&gt;&amp;omega;&lt;/span&gt;]]'''<br /> * [[s:it:Utente:Alesarrett~itwiki|Alesarrett]] (OpenStreetMap)<br /> * [[w:it:Utente:Kevinoo|Kevinoo]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> == Comunicazione e immagine ==<br /> Questo gruppo si occupa di organizzare il contest per scegliere il logo, dei gadget, dei rapporti coi media e di tutto quello che riguarda la comunicazione.<br /> <br /> * Un po' limitato per la grafica, ma per i media una mano posso darla! --[[User:Sciking|Sciking]] ([[User talk:Sciking|talk]]) 12:11, 6 May 2024 (UTC)<br /> * [[User:Lucamauri|Luca Mauri]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> == Bilancio e amministrazione ==<br /> Questo gruppo si occupa di gestire tutti gli aspetti economici e amministrativi legati all'evento, come stilare il bilancio delle spese, stipulare l'assicurazione e raccogliere le quote di iscrizione.<br /> <br /> * --[[User:Ferdi2005|&lt;span style=&quot;font-weight: 700;font-family: Liberation Serif;serif; color:#991815&quot;&gt;Ferdi2005&lt;/span&gt;]][[User talk:Ferdi2005|&lt;span style=&quot;font-family: Liberation Serif;serif color:#8f0000;margin-left:1px&quot;&gt;&lt;sub&gt;(talk)&lt;/sub&gt;&lt;/span&gt;]] 12:07, 6 May 2024 (UTC)<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> == Commissione borse di partecipazione ==<br /> Questa commissione vaglia le richieste di borse di partecipazione e le assegna.<br /> <br /> * ...<br /> <br /> == Commissione Wikiricci ==<br /> Questa commissione assegna i premi annuali dei [[ItWikiCon/WikiRicci|wikiricci]] ed è formata dai vincitori della precedente edizione. Un ulteriore wikiriccio è invece assegnato dagli organizzatori di itWikiCon.<br /> <br /> == Unipd ==<br /> * Prof. [[User:Federico Mazzini|Federico Mazzini]], contatto con il Dipartimento di scienze storiche e geografiche dell'Università degli Studi di Padova.</div> 2024-05-06T16:14:12Z 2024-05-06T16:14:12Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:ItWikiCon/2024/Gruppi //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Dopterian?diff=3120272 Dopterian <p>Lucamauri: Link for Dopteria, considering the map shown in Red Directive</p> <hr /> <div>{{sidebar species<br /> | image = Gorta.jpg<br /> | caption = Gorta, a Dopterian<br /> | type = [[Humanoid]]<br /> }}<br /> <br /> The '''Dopterians''' were an often unscrupulous [[humanoid]] [[species]] found throughout the [[Alpha Quadrant]]. <br /> <br /> They were distant relatives of the [[Ferengi]], with which they shared an inability to be read by [[telepath]]ic species such as [[Betazoid]]s. ({{DS9|The Forsaken}}; {{TNG|Firstborn}})<br /> <br /> The Dopterians also employed a type of [[Dopterian interceptor|automated attack weapon]]. ({{DS9|Business as Usual}})<br /> <br /> == People ==<br /> ;Named<br /> * [[Gorta]]<br /> <br /> ;Unnamed<br /> {{see-list|Dopterian unnamed 000||Unnamed Dopterians}}<br /> <br /> == Appendices ==<br /> === Appearances ===<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;appear&quot;&gt;<br /> * {{TNG|Firstborn}}<br /> * {{DS9}}<br /> **{{e|The Forsaken}} (first appearance)<br /> ** {{e|Bar Association}}<br /> **{{e|Ties of Blood and Water}}<br /> **{{e|Honor Among Thieves}}<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> === Background information ===<br /> Dopterians were only identified by name in dialogue in the episode &quot;The Forsaken&quot;. In the scripted stage directions for that episode, the Dopterian who robs [[Lwaxana Troi]] was described as a &quot;small, weasely [sic] looking Dopterian who looks like a distant cousin to a Ferengi.&quot; (''[[Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Companion - A Series Guide and Script Library]]'')<br /> <br /> Dopterians also shared an unusual resemblance to the [[Kobheerian]] species; their appearance was almost identical, but Dopterians had Ferengi-like noses, whereas Kobheerians had two large, elongated flat nostrils in the place of a nose.<br /> <br /> According to ''[[Star Trek: Star Charts]]'' (&quot;United Federation of Planets I&quot;) and ''[[Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library]]'' (&quot;Federation Historical Highlights, 2161-2385&quot;), there was a [[star system]] named [[Dopteria]] ([[Kappa Coronae Borealis]]), which might possibly be the system of origin for this species, in the [[Alpha Quadrant]]. This was a [[binary star system|binary]] [[star system|system]] of two [[Star Trek: Star Charts#Spectral classification|K-class stars]].<br /> <br /> ===External link===<br /> * {{mbeta}}<br /> <br /> [[de:Dopterianer]]<br /> [[es:Dopterians]]<br /> [[fr:Doptérien]]<br /> [[Category:Species]]</div> 2024-04-17T08:41:39Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Red_Directive_(episode)?diff=3120270 Red Directive (episode) <p>Lucamauri: /* Star chart references */</p> <hr /> <div>{{real world}}<br /> {{spoiler DIS}}<br /> {{sidebar episode<br /> |&lt;!-- See [[Memory Alpha:Projects/Episode data project]] --&gt;<br /> |image = <br /> |writer = [[Michelle Paradise]]<br /> |director = [[Olatunde Osunsanmi]]<br /> |date = ''Unknown'' ([[3191]])<br /> }}<br /> <br /> Captain Burnham and the USS ''Discovery'' are sent to retrieve a mysterious 800-year-old Romulan vessel; until the artifact hidden inside is stolen, leading to an epic chase. Meanwhile, Saru is offered the position of a lifetime, and Tilly's efforts to help pull her into a tangled web of secrecy.<br /> <br /> ==Summary==<br /> ===Teaser===<br /> On board a ship going at warp, [[Captain]] [[Michael Burnham]] is hanging on to the outside of the hull, excited by the turn of events. [[Saru]] contacts her on his status as she reassures her before telling him to focus on his team while she goes inside the ship to get back something that was taken from a vault. As she uses her phaser to cut her way in, the ship's warp bubble starts to fail, prompting Saru to try and rescue her. Burnham grumbles that this wasn't what she expected when the night started.<br /> <br /> ;Four hours earlier...<br /> <br /> Burnham is gathered with [[Adira Tal]], [[Paul Stamets]], [[Hugh Culber]], and [[Sylvia Tilly]] as Adira is finishing a joke. A [[waiter|waitress]] approaches them with [[Tonic 2161]] and explains that this is to celebrate a millennium of the Federation being active, give or take a few decades due to [[The Burn]]. Stamets, however, is in a sour mood: Culber reveals that they're shuttering the [[Displacement-activated spore hub drive|spore drive]] program thanks to [[Ruon Tarka]]'s theft of the prototype device during the [[Dark Matter Anomaly]] crisis and its destruction along with [[Booker's ship]]. Adira tries to reassure their parents that it just means ''Discovery'' is now one-of-a-kind, but Stamets would rather be someone other than &quot;Scientific Luminary&quot;. Burnham is rattled by the mention of Booker, but she shakes it off and reassures Stamets that he'll do something just as great. Thankfully, her awkwardness is stopped when she is asked to meet with some of the dignitaries around.<br /> <br /> As she leaves, Stamets regrets mentioning [[Cleveland Booker]] as Tilly laments that Burnham hadn't talked to Booker in months. Culber thinks she's hiding something the way she's acting. Tilly goes to add something, but she spots someone in the distance and awkwardly apologizes as she leaves. With that, the Stamets-Culber family decide to go mingle. Elsewhere, Saru is dancing with [[T'Rina]], who realizes that he has something on his mind. Saru reveals that [[President]] [[Laira Rillak]] has asked him to be Federation [[ambassador]] for a coalition of smaller planets, not wanting to make the mistakes of the past as the Federation continues to heal and expand. T'Rina agrees as the planets are close to the [[Tholian Republic]] and the [[Breen Imperium]]. However, this means that Saru needs to resign his commission from Starfleet, but deep down, he's worried about his relationship with T'Rina. Elsewhere, Burnham is confronted by [[Admiral]] [[Vance]], who gives her an infinity-shaped device. &quot;''You're done shaking hands.''&quot;<br /> <br /> Burnham and Vance are taken to a blank white room, the [[Infinity Room]], where [[Kovich]] is waiting for them. Vance explains that an 800-year old science vessel has been discovered at the edge of the [[Beta Quadrant]] and they need ''Discovery'' to drop there and secure it. Burnham realizes that she's being deliberately told very little, forcing Kovich to reveal that this is a [[Red Directive]], stopping Burnham's questioning and agree to assemble her crew. <br /> <br /> On the ''Discovery'', the crew is gathered and the ship is prepared for departure. Burnham arrives with Kovich and gives everyone the details of what's going on before jumping to the location of a [[Romulan science ship]].<br /> <br /> At the ship, two figures teleport inside and race towards their destination, blowing open the door to a science lab. After stealing a few items, they open their helmets, though [[Moll]] hates the smell. She sees that the {{USS|Antares|32nd century}} is on their way with [[L'ak]] pointing out that another ship (the ''Discovery'') is coming. He suggests they have about eight minutes before they arrive and Moll discovers the source of the backup power's path. To L'ak's shock, the new ship arrived super quickly. He suggests bailing, but Moll convinces him to keep going.<br /> <br /> At ''Discovery'', as they bring up the Romulan ship, [[Joann Owosekun]] notes there were two lifesigns that suddenly disappeared. [[Linus]] hopes that they just left, but [[Keyla Detmer]] thinks they actually cloaked. Burnham orders [[Gen Rhys]] and Owosekun with her, phasers on stun, but Kovich surprises them by saying that might not be enough. Burnham thinks that's excessive, but Kovich makes it quite clear that he wants the mission successful by any means necessary. <br /> <br /> ===Act One===<br /> On the Romulan ship, Burnham, Rhys and Owosekun take the science lab with Rhys noting that their targets were there recently. Following their path, they reach another room, where they discover the corpse of a dead Romulan. Rhys finds a vault that had its cloaking device taken out. They open the vault to find it empty. Burnham realizes that Romulan tech takes a long time to decrypt, Rhys realizing they're still here. They quickly turn and open fire, forcing Moll and L'ak to drop their cloaks. They imprison Rhys and Owosekun in a strange bubble, forcing Burnham to chase them herself.<br /> <br /> A firefight ensues, forcing Burnham to change her phaser pistol to a phaser rifle to force them to stop and try to talk. However, they approach Burnham with a strange device. L'ak tosses it at her, causing a small black hole to eat up the hull and launch Burnham out into space, saved by her suit changed to a spacesuit. She contacts Saru to tell him to rescue Rhys and Owosekun, but when she spots the thieves' ship, she flies off to it. As she activates the suit's magnetic clamps, the ship comes into view and warps out.<br /> <br /> In the present, Burnham attempts to use her phaser to disable their engines when the ship is hit with a tractor beam. It's the ''Antares'', captained by [[Rayner]], who notes Burnham started without him. However, the ship's warp bubble is dropping rapidly; Rayner refuses to let the ship go and the ''Antares'' can't just stop it as it doesn't have [[pathway drive]] tech. Saru has Detmer bring ''Discovery'' in to save Burnham, but the ship is getting rattled and Kovich isn't happy. However, Burnham and Rayner are arguing as Burnham wants him to drop the tractor or they're all dead and Rayner refuses. Ultimately, he relents and drops the lock. As they drop out of warp, the other ship tosses out a number of probes before warping away as Burnham floats back towards ''Discovery'', teleported back on the bridge and she drops into the captain's chair exhausted. Rayner contacts Burnham, letting her know that stunt now has 20 different warp signatures to try and figure out which one's the real one. Kovich sarcastically asks if she has a bright idea and she does.<br /> <br /> As the ''Discovery'' spore jumps to another planet, Burnham arrives in the cargo bay, where she meets a familiar face &amp;ndash; Booker.<br /> <br /> ===Act Two===<br /> As Burnham and Book walk down the hallway, they discuss why they were there, though Burnham congratulates Book on the work he's done for the refugees of the DMA and he wants to make sure he does his best to make up for what happened.<br /> <br /> At the security briefing, Rayner reveals Moll and L'ak's identities to them. The item they stole was a [[Tan zhekran|Romulan puzzle box]] that no one knows what's inside and Kovich refuses to reveal. When Kovich asks Book for his help, he easily picks out the right warp trail, leading to [[Q'mau]] or &quot;Fred&quot;. Vance orders Burnham and Rayner to make their way to Q'mau, though it's quite easy to see that the idea of working with Burnham is not a thrilling one for Rayner. As they leave, Burnham tells Saru that the secrecy of this mission is so strange that even Vance is out of the loop. Saru decides the best thing to do is to ask someone outside of ''Discovery'''s chain of command, which Burnham understands. She also tells him that she'll miss him if he takes the ambassadorial position. He understands, but there's still so much to consider. For now, Fred.<br /> <br /> Elsewhere, a very obviously drunk-on-[[Andorian champagne]] Tilly is rambling to her male companion about various subjects as she arrives in her room, confusing the poor man. Whatever plans he had are stopped when she decides to send him out with a promise of more talking. As she plans to just sit back and nurse her hangover, Burnham calls asking for her help, but she suggests she says no. Tilly's in.<br /> <br /> Down on the planet, Burnham and Book teleport down, causing Book to reminisce about their times as couriers. Rayner drops in soon after and teasingly needles them as he notices that they're having trouble. Elsewhere in the trading outpost, Moll and L'ak make their way to a home which uses a scanner to confirm their identities before they go in. Stripped of their weapons, they meet with Fred, a [[Soong-type android]]. They offer their various items, ending with the puzzle box, which surprises Fred. With ease, he solves the puzzle box and reveals its contents: a journal. He flips through it quickly, but stops and focuses on a set of pages with a mysterious design on it. He offers three [[Bar (latinum)|bars]] of [[latinum]], but Moll and L'ak refuse, realizing that he reacted to the pages. They want higher. He refuses, and also refuses to return the items, demanding they leave.<br /> <br /> Instead, a fight breaks out. In the process, Fred is able to get a phaser pistol working and shoots Moll, prompting an enraged L'ak into blasting Fred. Moll is alright and finishes off the android. Meanwhile, Burnham, Booker and Rayner reach Fred's home to find the place in a shambles. After finding Fred's body, Burnham suggests they stick together as Book knows where things are but Rayner quickly runs out, suggesting splitting up. After requesting Saru beams up Fred's body, Booker and Burnham realize their next move: the [[sand runner]]s.<br /> <br /> In medbay, Stamets and Culber take notice of Fred and marvel at his engineering. Even his memory drive is made in honor of [[Altan Soong]]. However, the components are so old, it'll take time to get everything just to try and get it out, more or less trying to download his memory. However, Stamets is a packrat and rushes off to get what he needs.<br /> <br /> On the planet, Rayner catches sight of Moll and L'ak and lets Burnham and Booker know. They arrive quickly, prompting Rayner to ask how they got there so fast. However, as they board their own Sand runner, Rayner races off ahead, infuriating Burnham before she and Booker give chase.<br /> <br /> ===Act Three===<br /> In Tilly's room, Tilly is busy hacking into the Starfleet database when two security officers race in, demanding she stop. However, Vance enters, relieving the two and taking over. Vance realizes Burnham asked her to do this and Tilly responds that she didn't, but they do need to know what's so incredible about an eight hundred year old Romulan ship. Vance agrees and the two prepare to finish the job. They reveal a hologram of the dead Romulan, [[Vellek]], revealing he found something very dangerous, the damaged message mentioning cryptic clues and that everything he wrote was in a journal and that whatever it was must not be placed in the wrong hands.<br /> <br /> Back on the planet, Rayner, Booker and Burnham try to chase Moll and L'ak before they reach their ship. Realizing they were getting close, Rayner races ahead, but they are too late as their ship takes off and begins firing on them. Booker realizes they're planning on heading into the tunnels, which annoys Burnham as this was the first time he mentioned such a thing. They figure ''Discovery'' and the ''Antares'' can meet up and block them off. She asks Owosekun for scans, but she's already certain they know which one they're going to take as it has a charge set up. Saru says that [[Zora]] estimates the chances of an avalanche at 30%, which Rhys warns would destroy the outpost. Burnham wants to be teleported over to it so she can disarm it, but Rayner tells her it'll disintegrate her before she can even pull up her holograms. He orders the ''Antares'' to lock on and fire, but Burnham doesn't want this to happen as they are on a non-Federation planet on a secret mission.<br /> <br /> The ''Antares'' fires and destroys the tunnel entrance, forcing the ship to pull up. Rayner cheers before Burnham tells him that they're arming photon torpedoes, confusing Rayner in surprise. The ship triggers an avalanche, forcing the three to turn back and race away. Zora contacts Burnham and lets her know how fast and how large the avalanche is; there's no way to save the outpost's people by transporting them in time. Trying to figure out plans, Adria suggests throwing ''Discovery'' down to block it. Stamets says it’s not enough, but the ''Antares'' is suggested to help out. They would have to arrive at the same time, but it could work. However, ''Antares'' refuses as Rayner's ordering them to stay the course. Burnham forces Rayner to consider the people rather than the couriers, forcing him to give Burnham control.<br /> <br /> ===Act Four===<br /> As Burnham, Booker and Rayner race back to the city, ''Discovery'' and ''Antares'' arrive in the atmosphere. As they do, they discover two civilians in the way. They can't get a transporter lock with all the dust, so Burnham uses their exact coordinates to pick them up before she passes them. Raising shields, the two ships dive into the ground, blocking the avalanche with their hull and shields. The outpost is saved and the citizens cheer their victory. However, Moll and L'ak escape, infuriating Rayner as he teleports back to his ship. Alone, Burnham and Booker talk and they realize their time apart has changed them, suggesting they may not be an item anymore. However, Tilly contacts her and reveals that what she has learned is crazy.<br /> <br /> ''Discovery'' returns to spacedock, mooring itself once arriving. Watching outside a window, T'Rina is joined by Saru, the former having learned what happened. Saru admits to T'Rina that the incident made him realize his mortality and his relationships. As much as ''Discovery'' is his home and family, T'Rina is that and so much more; he wants to accept the offer and to be with her. T'Rina wants to codify their relationship, which Saru realizes that she's asking him to marry her, which he accepts.<br /> <br /> Arriving at medbay, an exhausted Burnham meets up with Stamets and Culber and wants to know what they found. It turns out they have had a good look at the journal. Burnham realizes one of the pages shows twin moons in the [[Vileen system]]. She knows something's up and decides to confront Kovich.<br /> <br /> On a ravaged world, Burnham confronts Kovich, demanding to be brought into the know. He refuses, stating that the information is classified and has been for hundreds of years, that it's bigger than her. He reveals that he's planning to relieve her for his own specialized team. However, Burnham convinces him that doing so means that team is going to be hopping twin moon planets for hundreds of years. Chuckling, he agrees and reveals he knew Tilly was hacking into the database and was glad Vance failed to stop her. The planet is revealed to be a hologram and he begins to reveal the backstory of what's going on: Vellek was a Romulan scientist that was part of a group that included Captain [[Jean-Luc Picard]] that discovered a message from a race of ancient aliens known as the [[Ancient humanoid|Progenitors]], who seeded life in the galaxy. Vellek had discovered the machine that allowed this to happen and Moll and L'ak are on their way to get it.<br /> <br /> Tossing her the infinity-shaped device, he tells Burnham that the greatest treasure in the universe is out there and what is she waiting for? She replies &quot;Let's fly.&quot;<br /> <br /> ==Memorable quotes==<br /> &quot;''Never a dull moment!''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Captain, are you all right?''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Surprisingly, I'm not dead yet! Focus on our team, I'll try to take out their engines.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Burnham''', making contact with '''Saru''' atop of L'ak and Moll's vessel while it is at warp<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''It's good to see the Federation back, isn't it? And at peace.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''It really is.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Yeah.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Burnham''', '''Culber''', and '''Stamets''', at the celebration at Federation HQ<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''It's a new world, Paul, and you ''will'' find new purpose. We all will.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Burnham''', to Stamets<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''An 800-year-old science vessel was just found at the edge of the Beta Quadrant. Dr. Kovich needs ''Discovery'' to jump there immediately and secure it.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''What's on board?''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Something vital to the security of the Federation.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''That doesn't answer my question.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''I'm aware.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Sir, I cannot&amp;hellip;''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Captain, this is a Red Directive.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Vance''', briefing '''Burnham''' with '''Kovich'''<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''That cherry that they just dropped on our shit sundae left us with twenty warp signatures all charting different courses!''&quot;<br /> : - '''Rayner''', after L'ak and Moll escape<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Shut up, champagne! Why did they wait till all the after-parties to give that to us? They should have been passing it out to the delegates before they left, you know? Just a little diplomacy. Is it warm in here?''&quot;<br /> : - '''Tilly'''<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''In my youth, I struggled often with&amp;hellip; love. How to embrace those who were destined to be taken from me in the cullings. Until I met you, I did not understand the degree to which that fear had constrained me.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Saru''', to T'Rina<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''If I may, I do believe it would be only logical, given this development, for us to codify our mutual commitment in a more official capacity.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''T'Rina, are you asking me to marry you?''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''I believe that is the language some cultures use for it.''&quot;<br /> : - '''T'Rina''', proposing to '''Saru'''<br /> <br /> ==Background information==<br /> ===Title===<br /> * By {{d|1|January|2024}}, this episode's title was revealed by the Writers Guild of America West. {{bl|directories.wga.org/project/1134306/star-trek-discovery|archivedate=20240102145615}} {{trekmovie.com|2024/01/01/star-trek-discovery-season-5-episode-titles-revealed}}<br /> * The title was officially confirmed on {{d|14|February|2024}}. {{trekmovie.com|2024/02/14/star-trek-discovery-season-5-to-debut-with-2-episodes-on-april-4}} {{trekcore|2024/02/star-trek-discoverys-final-season-begins-april-4|s=blog}}<br /> <br /> ===Story and script===<br /> * This episode's synopsis was revealed on {{d|11|January|2024}}. {{trekmovie.com|2024/01/11/star-trek-discovery-season-5-to-debut-at-sxsw-in-march-premiere-episode-synopsis-revealed}} {{trekcore|2024/01/star-trek-discovery-season-5-premiere-details-revealed|s=blog}}<br /> <br /> ===Production===<br /> * This episode is the first to introduce a new ''Star Trek'' intro animation featuring the ''Discovery'' jumping onto the screen. {{facebook|StarTrekOnPPlus/videos/446544194612055}}<br /> * The science lab aboard the Romulan scout ship is a [[redress]] of the ''Discovery'' [[mess hall]] set.<br /> <br /> ==Continuity==<br /> * Although referenced being at the Millennium Celebration, President [[Laira Rillak]] does not appear in the episode.<br /> <br /> ===Reception===<br /> <br /> ==Links and references==<br /> ===Starring===<br /> * [[Sonequa Martin-Green]] as [[Michael Burnham]]<br /> * [[Doug Jones]] as [[Saru]]<br /> * [[Anthony Rapp]] as [[Paul Stamets]]<br /> * [[Mary Wiseman]] as [[Sylvia Tilly]]<br /> * [[Wilson Cruz]] as [[Hugh Culber]]<br /> * [[Blu del Barrio]] as [[Adira Tal]]<br /> * [[Callum Keith Rennie]] as [[Rayner]]<br /> ;and<br /> * [[David Ajala]] as [[Cleveland Booker]]<br /> <br /> ===Guest starring===<br /> * [[Oded Fehr]] as [[Charles Vance]]<br /> * [[David Cronenberg]] as [[Kovich]]<br /> * [[Annabelle Wallis]] as [[Zora]] {{small|(voice)}}<br /> * [[Tara Rosling]] as [[T'Rina]]<br /> * [[Eve Harlow]] as [[Moll]]<br /> * [[Elias Toufexis]] as [[L'ak]]<br /> <br /> ===Co-starring===<br /> * [[Emily Coutts]] as [[Lieutenant Commander|Lt. Cmdr.]] [[Keyla Detmer]]<br /> * [[Patrick Kwok-Choon]] as Lt. Cmdr. [[Gen Rhys]]<br /> * [[Oyin Oladejo]] as Lt. Cmdr. [[Joann Owosekun]]<br /> * [[Orville Cummings]] as Lt. {{dis|Christopher|Lieutenant}}<br /> * [[David Benjamin Tomlinson]] as [[Lieutenant junior grade|Lt. jg]] [[Linus]]<br /> * [[Victoria Sawal]] as Lt. [[Naya]]<br /> * [[Natalie Liconti]] as Lt. [[Gallo]]<br /> * [[J. Adam Brown]] as {{dis|Fred|android}}<br /> * [[Gregory Calderone]] as Lt. [[Jax]]<br /> * [[Mei Chung]] as [[Unnamed Humans (32nd century)|UFP Presidental Aide]]<br /> * [[Michael Copeman]] as Dr. [[Vellek]]<br /> * [[Julianne Grossman]] as [[Computer voice|EV Suit Computer]] {{small|(voice)}}<br /> * [[Addison Holley]] as [[Cadet]] {{dis|Ross|Cadet}}<br /> * [[Nicole Nwokolo]] as [[Unnamed Starfleet Headquarters personnel (32nd century)|FHQ Security officer]]<br /> <br /> ===Uncredited co-stars===<br /> * [[Lena Banks]] as [[Romulan 24th officer 012|Romulan officer]] ({{small|archive image}})<br /> * [[Salome Jens]] as [[ancient humanoid]] ({{small|archive image}})<br /> * [[Simon Northwood]] as Fred's Guard #1<br /> * [[Maurice Roëves]] as [[Romulan 24th captain 001|Romulan captain]] ({{small|archive image}})<br /> * [[Leatrim Stang]] as [[Romulan 24th officer 010|Romulan officer]] ({{small|archive image}})<br /> * [[Patrick Stewart]] as [[Jean-Luc Picard]] ({{small|archive image}})<br /> * [[Unknown actor]] as Young [[Vellek]] ({{small|archive image}})<br /> <br /> ===Stunt doubles===<br /> * [[Louis Paquette]] as [[stunt double]] for Elias Toufexis<br /> * [[Unknown stunt performers]] as<br /> ** stunt double for David Ajala<br /> ** stunt double for J. Adam Brown<br /> ** stunt double for Eve Harlow<br /> ** stunt double for Sonequa Martin-Green<br /> ** stunt double for Callum Keith Rennie<br /> <br /> ===References===<br /> [[24th century]]; [[26th century]]; [[ambassador]]; {{USSr|Antares|32nd century}}; [[avalanche]]; [[Beta Quadrant]]; [[Booker's ship]]; [[Breen Imperium]]; [[cocktail]]; [[dignitary]]; [[driving]]; [[Federation database]]; [[Federation Headquarters]]; [[gravitational well]]; [[graveyard]]; [[holodeck]]; [[Infinity Room]]; [[jumja stick]]; [[Lurian]]; [[Lyrek]]; [[Milky Way Galaxy]]; [[Millennium Celebration]]; [[mind meld]]; [[pathway drive]]; [[peace]]; [[probe]]; [[Ancient humanoid|Progenitors]]; [[Q'mau]]; [[Red Directive]]; [[resignation]]; [[Rigel V]]; [[Romulan]]; [[sand runner]]; [[Scaptar]]; [[sector]]; [[Security Protocol Six Alpha]]; [[Simulation Week]]; {{revname|Altan|Soong}}; [[spice market]]; [[spore drive]]; [[Starfleet]]; ''[[tan zhekran]]''; [[Tellarite]]; [[term of endearment]]; [[Tholian Republic]]; [[Tonic 2161]]; [[tribble]]; [[United Federation of Planets]]; [[vault]]; [[Vileen system]]; [[Vintar IV]]; [[warp bubble]]<br /> <br /> ==== Star chart references ====<br /> [[15 Sagittae]]; [[31 Aquilae]]; [[39 Serpentis]]; [[53 Aquarii]]; [[58 Ophiuchi]]; [[99 Herculis]]; [[Aaamazzara]] ({{dis|Therbia|system}}, [[Epsilon Serpentis]]); {{dis|Alshain|system}}; [[Antos]] ([[Kappa Delphini]]); {{dis|Arbazan|system}}; [[Argus system|Argus]]; [[Ascella]] ([[Zeta Sagittarii]]); [[Baham]] ([[Theta Pegasi]]); [[Balancar system|Balancar]]; [[Balosnee]]; [[Berengaria]]; [[Cebelrai]] ([[Beta Ophiuchi]]); [[Deep Space 3]]; [[Deep Space 5]]; [[Delta system|Delta]]; [[Delta Aquilae]]; [[Delta Sculptoris]]; [[Deneb El Okab]] ([[Zeta Aquilae]]); [[Dopteria]] ([[Kappa Coronae Borealis]]); [[Eta Coronae Borealis]]; [[Eta Serpentis]]; [[Ferenginar]]; {{dis|Fesarius|system}}; [[Gamma Coronae Australis]]; [[Gamma Coronae Borealis]]; [[Gamma Ophiuchi]]; [[Gamma Serpentis]]; [[Gemma]] ([[Alpha Coronae Borealis]]); {{dis|Hornish|planet}}; [[Hupyria]] ([[Tau Coronae Borealis]]); [[Izar]] ([[Epsilon Boötis]]); [[Kappa Ophiuchi]]; [[Kaus Borealis]] ([[Lambda Sagittarii]]); [[Kholfa]]; [[Kohlan system|Kohlan]]; [[Lambda Coronae Borealis]]; [[Lappa]]; [[Lytasia]]; [[Ludugia]] ([[Rho Coronae Borealis]]); {{dis|Neural|system}} ([[Zeta Boötis]]); [[Nusakan]] ([[Beta Coronae Borealis]]); [[Omega Sagitta]] ([[Madena]], [[Altec]], [[Straleb]]); [[Omega Sagittarii]]; [[Prexnak]]; [[Rasalhague]] ([[Alpha Ophiuchi]]); [[Rhaandar]] ([[Alpha Indi]]); [[Rho Capricorni]]; [[Rotanev]] ([[Beta Delphini]]); [[Rymus]]; [[Sabik]] ([[Eta Ophiuchi]]); {{dis|Sarin|system}} ([[Delta Herculis]]); [[Sauria]] ([[Psi Serpentis]]); [[Sepia]]; [[Sigma Coronae Borealis]]; [[Sigma Serpentis]]; [[Tarahong]]; [[Tau Piscis Australis]]; [[Thalos]]; [[Uncharted System 1702]]; [[Unukalhai]] ([[Alpha Serpentis]]); [[Upsilon Aquarii]]; [[Zaran]] ([[Mu Capricorni]]); [[Xi Ophiuchi]]; [[Zeta Microscopii]]; [[Zeta Serpentis]]<br /> <br /> === External links ===<br /> * {{IMDb-ep|tt17079868}}<br /> * {{mbeta}}<br /> <br /> {{DIS nav|season=5|last={{e|Coming Home}}|next={{e|Under the Twin Moons}}}}<br /> <br /> [[Category:DIS episodes]]<br /> <br /> [[de:Die Rote Direktive]]</div> 2024-04-17T08:34:15Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Imposters_(episode)?diff=3100875 Imposters (episode) <p>Lucamauri: Link to German MA</p> <hr /> <div>{{real world}}<br /> <br /> {{sidebar episode<br /> &lt;!-- See [[Memory Alpha:Projects/Episode data project]] --&gt;<br /> |image = Ro Laren flanked by two security officers.jpg <br /> |teleplay = <br /> |story = <br /> |director = [[Dan Liu]]<br /> |date = 78186.03 ([[April]] [[2401]])<br /> |timeline next = <br /> |writer = [[Cindy Appel]] &amp; [[Chris Derrick]]<br /> }}<br /> Caught by Starfleet and facing court martial, paranoia grows as Picard struggles to uncover whether a prodigal crewman from his past has returned as an ally &amp;ndash; or an enemy hellbent on destroying them all.<br /> <br /> ==Summary==<br /> ===Teaser===<br /> The crew of the {{USS|Titan|NCC-80102-A|-A}} is making their way back home after their [[No Win Scenario (episode)|ordeal]] in the [[Ryton system]]; [[Lieutenant]] [[T'Veen]] is examining the material left over from the spaceborne creatures' birth, Lieutenant [[Matthew Mura|Mura]] checks in with [[Ensign]] [[Kova Esmar]] about an update on repairs, and Ensign [[Sidney La Forge|La Forge]] struggles to keep awake as she checks the status of the [[thruster]]s from the [[helm]]. Suddenly, [[Jack Crusher]], wearing a red [[Starfleet]] uniform, comes up to the bridge and begins shooting them all down with a [[phaser]]. As the wounded Esmar tries to crawl away, Jack walks right up to them. Esmar tells him they knows what he really is, before his phaser comes up to finish the ensign off. The hull around him, and Esmar's face, begin to grow the same red roots he had seen in his mind's eye.<br /> <br /> Jack is suddenly standing in his quarters, the phaser in his hand. His shaking hands drop the weapon to the deck, as his eyes begin to glow red, and he hears his mother [[Beverly Crusher|Beverly]] in his mind telling him to come home.<br /> <br /> ===Act One===<br /> :&quot;''Acting captain's log, stardate 78186.03. We've limped to the edge of the [[Alpha Quadrant]] to pause for repairs to our warp core and other essential systems. Still no sign of [[Vadic]] and the ''{{dis|Shrike|ship}}''. Perhaps our return to [[Federation space]] has offered us a bit of a reprieve. So now we have a chance to focus on all the other pressing matters.''<br /> <br /> [[Jean-Luc Picard|Picard]] and [[William T. Riker|Riker]] meet with [[Captain]] [[Liam Shaw|Shaw]] and [[Seven of Nine]] in the ''Titan''{{'}}s [[observation lounge]], wondering how a [[Changeling]] was able to get aboard the ship undetected. Riker recalls that Changelings could mimic appearances on sight alone, but not internal physiology. Seven explains that all new crewmembers go through an internal [[imaging chamber]] before reporting to verify they are not shapeshifters, standard protocol since the [[Dominion War]]. Riker thinks Starfleet will want to look into that, but he knows they will want something else: Answers from him and Picard about their commandeering the ''Titan'' and endangering the crew. &quot;''Time to go home and face the music,''&quot; Picard agrees. Riker rises and officially returns command of the ship back to Shaw. Shaw then tells them that he has already contacted Starfleet, and they are already sending a ship to meet them. He then turns to Seven, asking if she would like to &quot;face the music stated or un-stated.&quot; She replies &quot;stated,&quot; and so he reinstates her as his [[first officer]]. He then decides to step outside, so the three of them can get their &quot;bullshit story&quot; straight. After he leaves, Picard tells them he will bear the brunt of the responsibility himself.<br /> <br /> [[File:Beverly Crusher, Jack Crusher, and Jean-Luc Picard talk.jpg|thumb|&quot;''Most important is that you are safe. You have a chance to return to your lives and&amp;hellip; I hope to be a part of them.''&quot;]]<br /> Picard then meets with the Crushers, explaining the situation. Beverly apologizes for putting him in that position, but Picard waves it off, saying that the important thing is that they are safe and can return to their lives, and that perhaps he could be part of it. Beverly, however, doesn't think it's over, wanting to find out how a Changeling got past the ship's internal security systems, and asks to examine the {{dis|Eli Foster|Changeling|dead Changeling}} who had impersonated Ensigns [[Eli Foster|Foster]] and La Forge. Picard gives her the go-ahead, wanting to find out more about Vadic's intentions to better strengthen their case with Starfleet. After she leaves, Jack jokingly asks if he should find a comfortable pair of restraints. Picard assures him that Starfleet was built on reason, and that he could be persuasive if need be, something Jack can believe. Picard asks if he might consider a more &quot;honest vocation&quot;, given that many &quot;rebels&quot; from all corners of the galaxy have found their way to Starfleet. Jack doesn't think that likely, and says that once he is done with Starfleet, he will be on his way.<br /> <br /> Meanwhile, aboard the {{SS|La Sirena}} on [[M'talas Prime]], [[Raffaela Musiker|Musiker]] is sparring with metal fighting sticks against [[Worf]]'s ''[[kur'leth]]''. Worf is able to disarm her and headbutt her to the deck, holding his blade to her neck. He warns that the enemy's aggressiveness will always reveal their weakness, and that she could have sacrificed a move to reveal his. Musiker thinks she already knows his weakness &amp;ndash; talking. Worf retorts that impulsiveness, stubbornness, and shortsightedness are hers. After getting as good as he gives, Worf blocks Musiker's attacks with one hand and tosses her to the ground once more. As Musiker gets back on her feet, Worf suddenly sets his blade on the deck and goes into a meditative pose, stopping Musiker short. Just then, a priority communication comes in from [[Starfleet Intelligence]]. Worf's handler is making contact, 24 hours after he made his request for access to [[Daystrom Station]]. Musiker is impatient, thinking that if the [[The Next Generation (episode)|attack on the recruiting center]] was just a distraction, a bunch of &quot;terrorist goo-freaks&quot; were out there planning another attack. To their surprise, however, the request is denied. The unknown handler tells them to &quot;find another way&quot; before terminating contact. Musiker wonders why they would be denied access and yet still told to pursue; Worf assumes this comes from someone higher up in the chain of command. He accepts that they will be standing down, but Musiker refuses, willing to break into the station herself, thinking that Worf has not sacrificed nearly half as much as she has. Worf hurls a ''[[d'k tahg]]'' into the deck, warning her not to presume what he has or has not sacrificed. He reminds her that Daystrom Station was protected by a sophisticated AI system that requires security clearance from [[Starfleet Command]] to bypass. In that case, Musiker wonders, how did Changelings from [[District Six]] get in? Worf concedes only [[Sneed]] could have answered that, had he not been forced to decapitate the [[Ferengi]] to save Musiker. However, he is aware of someone in Sneed's circle: [[Krinn]], the kingpin of the [[V'Lashi crime syndicate]], who specializes in high-security infiltration.<br /> <br /> As Worf and Musiker walk the streets, they suddenly begin to clear out. Worf explains that they were now the &quot;alphas&quot; of District Six, having destabilized the criminal element there. Musiker decides to go with it (not quite jokingly saying that sometimes &quot;work is fun&quot;), before drawing her phaser and firing a shot into the air. She loudly announces they are looking for Krinn, and that what happened to Sneed will happen to them if they don't give him up. Getting no answer, she turns to find Worf kneeling in the middle of the street. When asked what he is doing, he replies that he is waiting for the ecology of District Six to right itself. Musiker muses that they will indeed need a backup plan.<br /> <br /> The ''Titan'' is met by the {{class|Duderstadt}} {{USS|Intrepid|NCC-79520}}, which orders them to stand down. Seven reports receiving a secure transmission that the ''Intrepid'' is sending a [[shuttlecraft]] over with a security team. Shaw wonders what might be wrong with their transporters, and all Esmar can report is that their security officer insisted on using a shuttle, something Shaw considers strange. Picard and Riker share uneasy glances, before Picard leans over to Seven, quietly telling her he might need one more favor. Seven replies he had better do it while he can.<br /> <br /> Picard and Riker accompany Shaw, humming a tune and looking rather pleased with himself, in the [[turbolift]]. When Picard asks him to stop, he apologizes, saying he feels &quot;chipper,&quot; though of course not about their impending discipline. Riker reminds him that they have saved the galaxy a few times, and Picard adds he hopes they'll remember. Shaw, on the other hand, thinks they might remember when [[Star Trek Generations|they crashed]] the [[saucer section]] of the {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701-D|-D}} into [[Veridian III|a planet]], or [[Star Trek: Insurrection|when]] &quot;someone&quot; (tilting his head at Picard) violated the [[Prime Directive]] so they could &quot;[[snog]] a [[Anij|villager]] on {{dis|Ba'ku|planet}},&quot; or when they [[All Good Things... (episode)|nearly wiped out all of humanity]] with a [[anti-time eruption|time paradox]] in the [[Devron system]], remarking on a &quot;real chicken-and-egg thing happening&quot; when it came to rescues from danger. &quot;''Those were the days,''&quot; Picard says wistfully. As they round the corner, both Picard and Riker are shocked to see [[Ro Laren]], a former officer from the ''Enterprise''-D, now back in uniform as a Starfleet [[commander]], walking towards them. Ro glances at them for a moment before turning to Shaw, formally asking permission to come aboard. Meanwhile, Seven runs into Jack in the corridor and takes him by the arm, saying she is taking him somewhere they can't find him. Ro informs Picard and Riker that Starfleet is requesting them to submit to questioning, and that anything they say could be used against them if charges are brought up. Riker asks what they could be charged with, and she replies simply: &quot;''[[Treason]].''&quot;<br /> <br /> ===Act Two===<br /> Seven takes Jack into guest quarters; when he protests that he can handle himself, she replies that his father asked her to hide him, handing him a duffel bag. When he looks inside, he immediately refuses, but Seven tells him it would be better for him to hide in plain sight when the security officers come searching. Inside the bag is a Starfleet uniform.<br /> <br /> In [[sickbay]], Beverly and Dr. [[Ohk]] conduct the [[autopsy]] on the dead Changeling, still in the image of Ensign La Forge. Beverly asks the real La Forge to confirm for the record that the corpse is indeed not her; La Forge's response is to turn and vomit onto the deck, which Beverly takes as a &quot;yes&quot; as she and Ohk turn back to their devices. Beverly reviews the facts: On death, most Changelings return to their liquid form, but this one remained in its most recent replicated form. She slices into the skin, which to her surprise begins to bleed. The Changeling body has no [[DNA]] whatsoever, and yet projects a blood-like plasma, which means it could fool the traditional [[blood screening]]. La Forge wonders what that could mean.<br /> <br /> Picard wonders how Ro could be back in Starfleet, thinking that she should be in prison [[Preemptive Strike (episode)|for what she did]]. Riker points out that it has been [[2370|thirty years]], and that the [[Maquis]] are no longer an enemy. Picard is not convinced, saying that she was sworn to protect the Federation from terrorists, but instead became one, and points out that the last time Riker saw her, she pulled a phaser on him. Riker reminds him that Ro has always been an outsider, and that Picard had indeed been the one to send her to infiltrate the Maquis, knowing full well that she would empathize with them. To Picard, however, empathy was one thing and betraying one's commanding officer was another; he is incensed that she is the one accusing ''them'' of treason. He is not convinced she will treat them justly; he had been the one to mentor her, to make a bond with her, and she had broken that bond.<br /> <br /> Just then, Ro enters, and Riker advises Picard to let him do the talking. Ro explains that the ''Titan'' is under official security review, and most of the crew will be going to the ''Intrepid'' for reassignment. Riker notes the tone of her voice, that their guilt has already been predetermined. Ro replies that their cooperation will bear weight on their sentence. She elects to begin with Picard, and has the security officers escort Riker out. Riker holds them off, going of his own volition. After they leave the room, Picard questions how a lieutenant who betrayed Starfleet and her commanding officer got reinstated, but Ro ignores this, beginning her official questioning on Picard's deception to get aboard the ''Titan''. Picard does not relent, asking how a traitor can pose as a Starfleet officer. Ro mentions the Changeling problem Shaw reported, drawing a knife from her boot and slicing her hand to show she is not one herself. Picard then notices her [[Bajoran earring|earring]] is missing, recalling that it was a symbol of her faith &amp;ndash; or is she &quot;turning [her] back on another institution?&quot; Ro coldly tells him to save his animosity, as it is not entirely about him. &quot;''Let's talk about your son,''&quot; she says, and his glare of contempt only deepens.<br /> <br /> In the guest quarters, Jack again hears his mother's voice echoing in his mind, telling him to &quot;find&quot; her, to &quot;hear&quot; her, to &quot;connect&quot; them. He then heads to the [[transporter room]], where he is stopped by one of the security officers, asking if he has been ordered to beam aboard the ''Intrepid'' yet. Jack asks to be sent anywhere, as long as it's not a Starfleet ship. When he is denied, he draws a phaser and shoots the man down&amp;hellip; or so he thinks. In actuality, he stares, almost haunted, at the man, who asks if he is alright. Shaken, Jack quietly leaves.<br /> <br /> On M'talas Prime, Worf and Musiker are still waiting in the street when targeting lasers train onto them. Several armed individuals hold their weapons on them, as Krinn, a [[Vulcan]] with an [[IDIC]] pendant hanging around his neck, approaches. He tells them that a Vulcan master had once taught him that pride inevitably leads to downfall, and yet here they were. Sneed's death had showed him that pride also led to traps, but patience led to rewards. Worf tells them that they have the upper hand, and orders them all to yield their weapons. Krinn suddenly draws a phaser and shoots at Musiker, who suddenly vanishes, a [[mobile emitter]] falling to the ground. Krinn knew they had prepared for him, so he had prepared for them. He looks directly up into the real Musiker's gunsights, just as one of his men comes up from behind her.<br /> <br /> Back on the ''Titan'', the autopsy on the dead Changeling continues. Beverly has determined that the Changeling has somehow managed to completely replicate internal organs, which only revert to their natural liquid state under intense dissection. Ohk wonders if this is some kind of new species, but Beverly doesn't think so; she believes it to be evolution, which means they could be anywhere&amp;hellip; or any''one''.<br /> <br /> Ro asks Picard to tell her about Jack. Picard doesn't think he can do so, as he has only known him a few days, and wonders how it is relevant anyway. Just then, Beverly calls from sickbay, and Ro allows him to answer it. Tapping his [[combadge]], Picard explains he is with Commander Ro, and Beverly replies that she has his test results. He asks her to send it up to him, before turning to Ro, explaining that he has a &quot;private&quot; medical issue. Picard goes over to a nearby terminal to receive Beverly's warning: These Changelings can fool blood screenings, and their capabilities are &quot;beyond superficial&quot;, warning him again to trust no one. Turning back to Ro, he asks why she is so interested in Jack. Ro answers that perhaps it's because he is avoiding her questions about him, calling him &quot;central&quot; to the investigation. Picard, however, thinks it strange she is not so concerned about Vadic or the ''Shrike'', thinking that the Ro he knew was more &quot;thorough.&quot; Ro counters that perhaps he never knew her at all. He asks her to enlighten him, wondering how a defector &quot;clawed&quot; her way back into Starfleet. Ro explains that after years with the Maquis, she turned herself in to Starfleet, faced a [[court martial]], and was imprisoned. But due to her experience with terrorist groups, she underwent an &quot;arduous&quot; rehabilitation program and joined Starfleet Intelligence, working her way up the ranks once again. He dismisses this as &quot;mere facts,&quot; asking how she could become an enemy and betray her honor. &quot;''My honor?''&quot; she asks. &quot;''Or do you mean Starfleet's?''&quot; She dismisses the idea of blind faith in any institution making one &quot;honorable,&quot; before asking what he knows about the Changeling onboard. Picard tells her he knows nothing, and that they killed it. She then asks to see the remains.<br /> <br /> As the security officers search the ship for Jack, Picard leads Ro to sickbay, telling her that they should be alerted to their arrival. But Ro suddenly pulls a phaser, telling him there is a &quot;change of plans,&quot; and has him step into the [[holodeck]] with her. Still set to [[10 Forward Avenue]], Ro locks the holodeck doors so no one else can enter. Stepping behind the bar, Picard disables the [[holodeck safety protocol]]. She tells him to keep his hands above the bar, and he agrees, &quot;top shelf only.&quot; Ro considers the walls &quot;a little thin&quot; on the ship, and asks if the place has music; Picard enables the nearby [[jukebox]], the sound of which causes Ro to turn&amp;hellip; which allows Picard to draw a phaser of his own. He reminds her that this was [[Guinan]]'s bar, asking if she remembered Guinan. She tells him to drop it, threatening to kill him, but Picard wants to know who she really is. Both believe the other may be compromised. Picard remembers that when Ro [[Ensign Ro (episode)|first came aboard the ''Enterprise'']], her earring was a violation of the uniform code. She had said it was for the family she had lost, but he now thought it was simply for her own ego. &quot;''An ego that led you to betray me,''&quot; he snaps at her in the [[Bajoran language]]. She notes his skill with the language has improved, and Picard tells her he has been rehearsing this conversation for thirty years. Ro tells him he has no idea what it was like living under his &quot;relentless judgment,&quot; but Picard thinks they had a bond based on mutual respect, and he feels she betrayed everything he believed in. Ro accuses him of wanting to mold her in his image, and that his affection and mentorship had been conditional. She is offended that he would question her honor, saying she had joined the Maquis to stand up against injustice, even if that meant betraying Starfleet. That was who she was, but he had confused morality with duty, and that is his dishonor. He says he believed in her, but she counters that he only did so when it was easy for him; if he truly felt the way he claims, he would have understood. &quot;''You broke my heart,''&quot; he tells her. &quot;''And you broke mine,''&quot; she replies.<br /> <br /> Both finally lower their phasers; Picard is convinced that their mutual pain proves who they truly are, before he asks why she's really here. Ro admits that Starfleet is compromised at its highest level. Addressing him as &quot;Jean-Luc,&quot; she asks him if he trusts her. After a long moment, he finally nods, and says that he does.<br /> <br /> ===Act Three===<br /> Krinn's men bring Worf and Musiker to their knees, as the Vulcan crime lord asks if they recognize the location. It was here that Worf killed Sneed, a man he considered a brother, as they grew up together in [[District Seven]]. Worf mentions that they both work for Starfleet Intelligence, and that Sneed was responsible for the deaths of hundreds of innocents, a fact Krinn is aware of. He also knows they figured out that Sneed was the Changeling's facilitator, and that Krinn himself helped arrange the break-in at Daystrom. Musiker admits she could never imagine a Vulcan being &quot;dumb enough&quot; to become a gangster, but Krinn thinks that no utopia could exist without crime, and therefore an organized crime syndicate is logical. His associates place a pair of knives in front of Worf and Musiker, the latter of whom recognizes that they expect the two of them to fight to the death. Krinn admits some of his associates think that the [[Klingon]], by nature, has the upper hand and will kill a [[Human]] within thirty seconds, while others believe the inverse. &quot;''Let's settle the wager,''&quot; he says. Neither move to cooperate, to which Krinn gives them sixty seconds to begin combat, or they will both die. Worf quietly reminds her of what he had said about an enemy's aggression showing their weakness, and that he has sacrificed a great deal for this mission&amp;hellip; and will now do so again. He tells her it has been an honor, before taking the blade and rising. Krinn notes that &quot;Klingons seldom disappoint.&quot; Worf tells Musiker not to hold back, because he cannot. After a short and brutal duel, Musiker's blade is true, and he collapses to the ground. She is apologetic, but he tells her that she is a warrior, and that this is a worthy death, before collapsing onto the street.<br /> <br /> Aboard the ''Titan'', the security officers continue their search for Jack, but based on slight vocal cues, it is clear both are actually Changelings. In the holodeck, Ro explains her belief that Changelings have infiltrated Starfleet in all levels, replacing several key personnel, and she is convinced there are more on the ''Intrepid''. She can't even trust the ship's captain, and had insisted on the shuttle because she couldn't trust the transporters. She then asks what he knows about the preparations for [[Frontier Day]]. Picard knows it was the anniversary of Starfleet, and that he is supposed to give a speech. Ro is worried that the security preparations are classified, even to her, and that the festivities are mere days away. There have been twelve separate incidents aboard multiple starships for the past several months, all being kept quiet. Picard wonders what this has to do with Jack. Ro admits she doesn't know, but Starfleet insisted she retrieve him, and his name has come up multiple times in Intelligence chatter. She also mentions the attack on the Starfleet recruitment center on M'talas Prime, using a [[portal weapon]] similar to that used by Vadic. He suggests going to [[Admiral]] [[Kathryn Janeway|Janeway]] or Chancellor {{dis|Roll|Chancellor}}, even letting him try, but Ro reveals she has been stonewalled at every turn; all she has are a pair of intelligence assets on the ground she can trust, trying to link the theft of the portal weapon to something else the Changelings want, and that they are close, even as they speak.<br /> <br /> On M'talas, Krinn finds the situation &quot;most unexpected,&quot; before having one of his men check the body. The Vulcan kneels next to him and takes Worf's pulse, then shakes his head. Krinn had calculated that Worf had a ten-to-one chance of winning, before remarking on how the smell of Klingon blood sickens him, and has two of his associates take him away. Krinn then tells Musiker that she works for him now, and that he knows she has far more to lose &amp;ndash; an [[Jae Hwang|ex-husband]], a [[Gabriel Hwang|son]], and a granddaughter. Musiker threatens to kill him before he would ever own her. &quot;''Would you care to wager on that?''&quot; he replies, just as the lights fade&amp;hellip; and his men suddenly fall to the ground, knives in their chests. Worf suddenly appears behind Krinn, holding a blade to his throat. He has mastered what he calls the &quot;[[Kahless technique]]&quot; of slowing his heart rate to imperceptible levels; however, he has lost a great deal of blood, and is still losing a great deal more, and thus advises skipping to the interrogation. Krinn gambles on being needed alive, but Musiker warns him to factor in the impatience of a Klingon in dire need of medical attention. Krinn finally admits that he brokered for a device that allows one to exploit the flaws in Daystrom Station's AI security, and concedes that it would be logical to give the device to them.<br /> <br /> Ro tells Picard that she has transferred most of the ''Titan''{{'}}s crew to the ''Intrepid'', leaving him with a skeleton crew, warning him to ensure they are loyal. She urges him to take the ''Titan'' and run. The two security officers searching for Jack catch up to her, having found she was in the holodeck but were unable to gain access. She tells them they are returning to the ''Intrepid''. Quietly taking him aside, Ro places something into his hand, and admits that she wishes he could look into her heart and understand she did what she thought was best, and that for all the years since, she wishes they had known each other. With [[tear]]s slipping down her cheeks, Ro says goodbye to Picard and quickly wipes her tears away before turning to the security officers. The security officers protest that they had been instructed to find Jack, but she says simply they are leaving. As he watches her leave, Picard looks at the item she handed him: her earring.<br /> <br /> As Picard and Riker arrive on the bridge, Shaw remarks on how that was the &quot;fastest court martial&quot; he had ever seen, before Picard tells him that they have to take the ship and run, telling him what Ro had revealed about Starfleet, and the ''Intrepid'', being compromised. Shaw immediately beckons security, but Riker belays that. Picard pleads with Shaw to trust him. The ''Intrepid'' shuttle begins to return to the ship. The Changeling security officers, realizing their deception has been discovered, set an explosive onto the deck of the shuttle, arm it, and transport back to the ''Titan'', where they morph into members of her crew to continue the search for Jack. Ro tries to contact the ''Intrepid'', but finds her comms to the ship are jammed. She hails the ''Titan'', warning them of what has happened. Riker tells Seven to beam her out, but the signal is [[transport inhibitor|inhibited]]; she has to get closer to the ''Titan''. Riker urges her to turn back, but Ro doesn't have time to disarm it. She tells Picard to finish what she started. La Forge reports that the shuttle is moving away; Seven sees it heading for the ''Intrepid''{{'}}s port nacelle. Picard begs Ro not to do it, but Ro answers that she is giving them what he gave her when they met all those years ago: a fighting chance. Picard asks her to forgive him, as he does truly see her now. Just then, the connection is lost, and the shuttle impacts with the nacelle, the explosion severely damaging it.<br /> <br /> Picard has little time to grieve, however; the ''Intrepid'' raises shields and arms weapons. Seven reports they are instructing the ''Titan'' to surrender. Riker realizes they are being framed for attacking the ''Intrepid'' by the Changelings on board the ship.<br /> <br /> ===Act Four===<br /> Riker urges Shaw that they need to run, but Shaw hesitates, not wanting his crew to become fugitives. Seven reminds him that most of the crew is on the ''Intrepid''; if they engaged, they'd be risking the crew anyway. Picard adds his voice, saying that if they did not flee, Ro will have died for nothing, and many more would follow. Riker knows Shaw may not trust them, but he urges his fellow captain to trust his own eyes. Shaw orders [[red alert]], telling La Forge to take them away the second the warp core is online. Over the P.A., he sounds [[battle stations]], having nonessential personnel return to quarters, and informing them that emergency order 7-6-2-Alpha is in effect: Starfleet has been compromised.<br /> <br /> Meanwhile, the two security officers find Jack on deck 10, and call two of their fellows for support. They inform him they will place a transport beacon on him and take him into custody. Something in Jack kicks in, and he is able to swiftly disarm and eliminate all four of the Changeling agents. He again sees the red roots crawling across the corridor, and a red door at the end of it, before reality reasserts itself.<br /> <br /> Shaw orders the helm to bring them about; Seven warns the ''Intrepid'' is giving them one final warning to surrender. The ''Intrepid''{{'}}s torpedo bays are loaded and ready to fire. The warp core goes online, and Shaw gives the order to engage warp drive. The ''Intrepid'' fires a [[photon torpedo]] at each of the ''Titan''{{'}}s warp nacelles, but the ''Titan'' jumps to warp just before they can connect. Riker knows the Changelings will be coming for them. Shaw wonders who exactly they would be coming for, and Riker grimly replies &quot;everyone.&quot;<br /> <br /> [[File:Picard and Riker access files.jpg|thumb|Accessing Ro Laren's secret files.]]<br /> Picard sits alone in the conference room when Riker enters, offering his condolences, knowing what Ro had meant to him. Picard replies that Riker doesn't know; in fact, neither did Picard himself. He shows her Ro's earring, not sure why she had given it to him. Riker, however, does know, recognizing it as &quot;old-school spycraft:&quot; There is a data chip hidden in the earring, showing the entire course of her investigation, and showing that the infiltration reaches the upper levels of Starfleet Command. Just then, a transmission comes in through the earring, and both are astonished to see Worf on the other end; he is just as surprised to see them. He then wonders what happened to Ro.<br /> <br /> In sickbay, Shaw is stunned to find four more Changelings on his ship, now dead, before complimenting Jack on his shooting. Beverly asks for a moment alone with Jack. After Shaw and Ohk leave, Beverly sees that Jack has not been sleeping. She remembers that there was a time when he was growing up that he was afraid to sleep, afraid what he would see if he did. Jack doesn't remember having nightmares, but Beverly does, and knows he got through it; she believes he will get through what troubles him now, and urges him to talk to her about it. All the stress, meeting his father, the attempts on his life, are affecting him severely. She then notes the four dead Changelings, and wonders how he knew they were all Changelings. With tears in his eyes, Jack confesses he didn't, and confesses to his mother that he thinks something is very wrong with him.<br /> <br /> ==Log entries==<br /> * [[Acting captain's log, USS Titan (NCC-80102-A)|Acting captain's log, USS ''Titan'' (NCC-80102-A)]]<br /> <br /> ==Memorable quotes==<br /> &quot;''Oh, and um, as a courtesy, because of the harrowing ordeal that we all survived together, I'm going to step outside so the three of you can get your bullshit story straight.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Shaw''', to Picard, Riker, and Seven<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''You know, many a rebel from all reaches of the galaxy have found their way to Starfleet. Perhaps you might consider choosing a more honest vocation.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Starfleet? Me? For such a brilliant man, you haven't really been paying much attention, have you?''&quot;<br /> : - '''Picard''' and '''Jack Crusher'''<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''You know, we have saved the galaxy more than a few times.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''And hopefully, they'll remember.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Or they might remember [[Star Trek Generations|that time]] that someone hot-dropped the saucer section of the ''Enterprise''-D on [[Veridian III|a planet]]. Or [[Star Trek: Insurrection|that time]] that someone threw the Prime Directive out the window so they could snog [[Anij|a villager]] on {{dis|Ba'ku|planet}}. Or [[All Good Things... (episode)|the time]] that you boys nearly wiped out all of Humanity by creating a time paradox in the Devron system. Basically, when it comes to rescues from danger, you two have a real chicken and egg thing happening.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Those were the days&amp;hellip;''&quot;<br /> : - '''Riker''', '''Picard''', and '''Shaw''', while on the way to meet with the USS ''Intrepid'' security officers<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Ro Laren.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Captain Shaw, permission to come aboard?''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Permission granted.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Riker''', seeing '''Ro''' again, and '''Shaw'''{{'}}s response<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''How the hell is Ro Laren back in Starfleet? She should be in prison for what [[Preemptive Strike (episode)|she did]]!''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''That was 30 years ago. The Maquis are no longer an enemy.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Picard''' and '''Riker'''<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Your Bajoran has improved.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Oh, I have been rehearsing this conversation for 30 years.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''You have no idea what it was like living under your relentless judgment.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''This wasn't about judgment. We had a bond based on mutual respect. Based on&amp;hellip; you and I&amp;hellip;''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''You and I what?''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''You betrayed everything I believed in.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''No. You wanted to mold me in your image. Your mentorship. Your affection. It was conditional.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Ro''' and '''Picard''', confronting each other<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''You broke my heart.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''And you broke mine.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Picard''' and '''Ro'''<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Never imagined a Vulcan being dumb enough to become a gangster.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''There can be no utopia without crime. Ergo, an organized criminal enterprise ''is'' logical.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Musiker''' and '''Krinn'''<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Ro...''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''I wish, just once&amp;hellip; that you could look into my heart and understand that I only did what I thought was best. All these years that I wish you'd known me. And that I'd known you. Goodbye, Admiral.''&quot;<br /> : - '''Picard''' and '''Ro''', bidding farewell<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Ro, don't do this!''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''I'm giving you what you gave me all those years ago. A fighting chance.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Ro, I&amp;hellip; I do see you. Everything. Forgive me, it's only now. Ro?''&quot;<br /> : - '''Picard''', before '''Ro''' sacrifices herself to disable the compromised ''Intrepid''<br /> <br /> == Background information==<br /> ===Title===<br /> * {{d|9|March|2022}}: Title publicly revealed in {{TRR|No Win Scenario}} as &quot;Impostor&quot;, and later revealed as &quot;Imposter&quot; in the trailer and as &quot;Imposters&quot; on [[Paramount Press Express]]. {{el|paramountpressexpress.com/paramount-plus/shows/star-trek-picard/photos?episode{{=}}23303}} {{el|paramountpressexpress.com/paramount-plus/shows/star-trek-picard/releases/?view{{=}}101806-star-trek-picard-season-three-loglines}}<br /> <br /> === Production ===<br /> === Cast and characters ===<br /> * [[Michelle Forbes]] reprises her role of [[Ro Laren]] after last portraying the character on-screen in the penultimate episode of {{s|TNG}} {{e|Preemptive Strike}} in {{y|1994}}. The events of that episode and her debut, {{E|Ensign Ro}}, are discussed heavily in this episode.<br /> <br /> === Continuity ===<br /> * The {{USS|Titan|NCC-80102-A}} is shown being repaired by a number of very small craft. It's not clear if these are [[Workbee|workbees]] or [[DOT-7|DOTs]]; if the latter, it would mark the first appearance of them outside of {{S|DIS}} or {{S|ST}}.<br /> * Shaw mentions the events of {{film|7}}, {{film|9}} and the TNG finale {{e|All Good Things...}}.<br /> * This is the second episode of the series to feature a [[stardate]] and establishes that Season 3 takes place in [[2401]], nearly 37 years after the events of {{TNG|Encounter at Farpoint}} in [[2364]].<br /> * [[Beverly Crusher]] states that upon dying, a [[Changeling]] will revert back to its liquid form. However, the bodies of the Changelings that were seen to die in [[DS9]] turned to ash instead. ({{e|The Adversary}}, {{e|The Ship}})<br /> * This episode marks the final appearance of the {{SS|La Sirena}} on the series.<br /> * The display showing {{USS|Intrepid|NCC-79520}}'s shields rising echoes the style of shield display previously seen on the {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701}} and {{USS|Reliant|NCC-1864}} in {{Film|2}}.<br /> <br /> ==Links and references==<br /> === Starring ===<br /> * [[Patrick Stewart]] as [[Jean-Luc Picard]]<br /> * [[Jeri Ryan]] as [[Seven of Nine]]<br /> * [[Michelle Hurd]] as [[Raffaela Musiker]] / {{dis|Raffaela Musiker|hologram}} {{small|(hologram)}}<br /> * [[Ed Speleers]] as [[Jack Crusher]]<br /> <br /> === Special guest stars ===<br /> * [[Michael Dorn]] as [[Worf]]<br /> * [[Michelle Forbes]] as [[Ro Laren]]<br /> * [[Jonathan Frakes]] as [[William T. Riker]]<br /> * [[Gates McFadden]] as [[Beverly Crusher]]<br /> <br /> === Guest starring ===<br /> * [[Todd Stashwick]] as [[Liam Shaw]]<br /> * [[Ashlei Sharpe Chestnut]] as [[Sidney La Forge]] / {{dis|Sidney La Forge|Changeling}} {{small|(Changeling)}}<br /> * [[Kirk Acevedo]] as [[Krinn]]<br /> <br /> === Co-starring ===<br /> * [[Stephanie Czajkowski]] as [[Lt.]] [[T'Veen]]<br /> * [[Amy Earhart]] as [[Titan Computer|''Titan'' Computer]]<br /> * [[Joseph Lee]] as Lt. [[Matthew Mura|Mura]]<br /> * [[Grace Lee]] as [[La Sirena Computer|''La Sirena'' Computer]]<br /> * [[Jin Maley]] as [[Ensign]] [[Kova Esmar|Esmar]]<br /> * [[Tiffany Shepis]] as [[Dr.]] [[Ohk]]<br /> * [[Hope Brown]] as [[Titan-A transport officer 001|Transport Officer]]<br /> * [[Justin Dobies]] as [[Titan-A ops ensign 006|Bridge Security Officer]]<br /> * [[Alessandro Garcia]] as [[Intrepid Changeling 001|''Intrepid'' Security Officer #1]]<br /> * [[William Greenberg]] as [[Intrepid Changeling 001|Male Changeling Ensign]]<br /> * [[John Pope]] as [[Titan-A ops ensign 005|Young Ensign]]<br /> * [[Tarina Pouncy]] as [[Intrepid Changeling 002|''Intrepid'' Security Officer #2]] {{small|(first form)}}<br /> <br /> === Uncredited co-stars ===<br /> * [[Vanessa Cater]] as [[Unnamed Vulcans (25th century)|Krinn's guard]]<br /> * [[Thomas Dekker]] as [[Titus Rikka]] {{small|(file photo)}}<br /> * [[Chris Derrick]] as [[Lurak T'Luco]] {{small|(file photo)}}<br /> * [[Andrew Franklin]] as [[Intrepid Changeling 003|Changeling security officer #3]]<br /> * [[Cina McKenna]] as [[Intrepid Changeling 002|''Intrepid'' security officer #2]] {{small|(second form)}}<br /> * [[Phillip O'Riley]] as [[Unnamed Vulcans (25th century)|Vulcan thug]]<br /> * [[Aaron Stanford]] as [[Sneed]] {{small|(file photo)}}<br /> * [[Jason Sweat]] as [[Unnamed Vulcans (25th century)|Krinn's guard]]<br /> * [[Unknown performers]] as<br /> ** [[Intrepid comms 001|''Intrepid'' comms officer]] {{small|(voice)}}<br /> ** [[Intrepid Changeling 004|Changeling security officer #4]]<br /> ** [[Titan-A Vulcan sciences ensign 001|''Titan''-A Vulcan officer]]<br /> <br /> === Stunt doubles ===<br /> * [[Alyma Dorsey]] as [[stunt double]] for Michelle Hurd<br /> * [[Unknown stunt performer]]s as<br /> ** Stunt double for Michael Dorn<br /> ** Stunt double for Ed Speleers<br /> <br /> === Stand-ins ===<br /> * [[Margot Muraszkiewicz]] as [[stand-in]] for Jeri Ryan<br /> * [[Sedríque]] as stand-in for Michael Dorn<br /> * [[Thadeus Welch]] as stand-in for Patrick Stewart<br /> <br /> ===References===<br /> [[acting captain's log]]; [[admiral]]; [[aggression]]; [[AI]]; {{dis|alpha|biology}}; [[Alpha Quadrant]]; [[Andorian]]; [[Anij]]; [[autopsy]]; [[Bajoran]]; [[Bajoran earring]]; [[Bajoran language]]; [[Bajoran springwine]]; {{dis|Ba'ku|planet}}; [[bar]]; [[baston]]; [[behead]]ed; [[bioelectrical composition]]; [[bleeding]]; &quot;[[blind faith]]&quot;; [[blood]]; [[blood-like plasma]]; [[blood oath]]; [[blood test]]; [[Dead body|body]] (aka [[corpse]], [[remains]]); [[bomb]]; &quot;[[broken heart]]&quot;; [[brother]]; [[captain]]; [[Changeling]]; [[Chicken and the egg|&quot;chicken and egg&quot; thing]]; [[chipper]]; [[combadge]]; [[command code]]; [[commander]]; [[conspiracy]]; {{class|Constitution III}}; [[conversation]]; [[court martial]]; [[crime]] (aka [[criminal activity]]); [[Daystrom Station]]; [[debriefing]]; [[denial]]; [[detection]]; [[Devron system]]; [[disruptor rifle]]; [[dissection]]; [[distraction]]; [[District Six]]; ''[[d'k tahg]]''; [[DNA]]; [[Dominion War]]; [[downfall]]; [[drone]]; {{class|Duderstadt}}; [[ecology]]; [[ego]]; [[Emergency Order 7-6-2 alpha]]; [[enemy]]; {{USSr|Enterprise|NCC-1701-D|-D}}; [[epidermis]]; [[evolution]]; [[ex-husband]]; &quot;[[Idioms|face the music]]&quot;; [[fact]]s; [[family]]; [[father]]; [[Federation]]; [[Federation space]]; [[Ferengi]]; [[Frontier Day]]; [[gangster]]; [[gatekeeper]]; ''{{dis|Gorkon|shuttle}}''; [[grand theft]]; [[granddaughter]]; [[Guinan]]; [[Haliian]]; [[hand-to-hand combat]]; [[handler]]; [[head]]; [[heart rate]]; [[holodeck]]; [[honor]]; [[hour]]s; [[House of Musiker]]; [[Human]]; {{revname|Gabriel|Hwang}}; {{revname|Jae|Hwang}}; [[IDIC]]; [[impostor]]; [[inertial compensation system]] (aka [[ICS]]); [[internal imaging chamber]]; [[internal security system]]s; [[interrogation]]; {{USSr|Intrepid|NCC-79520}}; [[Intrepid captain 001|''Intrepid'' captain]]; [[investigation]]; {{revname|Kathryn|Janeway}}; {{dis|judgment|law}}; [[Kahless technique]]; [[kill]]ing; [[kingpin]]; [[Klingon]]; [[Unnamed Vulcans (24th century)|Krinn's Vulcan master]]; ''[[kur'leth]]''; {{SSr|La Sirena}}; [[LCARS]]; [[lieutenant commander]]; [[liquid state]]; [[loyalty]]; {{class|Luna}}; [[Maquis]]; [[News|media]]; [[medical issue]]; [[meditation]]; [[Milky Way Galaxy]]; [[mobile emitter]]; [[murder]]; [[music]]; [[mutual respect]]; [[natural state]]; [[nebula event]]; [[nonessential crew]]; [[organ]]; [[Orion]]; [[PADD]]; [[pain]]; [[physiology]]; [[portal weapon]]; [[pride]]; [[Prime Directive]]; [[prison]]; [[pushback]]; [[racketeering]]; [[Raffi's granddaughter 001|Raffi's granddaughter]]; [[RCS thruster]]; [[rehabilitation program]]; [[reprieve]]; [[restrains]]; {{dis|Roll|Chancellor}}; [[sacrifice]]; [[saucer section]]; [[security officer]]; [[security review]]; ''{{dis|Shrike|ship}}''; [[sickbay]]; &quot;[[sir]]&quot;; [[skeleton crew]]; [[Sneed]]; [[snog]]; [[son]]; [[species]]; [[stardate]]; [[Starfleet]]; [[Starfleet Command]]; [[Starfleet Intelligence]]; [[Starfleet Recruiting]]; {{dis|Starfleet uniform|late 2390s-early 2400s}}; [[terrorist]]; [[thing]]; [[time paradox]]; {{USSr|Titan|II}}; {{USSr|Titan|NCC-80102| (NCC-80102)}}; {{USSr|Titan|NCC-80102-A| (NCC-80102-A)}}; [[top shelf]]; [[transport inhibitor]]; [[transporter]]; [[transporter room]]; [[trap]]; [[treason]]; [[Trill]]; [[trust]]; [[Type 14 shuttlecraft]]; [[type 2 phaser]]; [[type 3 phaser]]; [[uniform dress code]]; [[utopia]]; [[Vadic]]; [[Veridian III]]; [[V'Lashi crime syndicate]]; [[Vulcan]]; [[Vulcan master]]; [[wager]]; [[wall]]s; [[warp core]]; [[weakness]]; [[year]]s<br /> <br /> ==== LCARS references ====<br /> [[2024]]; [[antimatter]]; [[arrest record]]; [[autopsy report]]; [[battle bridge]]; [[biomed]]; [[black site]]; [[breaking and entering]]; [[Binar III]]; [[bridge subprocessor]]; [[Brunt]]; [[chain of command]]; [[communications]]; [[conn]]; [[connection]]; [[control point]]; {{revname|James|Cole}}; {{revname|Jeff|Croosh}}; {{revname|Juddah|Crusser}}; [[District Seven]]; [[encryption]]; {{USSr|Enterprise|NCC-1701-F|-F}}; [[Ferenginar]]; [[holographic diode]]; [[larceny]]; [[Larell]]; [[lateral array]]; [[long-range sensor]]; [[lower sensor array]]; [[Luria]]; [[magnetic containment field]]; [[main computer core]]; [[matter/antimatter intermix ratio]]; [[medical department]]; [[message]]; [[mission-specific sensor]]; [[Morn]]; [[M'talas Prime]]; [[navigational sensor]]; [[ODN]]; {{revname|Thadiun|Okona}}; [[Omega Sagitta system]]; {{class|Odyssey}}; [[operations station|ops]]; [[optical data network]]; [[Rachel Garrett statue]]; [[recipient]]; [[Renhia]]; {{revname|Titus|Rikka}}; [[Romulus]]; [[Holodeck safety protocol|safety protocol]]; [[sensor array]]; [[science department]]; [[Sneed]]; [[spatial orientation system]]; [[Starfleet Intelligence Record]]; [[subspace receiver]]; [[subcontractor]]; [[tactical sensor]]; ''[[Ten Forward, 2024]]''; [[terrorism]]; {{revname|Lurak|T'Luco}}; [[transport inhibitor]]; [[transporter system]]; [[upper sensor array]]; {{dis|Vulcan|planet}} (planet); [[Vulcan Ministry of Justice]]<br /> <br /> ===External links===<br /> * {{IMDb-ep|tt22012754}}<br /> * {{mbeta-quote|Imposters}}<br /> * {{ml|discovering-imposters|Discovering Imposters|external link}}<br /> <br /> {{PIC nav|season=3|last={{e|No Win Scenario}}|next={{e|The Bounty}}}}<br /> [[Category:PIC episodes]]<br /> [[es:Imposters]]<br /> [[de:Wechselbälger]]</div> 2024-01-07T21:02:10Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Earth_Outpost_Station?diff=3094660 Earth Outpost Station <p>Lucamauri: Link to MB</p> <hr /> <div><br /> [[File:Outpost 4 2259.jpg|thumb|Outpost 4 (2259)]]<br /> The '''Earth Outpost Stations''' were a series of [[outpost]]s constructed on [[asteroid]]s located in [[Sector Z-6]] of the [[Beta Quadrant]], and in neighboring [[sector]]s, along the [[Federation]] side of the [[Romulan Neutral Zone]]. They were established by a [[treaty]] after the [[Earth-Romulan War]] of the [[2160s]], which allowed [[United Earth]], and subsequently the [[Federation]], to monitor its side of the [[Neutral Zone]]. ({{TOS|Balance of Terror}}; {{SNW|A Quality of Mercy}})<br /> <br /> In [[2259]], the location of [[Outpost]]s [[Outpost 1]] to [[Outpost 7|7]] was labeled on a [[stellar cartography]] chart that was seen on the {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701}}'s [[ready room]] [[viewscreen]]. ({{SNW|A Quality of Mercy}}) <br /> <br /> Thet same year, the ''Enterprise'' and the {{USS|Cayuga}} assisted the outposts in their retrofitting and brought them supplies. ({{SNW|A Quality of Mercy}})<br /> <br /> In [[2266]], four of the eight outposts [[Neutral Zone Incursion|came under attack]] from a powerful [[plasma torpedo|plasma weapon]] used by a [[Romulan Bird-of-Prey]]; this [[sneak attack]] completely destroyed outposts [[Outpost 2|2]], [[Outpost 3|3]], [[Outpost 4|4]], and [[Outpost 8|8]]. These outposts had been rebuilt by [[2366]]. ({{TOS|Balance of Terror}}; {{TNG|The Defector}})<br /> <br /> Nearly a [[2364|century later]], a [[border outpost]] reported [[Romulan battle cruisers 001|seven Romulan battle cruisers]] had come within its sensor range &amp;ndash; a violation of the Treaty and even a potential prelude to an attack. The outpost sent out a [[distress call]], to which the nearby {{USS|Berlin}} responded. [[Starfleet]] also requested that the {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701-D|-D}} join the ''Berlin'' to project a deterring show of force against the [[Romulan]]s &amp;ndash; which was also a necessary tactical move to ensure that, should a conflict erupt, the Romulans would not have the advantage. Nothing came of this, and the Romulans chose not to engage or even communicate with Starfleet until later that year. ({{TNG|Angel One|The Neutral Zone}})<br /> <br /> In 2366, the location of four of these outposts were labeled on a [[Starfleet]] tactical intelligence analysis map. ({{TNG|The Defector}})<br /> <br /> By [[2367]], the Neutral Zone outposts had expanded in number, possibly to as many as twenty-three (see [[Outpost 23]]). Additional outposts in the region included [[Outpost Sierra VI]]. ({{TNG|The Defector|Future Imperfect}})<br /> <br /> In the early [[25th century]], the position of these stations was labeled on a [[star chart]] used by [[Captain]] [[William T. Riker]] during his attempt at finding the last known location of the {{SS|Eleos XII}}. ({{PIC|The Next Generation}})<br /> <br /> &lt;gallery&gt;<br /> File:Romulan Neutral Zone star chart, 2259.png|The location of Earth Outposts 1 to 7 labeled on a star chart (2259)<br /> File:Romulan Neutral Zone map, 2266.jpg|A partial map of Earth Outpost Stations along the Romulan Neutral Zone (2266)<br /> File:Tactical Intelligence Analysis.jpg|Outposts 3 to 6 on a Starfleet Tactical Intelligence Analysis (2366)<br /> &lt;/gallery&gt;<br /> <br /> {{Earth Outpost Stations}}<br /> <br /> == Background information ==<br /> The revised final draft script of &quot;Balance of Terror&quot; requested that Earth Outposts 1 to 11 be shown in a [[star chart]] which appears in that installment, though only Outposts 1 to 7 are shown in the final version of that display.<br /> <br /> While Earth Outpost 23 does not appear in the star chart, there may have been up to twenty-three Earth Outposts established along the Romulan Neutral Zone by 2160. (''[[Star Trek: Star Charts]]'', p. 66)<br /> <br /> An [[okudagram]] map seen in [[Starlog Press]] publication {{STNG}} depicted a portion of the Romulan Neutral Zone. On the map, the locations of Outposts 1-7 were depicted in Federation space. Outposts 41 and 42 were depicted in space claimed by the [[Klingon Empire]]. ''{{Spike's|graphics/display_rnz.jpg|||images}}''<br /> <br /> These stations' quadrant of origin is inferred based on the position of the [[Nelvana system|Nelvana]] [[star system|system]] as seen in the [[star chart]] appearing in the {{s|PIC}} episode {{e|Maps and Legends}}. <br /> <br /> == External link ==<br /> * {{mbeta}}<br /> <br /> [[fr:Avant-postes terriens]]<br /> [[nl:Aarde buitenpoststation]]<br /> [[pl:Posterunki Przystrefowe]]<br /> [[Category:Romulan Neutral Zone]]<br /> [[Category:Outposts]]</div> 2023-12-08T15:12:47Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Balance_of_Terror_(episode)?diff=3094654 Balance of Terror (episode) <p>Lucamauri: Format fix</p> <hr /> <div>{{real world}}<br /> {{sidebar episode<br /> |&lt;!-- See [[Memory Alpha:Projects/Episode data project]] --&gt;<br /> |image = Hansen (Commander).jpg<br /> |writer = [[Paul Schneider]]<br /> |director = [[Vincent McEveety]]<br /> |date = 1701.8 ([[2266]])<br /> }}<br /> {{disambiguation|the unseen namesake prop book|Balance of Terror (production art)|rd=Balance of Terror}}<br /> The ''Enterprise'' battles a Romulan ship suspected of destroying outposts near the Neutral Zone.<br /> <br /> == Summary ==<br /> === Teaser ===<br /> [[File:Martine-Tomlinson wedding.jpg|thumb|A wedding aboard the ''Enterprise'']]<br /> [[Captain]] [[James T. Kirk]] is officiating at a [[wedding]] between two crew members, [[Angela Martine]] and [[Robert Tomlinson]], in the ''Enterprise''{{'}}s [[chapel]], with the ceremony being broadcast on video screens all over the ship. <br /> <br /> The bride and groom are in their regular [[Starfleet uniform|Starfleet uniforms]], with Angela wearing a white flower crown. [[Montgomery Scott]] is also present to give Angela away, acting as [[father of the bride]]. Suddenly, a [[red alert]] [[klaxon]] interrupts the ceremony, followed by a request for Captain Kirk to report to the [[bridge]]. Kirk learns that Earth [[Outpost 4]] is under attack as everyone runs to [[battle stations]].<br /> <br /> ===Act One===<br /> The {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701}} investigates in the vicinity of the [[Romulan Neutral Zone]], where an unknown assailant is methodically destroying each of the [[Earth Outpost Station|Earth outposts]] bordering the Zone. [[Spock]] explains to the crew that the Neutral Zone was established after the [[Earth-Romulan War]] over [[22nd century|a century ago]]. Neither race has had contact with the other since that time, and neither side knows what the other looks like. Kirk then tells the crew that while self-defense is permitted, they are forbidden by [[Starfleet Command]]'s orders to violate the Neutral Zone. The ''Enterprise'' and its crew are to be considered expendable. <br /> <br /> [[Lieutenant]] {{dis|Stiles|Lieutenant}} assumes the attacking vessel is Romulan, but Kirk points out that after a century, no one would know what a Romulan ship looks like. Stiles shares his knowledge of Romulan ship markings, as a number of his relatives died in the Earth-Romulan war. &quot;''Their war, Mr. Stiles,''&quot; says Kirk. &quot;''Not yours.''&quot;<br /> <br /> Earth Outposts 2 and 3 are found to be destroyed, and the ''Enterprise'' briefly contacts Outpost 4. The sole survivor of Outpost 4, Commander [[Hansen Al-Salah|Hansen]], describes a [[Plasma torpedo|powerful blast of energy]] from a ship they couldn't track and the destruction of Outpost 8. He then reports that the ship has reappeared. A view relayed from the outpost's sensors shows the ship firing, and then the viewing screen goes blank.<br /> <br /> Spock's sensors detect a moving object, but nothing is visible on the screen. He suggests that the Romulans have some sort of invisibility shield. Since the [[Praetor's flagship|Romulan ship]] seems to be in no hurry, Kirk theorizes that it may not be aware of the ''Enterprise''. Spock then reports that the ship is heading back towards the Neutral Zone. <br /> <br /> Despite objections from Stiles, Kirk orders a parallel course instead of an intercept course. By matching the unknown ship's course and speed, he hopes to make the ''Enterprise'' seem like an [[echo]]. Under no circumstances is the ''Enterprise'' to enter the Romulan Neutral Zone without a direct order from Kirk. Stiles points out that there could be Romulan spies on board the ''Enterprise'', and [[Hikaru Sulu|Sulu]] recommends maintaining a [[security alert]].<br /> <br /> [[Nyota Uhura|Uhura]] picks up a communication signal, through which Spock is able obtain a view of the Romulan ship's interior, providing the [[Federation]] their first visuals of the Romulans. Stiles notices the Romulan captain's physical resemblance to Spock.<br /> <br /> ===Act Two===<br /> As Uhura attempts to interpret the Romulan signals, Stiles [[sarcastic]]ally suggests giving the job to Spock. Kirk orders him to keep his bigotry to himself.<br /> <br /> [[File:Sulu, Kirk and Scott, 2266.jpg|thumb|&quot;''Stay with him, helm.''&quot;]]<br /> Meanwhile, on the bridge of the Romulan ship, the [[Romulan 23rd commander 001|Romulan commander]] has noticed the ''Enterprise'' following them. He confers with one of his officers ([[Romulan 23rd centurion 001|the centurion]]) on the ethics of their mission. He then rebukes and [[demote]]s another officer, [[Decius]], for dispatching a [[subspace message]] in violation of orders for [[radio silence]]. The centurion warns the commander that Decius has powerful friends. The commander quietly expresses distaste for the mission but assures the centurion of his devotion to his duty.<br /> <br /> [[File:Rand and Kirk during Romulan attack.jpg|thumb|right|During a Romulan attack, Rand and Kirk brace for the impact of a plasma torpedo]]<br /> In the ''Enterprise'' briefing room, the officers discuss their chances against the Romulan ship. Spock demonstrates the effect of the Romulan weapon on Outpost 4's protective shields, and [[Montgomery Scott|Scott]] reports that the Romulan ship's power is &quot;simple impulse&quot;. Stiles urges an attack, arguing from history that running would guarantee war. Spock agrees, pointing out that Vulcan had begun to colonize space before giving up its warlike ways, and that if the Romulans are indeed descended from ancient Vulcans, they are more dangerous than Kirk might realize. After a moment, Kirk gives the order to attack. The ''Enterprise'' heads into battle at red alert.<br /> <br /> ===Act Three===<br /> [[File:Kirk in Enterprise command chair.jpg|thumb|Kirk orders the ''Enterprise'' crew to attack the Romulans]]<br /> Following the Romulan ship's path towards a [[comet]]'s tail, Kirk orders the ''Enterprise'' to jump forward and attack the Romulan ship when its trail becomes visible. The Romulan commander hopes to double back to intercept the ''Enterprise'', but, on learning that his target is no longer following, orders an evasive maneuver. Each commander, having failed in his plans, reflects on the other's intelligence.<br /> <br /> A barrage of [[phaser]] fire damages the Romulan ship. The centurion pushes the Romulan commander out of the way of falling [[debris]] but is fatally injured himself. Meanwhile, the phaser circuits on the ''Enterprise'' burn out as the Romulan ship fires its primary weapon. Kirk orders full astern and as the ''Enterprise'' backs up, they find that the weapon has a range limit which causes the shot to partially dissipate, resulting in reduced impact. <br /> <br /> Determined to prevent the Romulan ship from reentering the Neutral Zone, Kirk orders another barrage of phaser fire. Unable to stop the Romulan ship, and aware of the consequences, Kirk orders the ''Enterprise'' into the Neutral Zone. Displaying restrained emotion as his friend dies, the Romulan commander orders all debris and, sadly, the body of his friend into the escape chute as a decoy. The ''Enterprise'' picks up the debris on the sensors but in doing so, loses track of the Romulan ship.<br /> <br /> ===Act Four===<br /> [[File:McCoy counsels Kirk.jpg|thumb|McCoy counsels Kirk]]<br /> It has come down to a waiting game and both ships have powered down in the Neutral Zone to prevent detection. After the ''Enterprise'' has been powered down for 9 hours and [[47]] minutes, Kirk tries to rest in his [[quarters]], when [[Yeoman]] [[Janice Rand|Rand]] walks in and asks the captain if he would like something to eat from the [[galley]]. Kirk shakes his head and tells Rand to get him [[coffee]] and have it on the bridge, as he will be heading up there soon. Just then, [[Dr.]] [[Leonard McCoy|McCoy]] arrives as Rand leaves. Kirk confesses that he wishes he were on a [[cruise]] somewhere with no responsibility. He admits to McCoy that when his crew looks to him to make the next move, he wonders, &quot;''What if I'm wrong?''&quot; McCoy struggles at first to come up with an answer to this and Kirk does not expect him to provide one. However, McCoy puts his hand on Kirk's shoulder and gently says, &quot;''In [[Milky Way Galaxy|this galaxy]], there's a mathematical probability of three million [[class M|Earth-type planets]]. And in all the universe, three million million [[galaxy|galaxies]] like this. And in all of that, and perhaps more, only one of each of us. Don't destroy the one named Kirk.''&quot;<br /> <br /> Later on the bridge, Spock, while making repairs, accidentally activates a panel, and the Romulan ship detects the ''Enterprise'' and moves in to attack. Kirk anticipates this and manages to fire on the Romulan ship. Furious, the Romulan commander orders more debris into the disposal tubes, including a [[nuclear warhead]]. <br /> <br /> Spock picks up the &quot;metal-cased object&quot; on his sensors and the ''Enterprise'' fires upon it. The massive explosion causes damage to the ''Enterprise'' but despite now having the upper hand, the Romulan commander decides to head for home. <br /> <br /> Scott reports that while phasers are operational, only Tomlinson, the groom from the wedding, is manning the station. Stiles quotes his experience with phasers and Kirk sends him down to assist. In an attempt to lure the Romulan ship back, the ''Enterprise'' plays dead.<br /> <br /> Despite his reservations, and the crippled status of his ship, the Romulan commander is reminded by Decius that it is the commander's duty to crush the enemy. The commander then reluctantly gives the order to attack.<br /> <br /> Meanwhile, Spock checks on the phaser crew and Stiles coldly remarks that they &quot;''will handle things without your help, Vulcan''.&quot; After Spock leaves however, a phaser [[coolant leak]] erupts. As the Romulan ship moves in to attack, Kirk gives the order to fire phasers. But both Tomlinson and Stiles have been overcome by the coolant fumes. Realizing the danger, Spock runs back and manages to fire the phasers in time, severely damaging the Romulan ship.<br /> <br /> [[File:Romulan Commander defeated in 2266.jpg|thumb|After his defeat, the Commander of the Romulan flagship bestows his respect to the victor.]]<br /> Visual contact between ships is somehow established as Kirk watches a severely wounded Romulan commander stagger to his feet. The Romulan commander turns and looks upon Kirk's face. Despite Kirk's offer to beam aboard any survivors, the Romulan commander informs him that it is not the Romulan way. He then says, with admiration, &quot;''I regret that we meet in this way. You and I are of a kind. In a different reality, I could have called you friend,''&quot; and as the last part of his duty, he sets the Romulan ship to [[self-destruct]]. Kirk watches regretfully as the ship is destroyed.<br /> <br /> Kirk goes to [[sickbay]] and discovers that not only did Spock fire the phasers, but he also rescued Stiles. Stiles is humbled and amazed that Spock saved his life after everything he had said to him. Unfortunately, Spock was unable to save Robert Tomlinson. Kirk is then forced to console his grief-stricken [[fiancée]], Angela Martine, while she stands alone in the chapel. &quot;''It never makes any sense. We both have to know that there was a reason,''&quot; Kirk says softly to Martine. She tearfully assures the captain that she will be fine and leaves. Kirk watches Angela go and then leaves the chapel too, striding purposefully down the ship's corridor.<br /> <br /> ==Log entries==<br /> * [[Captain's log, USS Enterprise (NCC-1701), 2266|Captain's log, USS ''Enterprise'' (NCC-1701), 2266]]<br /> <br /> ==Memorable quotes ==<br /> [[File:Stiles, Kirk, and Scott.jpg|thumb|Stiles, Kirk, and Scott]]<br /> &quot;''Since the days of the first wooden vessels, all ship masters have had one happy privilege: that of uniting two people in the bonds of matrimony.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Kirk''', in the chapel<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''I had no idea that history was your specialty.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Family history.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Kirk''' and '''Stiles''', on the Romulan War<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Their war, Mr. Stiles. Not yours.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Kirk''', after Stiles lists his family losses in the Romulan War<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Happy wedding day, almost.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''You won't get off my hook this easily. I'm going to marry you, Mister. Battle or phaser weapons notwithstanding.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Tomlinson''' and '''Angela''', in the phaser control room<br /> <br /> <br /> [[File:Romulan commander and Centurian.jpg|thumb|On board the Romulan vessel]]<br /> &quot;''Leave any bigotry in your quarters. There's no room for it on the bridge.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Kirk''', to Stiles, after he implies that Spock could be a Romulan spy<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''That Earth outpost sent word to an Earth vessel, now it follows.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Which neither retreats nor grows near, which turns as we turn. Commander, it is our judgment that we run from a reflection.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Perhaps so, but ''my'' judgment prevails.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Romulan commander''' and '''Romulan bridge officer'''<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''He has friends. And friends of his kind mean power. And power is danger.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''Danger and I are old companions.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Romulan centurion''' and '''Romulan commander''', after Decius is demoted in rank<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''Not too soon for me to see the stars of home.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Romulan commander''', to the centurion<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''War is never imperative, Mr. Spock.''&quot;&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &quot;''It is for ''them'', Doctor. Vulcan, like Earth, had ''its'' aggressive, colonizing period; savage, even by Earth standards. And if the Romulans retained this martial philosophy, then weakness is something we dare not show.''&quot;<br /> :- '''McCoy''' and '''Spock''', after the latter agrees with Stiles on attacking the Romulans<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''I wish I were on a long sea voyage somewhere. Not too much deck tennis, no frantic dancing. And no responsibility.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Kirk''' to McCoy, on the Romulan incursion<br /> [[File:Janice alone with the Captain.jpg|thumb|right|While Kirk rests in his quarters, Rand enters to check up on him]]<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''In this galaxy, there's a mathematical probability of three million earth-type planets&amp;hellip; and in all the universe, three million ''million'' galaxies like this one. And in all of that, and perhaps more, only one of each of us. Don't destroy the one named Kirk.''&quot;<br /> :- '''McCoy'''{{'}}s advice to Kirk<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''He's a sorcerer, that one! He reads the thoughts in my brain!''&quot;<br /> :- '''Romulan commander''' to Decius, on Kirk<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''You and I are of a kind. In a different reality, I could have called you friend.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Romulan commander''' to Kirk, after the Romulan ship is disabled<br /> <br /> <br /> [[File:Kirk finds Martine.jpg|thumb|Angela Martine in the ship's chapel]]<br /> &quot;''We are creatures of duty, Captain. I have lived my life by it. Just one more duty to perform.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Romulan commander'''{{'}}s last words<br /> <br /> <br /> &quot;''It never makes any sense. We both have to know that there was a reason.''&quot;<br /> :- '''Kirk''' to Martine, on Tomlinson's death<br /> <br /> == Background information==<br /> ===Production timeline===<br /> * Theatrical premiere of &quot;The Enemy Below&quot;: {{d|25|December|1957}}<br /> * Theatrical premiere of &quot;Run Silent, Run Deep&quot;: {{d|27|March|1958}}<br /> * Story outline by [[Paul Schneider]]: {{d|14|April|1966}}<br /> * Revised Story outline: {{d|26|April|1966}}, {{d|29|April|1966}}<br /> * First draft teleplay: {{d|20|May|1966}}<br /> * Second draft teleplay: {{d|3|June|1966}}<br /> * Revised teleplay by [[John D.F. Black]]: {{d|21|June|1966}}<br /> * Second revised teleplay by Black: {{d|2|July|1966}}<br /> * Final draft teleplay by [[Gene Roddenberry]]: {{d|14|July|1966}}<br /> * Revised final draft teleplay: {{d|18|July|1966}}<br /> * Additional revisions: {{d|19|July|1966}}, {{d|20|July|1966}}, {{d|21|July|1966}}, {{d|22|July|1966}}, {{d|25|July|1966}}<br /> * Filmed: {{d|20|July|1966}} &amp;ndash; {{d|28|July|1966}}<br /> ** Day 1 &amp;ndash; {{d|20|July|1966}}, Wednesday &amp;ndash; [[Desilu Stage 9]]: Int. [[Bridge]]<br /> ** Day 2 &amp;ndash; {{d|21|July|1966}}, Thursday &amp;ndash; [[Desilu Stage 9]]: Int. [[Bridge]]<br /> ** Day 3 &amp;ndash; {{d|22|July|1966}}, Friday &amp;ndash; [[Desilu Stage 9]]: Int. [[Bridge]]<br /> ** Day 4 &amp;ndash; {{d|25|July|1966}}, Monday &amp;ndash; [[Desilu Stage 9]]: Int. [[Bridge]], [[Chapel]] (redress of [[Transporter room]]), [[Phaser control room]] (redress of [[Engineering]])<br /> ** Day 5 &amp;ndash; {{d|26|July|1966}}, Tuesday &amp;ndash; [[Desilu Stage 9]]: Int. [[Quarters|Kirk's quarters]], [[Briefing room]], [[Sickbay]], [[Corridor]]s<br /> ** Day 6 &amp;ndash; {{d|27|July|1966}}, Wednesday &amp;ndash; [[Desilu Stage 9]]: Int. [[Sickbay|McCoy's office]], [[Romulan Bird-of-Prey|Romulan bridge]]<br /> ** Day 7 &amp;ndash; {{d|28|July|1966}}, Thursday (Half Day) &amp;ndash; [[Desilu Stage 9]]: Int. Romulan bridge<br /> * Original airdate: {{d|15|December|1966}}<br /> * Rerun date: {{d|3|August|1967}}<br /> * First UK airdate (on [[BBC|BBC1]]): {{d|25|October|1969}}<br /> * First UK airdate (on [[ITV]]): {{d|6|December|1981}}<br /> * Remastered airdate: {{d|16|September|2006}}<br /> <br /> ===Story and script===<br /> * The plot of this episode is based on the 1957 film ''{{imdb|title/tt0050356|The Enemy Below}}'', with the ''Enterprise'' taking the part of the American destroyer and the [[Romulan Bird-of-Prey|Bird-of-Prey]] with its [[cloaking device]] taking the part of the submarine. (''[[The Star Trek Compendium]]'' 4th ed., p. 40) Director [[Vincent McEveety]] had seen the film but only noticed the similarity later, when this was pointed out to him. He commented, &quot;''Obviously, it's the same story.''&quot; (''[[Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages]]'', p. 34)<br /> * ''[[Star Trek: The Original Series 365]]'' (p. 063) suggests that Schneider may have also been inspired by another submarine film, {{wt|Run Silent, Run Deep}}. The authors note that the film contains a similar plot thread of an officer longing for vengeance, as well as the tactic of releasing wreckage and bodies from a damaged vessel in order to mislead the opposing ship. ''[[The Star Trek Compendium]]'' (5th edition, p. 40) also mentions this film as the inspiration along with ''The Enemy Below''.<br /> * The &quot;Revised Final Draft&quot; of the script was disseminated on 18 July 1966. (''Cover'')<br /> * A portion (scene 46) with the doomed [[Commander]] [[Hansen Al-Salah|Hansen]] was filmed but cut from the final episode. {{el|www.startrekhistory.com/DS3.html}} In it, Hansen informed Kirk that the Romulan vessel is of &quot;starship design&quot; and that the Romulans had probably stolen Earth designs via espionage and traitors. This is the basis for Stiles' remarks in scene 52 about a vessel &quot;remarkably similar to ours&quot; and having Romulan spies aboard the ''Enterprise'', which ''was'' aired and before he even knew what Romulans looked like. {{OrionPress|articles/balanceofterror.htm}}<br /> * A shot filmed for scene 171 but cut from the finished episode shows Kirk saluting the Romulan commander, which the latter acknowledges with a courteous nod, before destroying his ship. {{el|www.startrekhistory.com/DS3.html}}<br /> <br /> ===Production===<br /> * The music featured during the opening scenes of the wedding ceremony is the 19th century English tune &quot;[[Long, Long Ago]].&quot;<br /> * Although phasers are used throughout the episode, the visual effect seen is that which later was used for [[photon torpedo]] launches, probably because the term &quot;photon torpedo&quot; was not invented until later in the season, in {{e|Arena}}. Kirk orders the phasers to be &quot;set for [[proximity blast]]&quot;; each phaser blast acts like a Navy depth charge.<br /> *This is the only time in the series that the Below decks Phaser weapons room is seen.<br /> * ''The Making of Star Trek'' and ''The Star Trek Compendium'' (4th ed., p. 40) state that the ship's chapel was a redress of the transporter room. ''Inside Star Trek: The Real Story'' (pp. 170-171), states that it is, instead, a redress of the briefing room.<br /> * The trailer includes footage of the ''Enterprise'' firing its phasers from {{e|The Corbomite Maneuver}} instead of the &quot;blast-like&quot; phaser effect seen in the actual episode.<br /> <br /> ===Cast===<br /> * Regular first season extra [[Ron Veto]] gets his only close-up in TOS, when he replaces Stiles at the navigation console.<br /> * Two of the actors playing Romulans in this episode later played Vulcan characters, namely [[Mark Lenard]] ([[Sarek]]) and [[Lawrence Montaigne]] ([[Stonn]]).<br /> <br /> ===Costumes===<br /> * The Romulan helmets shown aboard the Romulan bridge were designed to cover the ears of the actors. This saved the additional cost of creating prosthetic ear-points for each of the supporting actors. They were reused in {{e|Amok Time}} (on Vulcans) and {{e|The Enterprise Incident}} for the same reason. (''[[Star Trek: The Original Series 365]]'', p. 173)<br /> * The rarely seen command work utility jumpsuit is worn by several crew members in this episode.<br /> <br /> ===Continuity===<br /> * This episode saw the introduction of the [[Romulan Star Empire]] in ''Star Trek''. [[Paul Schneider]] is credited with creating the Romulans. Schneider remarked, &quot;''It was a matter of developing a good Romanesque set of admirable antagonists that were worthy of Kirk. I came up with the concept of the Romulans which was an extension of the [[Roman]] civilization to the point of space travel, and it turned out quite well.''&quot; (''[[Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages]]'', p. 34) Schneider's next contribution was {{e|The Squire of Gothos}}.<br /> *Associate producer / story editor [[John D.F. Black]] said about Schneider, &quot;''He was the father of the Romulans. Not Gene, not me, not anyone else &amp;ndash; but Paul Schneider. And when he came up with the Romulan characters, they were so wonderful &amp;ndash; I mean, they were full. I liked that script a lot.''&quot; (''[[These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One]]'', p. 217)<br /> * &quot;Balance of Terror&quot; introduces [[cloaking device]]s to the ''Star Trek'' universe. While this episode suggests that they are a new development in interstellar history, {{ENT|Broken Bow}} and {{DIS|The Vulcan Hello}} establish that Starfleet has encountered [[Suliban]] and [[Klingon]] cloaks in the past ([[2151]] and [[2256]], respectively).<br /> * This is the only time in which the ship's weaponry is fired through a chain of commands (Kirk, to Stiles, to phaser room), although {{e|The Corbomite Maneuver}} comes close with [[Dave Bailey|Bailey]]'s phaser drills.<br /> * When Kirk requests communication with the Romulan [[flagship]], Uhura opens a hailing frequency from the [[navigation console]], which seems unusual. However, when she left the [[communications station]], Uhura had shut down most of the light indicators, which could indicate a transfer of functionality to the navigator's position. This is not the first time the navigation console has been used to open communications. In {{e|The Cage}} and {{e|Where No Man Has Gone Before}}, when Captain [[Christopher Pike]] and Captain Kirk, respectively, want to &quot;address intercraft,&quot; the system is opened from the navigation console. This apparently is also true in the [[alternate reality]], because in {{film|11}}, {{alt|Pavel Chekov}} is able to address the crew of the {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701 alternate reality}} from his position at navigation.<br /> * As an homage, Captain [[Jean-Luc Picard|Picard]]'s wedding remarks in {{TNG|Data's Day}} are almost the same as those Kirk uses. ({{tngc}}, 3rd ed., p.152)<br /> * An [[alternate timeline]] version of the events of this episode is shown in {{SNW|A Quality of Mercy}}, in which [[Christopher Pike]] remains captain of the ''Enterprise'', while Kirk is present as captain of the {{USS|Farragut|NCC-1647}}.<br /> * This episode contains the first mention of [[Romulus]]' neighboring planet [[Remus]], which later appears prominently in {{film|10}}.<br /> <br /> ===Preview===<br /> *The preview contains a Captain's Log recorded solely for the preview: &quot;''Captain's log, stardate 1710.0. The starship ''Enterprise'' is under heavy attack by an enemy vessel.''&quot;<br /> <br /> ===Reception===<br /> * McEveety recalled, &quot;''[Kirk and the Romulan commander] were very heroic characters pitted one against the other, and it dealt with the length to which people would go for their honor. It was a morality fantasy play, but terribly gripping. I thought that Mark Lenard's performance was brilliant, as was Bill Shatner's. It was a two-people show that I felt was real strong.''&quot; (''[[Captains' Logs: The Unauthorized Complete Trek Voyages]]'', p. 34)<br /> * Mark Lenard said, &quot;''The Romulan Commander was one of the best roles I ever had on TV.''&quot; Comparing the part with that of [[Sarek]], Lenard elaborated, &quot;''In many ways, I did enjoy that role [Sarek], but I think the more demanding role and the better acting role was the Romulan Commander&quot;''. (''[[These Are the Voyages: TOS Season One]]'', p. 217)<br /> * Gene Roddenberry picked this as one of his ten favorite episodes for the franchise's 25th anniversary. (''[[TV Guide]]''{{page cite}}, August 31, 1991)<br /> * According to the original showrunner of {{s|DIS}}, [[Bryan Fuller]], the events of &quot;Balance of Terror&quot; were to provide a &quot;touchstone&quot; for the series. {{TrekMovie.com|2016/09/09/bryan-fuller-reveals-balance-of-terror-is-touchstone-of-discovery-story/}} However, since Fuller left the series during its development, it is unclear what exactly this was supposed to entail. The Romulans have not been seen or mentioned on ''Discovery'' thus far, though Romulus was mentioned in {{e|Context Is for Kings}}.<br /> * In {{y|2017}}, [[Ted Sullivan]] described the ''Discovery'' episode {{e|Si Vis Pacem, Para Bellum}} as &quot;'Balance of Terror' good&quot;. {{TrekMovie.com|2017/11/07/after-trek-hints-at-whats-next-on-star-trek-discovery-ted-sullivan-talks-canon-challenge/}}<br /> <br /> ===Apocrypha===<br /> * In the [[James Blish]] adaptation of this story, presumably based on an earlier draft of the script, Stiles dies. In addition, Robert Tomlinson and Angela Martine actually marry, in a second ceremony late in the story. When the ''Enterprise'' fires on the Romulan ship for the final time, the latter explodes immediately, with the conversation between Kirk and the Romulan commander being omitted.<br /> * In the William Shatner {{novel}} ''[[The Return]]'', where Kirk is resurrected by a [[Borg]]/Romulan alliance to kill Captain [[Jean-Luc Picard]], the Romulan alliance is arranged by the granddaughter of the Romulan commander of this mission, convinced that Starfleet are brutal murderers and seeking revenge for her grandfather's death at Kirk's hands.<br /> * The story of the events on [[Romulus]] leading up to this episode are told in the {{comic}} &quot;{{dis|Alien Spotlight: Romulans|2008}}&quot;.<br /> * A different background to this episode is told in the novella ''[[Seven Deadly Sins|The First Peer]]'' and the novel ''[[Summon the Thunder]]'', where {{dis|Vrax|Senator}} is the Praetor who authorized the Neutral Zone incursion.<br /> * In the novel ''[[Headlong Flight]]'', an experiment in dimensional displacement results in the {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701-E|-E}} of the &quot;prime&quot; universe &amp;ndash; over a decade after {{film|10}} &amp;ndash; encountering both an alternate version of the {{USS|Enterprise|NCC-1701-D|-D}} &amp;ndash; from a year after the [[Battle of Wolf 359]], in a timeline which ended with the death of Picard/[[Locutus of Borg]] &amp;ndash; and a trio of Romulan ships from this era, in a timeline where the Romulan ship depicted here apparently destroyed Kirk's ''Enterprise'' in the final showdown.<br /> <br /> === Remastered information===<br /> * &quot;Balance of Terror&quot; was the first episode of the remastered version of ''The Original Series'' to air, though in some markets it was preceded by {{e|Miri}}. It premiered in syndication on the weekend {{d|16|September|2006}} and most notably featured {{el|www.tunequest.org/star_trek_refit_side-by-side_balance_of_terror/|new effects}} shots of the comet, Romulan [[plasma torpedo]], and Bird-of-Prey, as well as of the ''Enterprise'' and Bird-of-Prey &quot;adrift&quot;.<br /> <br /> &lt;gallery&gt;<br /> File:Romulan Bird-of-Prey, 2260s aft.jpg|The original shot of the Bird-of-Prey<br /> File:Romulan bird-of-prey, CG TOS-aft.jpg|&amp;hellip;and the &quot;remastered&quot; version<br /> File:Romulan bird-of-prey, CG TOS-aft-dorsal.jpg|An all-new shot of the Bird-of-Prey<br /> &lt;/gallery&gt;<br /> <br /> :''The next remastered to air was {{e|Miri}}.''<br /> <br /> ===Video and DVD releases===<br /> * US CED VideoDisc release: {{d|1|March|1983}}<br /> * US LaserDisc release: ''{{m|July|1985}}''<br /> * Original US Betamax/VHS release: {{d|28|February|1985}}<br /> * Original [[Star Trek VHS releases in the UK|UK VHS release]] (two-episode tapes, [[CIC Video]]): [[TOS Season 1 UK VHS|Volume 5]], catalog number VHR 2250, ''release date unknown''<br /> * Japan LaserDisc release: {{d|10|November|1992}}<br /> * US VHS release: {{d|15|April|1994}}<br /> * UK re-release (three-episode tapes, CIC Video): Volume 1.3, {{d|8|July|1996}}<br /> * As part of the US VHS collection ''[[Star Trek - The Greatest Battles]]'': {{d|3|April|1997}}<br /> * As part of the UK VHS collection ''[[Star Trek - Greatest Battles]]'': {{d|16|November|1998}}<br /> * Original US DVD release (single-disc): Volume 4, {{d|19|October|1999}}<br /> * As part of the [[TOS Season 1 DVD]] collection<br /> * As part of the ''[[Star Trek: Fan Collective - Captain's Log]]'' DVD collection<br /> * As part of the [[TOS Season 1 HD DVD]] collection<br /> * As part of ''[[The Best of Star Trek: The Original Series]]'' DVD collection<br /> * As part of the [[TOS Season 1 Blu-ray]] collection<br /> <br /> ==Links and references==<br /> ===Starring===<br /> *[[William Shatner]] as Capt. [[James T. Kirk|Kirk]]<br /> <br /> === Also starring===<br /> *[[Leonard Nimoy]] as Mr. [[Spock]]<br /> *[[Mark Lenard]] as a [[Romulan 23rd commander 001|Romulan Commander]]<br /> <br /> ===Co-starring===<br /> *[[Paul Comi]] as {{dis|Stiles|Lieutenant}}<br /> *[[Lawrence Montaigne]] as [[Decius]]<br /> <br /> ===Featuring===<br /> *[[DeForest Kelley]] as Dr. [[Leonard McCoy|McCoy]]<br /> *[[Grace Lee Whitney]] as Yeoman [[Janice Rand|Rand]]<br /> *[[George Takei]] as [[Hikaru Sulu|Sulu]]<br /> *[[James Doohan]] as [[Montgomery Scott|Scott]]<br /> *[[Nichelle Nichols]] as [[Nyota Uhura|Uhura]]<br /> *[[Stephen Mines]] as [[Robert Tomlinson|Tomlinson]]<br /> *[[Barbara Baldavin]] as [[Angela Martine|Angela]]<br /> *[[Garry Walberg]] as [[Hansen Al-Salah|Hansen]]<br /> ;And<br /> *[[John Warburton]] as [[Romulan 23rd centurion 001|The Centurion]]<br /> <br /> ===Uncredited co-stars===<br /> *[[John Arndt]] as [[Fields]]<br /> * [[William Blackburn]] as [[Hadley]]<br /> *[[Robert Chadwick]] as a [[Romulan 23rd scope operator 001|Romulan scope operator]]<br /> *[[Frank da Vinci]] as [[Brent]]<br /> *[[Walt Davis]] as [[Romulan 23rd crewman 001|Romulan crewman 1]]<br /> *[[Vince Deadrick]] as [[Romulan 23rd crewman 002|Romulan crewman 2]]<br /> *[[Jeannie Malone]] as a [[USS Enterprise operations yeoman 1|yeoman]]<br /> *[[Sean Morgan]] as [[Brenner]]<br /> *[[Eddie Paskey]] as [[Leslie]]<br /> *[[Ron Veto]] as [[Harrison]]<br /> * [[Unknown actor]]s as<br /> **[[Bobby]]<br /> **{{dis|Lewis|Enterprise}}<br /> **[[USS Enterprise command crewman 1|Command crewman]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise command lieutenant 1|Command crew woman 1]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise crew woman 7|Command crew woman 2]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise command lieutenant 2|Command lieutenant]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise crewman 13|Crewman 1]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise lieutenant 6|Crewman 2]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise sciences medical technician 1|Medical technician]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise lieutenant 3|Operations crewman]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise sciences lieutenant 12|Sciences lieutenant]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise lieutenant 4|Wedding attendee 1]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise sciences crew woman 9|Wedding attendee 2]]<br /> **[[USS Enterprise command lieutenant 4|Wedding attendee 3]]<br /> <br /> ===Stunts===<br /> * Vince Deadrick ([[stunt double|double]])<br /> * [[Allen Jaffe]] (stunt)<br /> <br /> ===Stand-ins===<br /> * [[William Blackburn]] as the [[stand-in]] for DeForest Kelley<br /> * [[Frank da Vinci]] as the stand-in for Leonard Nimoy<br /> * [[Jeannie Malone]] as the stand-in for Grace Lee Whitney<br /> * [[Eddie Paskey]] as the stand-in for William Shatner<br /> <br /> ===References===<br /> [[2156]]; [[2160]]; [[ability]]; [[Achilles' heel]]; [[act of war]]; [[adversary]]; &quot;[[all decks alert]]&quot;; &quot;[[all hands]]&quot;; [[amen]]; [[analysis]]; [[answer]]; [[area]]; [[assignment]]; [[assumption]]; [[asteroid]]; [[atomic weapon]]; [[battle stations]]; [[battle status]]; [[bearing]]; [[best man]]; [[bigotry]]; [[bird-of-prey]]; [[blip]]; [[body]]; [[bonds of matrimony]]; [[book]]; &quot;[[Bones]]&quot;; [[brain]]; [[briefing room]]; [[military campaign|campaign]]; [[candelabra]]; [[carelessness]]; {{dis|cast|metalworking}}; [[centurion]]; [[century]]; [[chance]]; [[commanding officer|commander]]; [[communication channel|channel]]; [[chapel]]; [[cloaking system]] (aka [[cloak]], [[invisibility screen]]); [[code]]; [[coffee]]; [[starbase|command base]]; [[Unnamed fixed installations#Command base|Command base nearest to Neutral Zone]]; [[comet]]; [[comet tail]]; [[command order]]; [[composition]]; [[comrade]]; [[condition red]]; [[conduit]]; [[conscience]]; [[contact]]; [[control circuit]]; [[couch]]; [[Cryptography]]; [[customer]]; {{dis|cycle|unit}}; [[damage report]]; [[dancing]]; [[danger]]; [[death]]; [[debris]]; [[deck]]; [[decode]]; [[deflector shield]]; [[disposal tube]]; [[distance]]; [[dust]]; [[duty]]; [[Earth]]; [[Earth Outpost Station]]; [[Earth-Romulan War]]; [[emergency call]]; [[emergency warp]]; [[enemy]]; {{dis|error|concept}}; [[escape maneuver one]]; [[estimate]] ([[estimating]]); [[evasive maneuvers]] (aka [[evasive action]]); [[family history]]; [[face-to-face]]; [[feeling]]; [[flagship]]; [[friend]]; [[fuel]]; [[fuel reserve]]; &quot;[[full astern]]&quot;; [[Galaxy Quadrant YX-12-114]]; [[galley]]; [[green]]; [[hardness]]; [[hailing frequency]]; [[heading]] (aka [[course]]); &quot;[[Here Comes the Bride]]&quot; (aka &quot;[[Bridal Chorus]]&quot;); [[history]]; [[homeland]]; [[hour]]; [[Human]]; [[Icarus IV]]; [[idea]]; [[identification]]; [[impact]]; [[implosion]]; [[impulse]]; [[interception course]]; [[intruder]]; [[iron]]; [[junior officer]]; [[lab]]; [[lateral power]]; [[lectern]]; [[light]]; [[magnitude]]; {{dis|mass|physics}}; [[master]]; [[match]]; [[maximum warp]]; [[memory]]; [[metal]]; [[meter]]; [[mile]]; [[minute]]; [[Milky Way Galaxy]]; [[million]]; [[mission]]; [[mistake]]; [[mister]]; [[motion sensor]]; [[navigator]]; [[Neutral Zone Incursion]]; [[no quarter]]; [[nuclear warhead]]; [[obedience]]; [[object]]; &quot;[[Idiom|of course]]&quot;; [[opinion]]; [[order]]; &quot;[[out of reach]]&quot;; [[outpost station]]; [[Outpost 1]]; [[Outpost 2]]; [[Outpost 3]]; [[Outpost 4]]; [[Outpost 5]]; [[Outpost 6]]; [[Outpost 7]]; [[Outpost 8]]; [[overload]]; [[parallel course]]; [[patrol]]; [[phaser control room]] (aka [[phaser room]], [[phaser control]]); [[phaser coolant]]; [[phaser coolant seal]]; [[phaser crew]]; [[phaser weapon]]; [[philosophy]]; [[plasma]]; [[plasma torpedo]]; [[plastaform]]; [[playing dead]]; [[power consumption]]; [[praetor]]; [[Praetor's flagship]]; [[probability]]; [[proof]]; [[protective shield]]; [[proximity fuse]]; [[question]]; [[radiation burn]]; [[range]]; [[rank]]; [[demotion|rank reduction]]; [[reality]]; [[Remus]]; {{dis|retreat|tactic}}; [[risk]]; [[rodinium]]; [[Romii]]; [[Romulan Star Empire]]; [[Romulan]]s; [[Romulan Bird-of-Prey]]; [[Romulan Neutral Zone]]; [[Romulan 23rd praetor 001|Romulan praetor]]; [[Romulus system]]; [[Romulus]]; [[rule of silence]]; [[salute]]; [[savage]]; [[science]]; [[sea]]; [[second]]; [[Sector Z-6]]; [[security alert]]; [[sensor]] ([[sensing device]]); [[sensor probe]]; [[sensor range]]; [[medical service|services]]; [[session]]; [[shipmaster]]; [[sighting]]; [[signal for war]]; [[sneak attack]]; [[sorcerer]]; [[space recorder]]; [[Space Service]]; [[space vessel]]; [[specialist]]; [[speaker]]; [[spy]]; &quot;[[Idiom|stand by]]&quot;; [[standby alert]]; [[standby crew]]; [[starboard]]; [[star sector]]; {{dis|Stiles|Captain}} (Captain); {{dis|Stiles|Commander 1}} (Commander); {{dis|Stiles|Commander 2}} (Commander); [[Stiles family]]; [[subject]]; [[subspace radio]]; [[superior officer]]; [[surrender]]; [[survivor]]; ''[[Table of Comets]]''; [[tactic]]; [[tactical report]]; [[tape]]; [[telepathy]]; [[television camera device]]; [[tennis]]; [[theory]]; [[thing]]; [[thought]]; [[transfer coil]]; [[Treaty of 2160]]; [[trick]]; [[velocity]]; [[victory]]; [[viewing screen]]; [[Visual communication]]; [[Vulcan]]s; [[Vulcan (planet)]]; [[Vulcan history]]; [[weapons control]]; [[weapons crew]]; [[wedding day]]; [[wooden vessel]]<br /> <br /> ===Unreferenced material===<br /> [[bird]]; [[bull]]; [[chest pain]]; [[creature]]; {{dis|hawk|bird}}; [[Unnamed medications#Background information|a medicine]]; [[seat-harness]]; [[terrier]]<br /> <br /> ===External links===<br /> * {{startrek.com|database_article/balance-of-terror|&quot;Balance of Terror&quot;|external}}<br /> * {{mbeta-quote|Balance of Terror}}<br /> * {{wikipedia-quote|Balance of Terror}}<br /> * {{ml|balance-of-terror|Balance of Terror|external}}<br /> <br /> {{TOS nav|season=1|last={{e|Charlie X}}|next={{e|What Are Little Girls Made Of?}}|lastair={{e|The Conscience of the King}}|nextair={{e|Shore Leave}}|nextair_remastered={{e|Miri}}}}<br /> <br /> [[de:Spock unter Verdacht]]<br /> [[es:Balance of Terror]]<br /> [[fr:Balance of Terror (épisode)]]<br /> [[it:La navicella invisibile (episodio)]]<br /> [[ja:宇宙基地SOS(エピソード)]]<br /> [[nl:Balance of Terror]]<br /> [[pl:Balance of Terror]]<br /> [[sv:Balance of Terror]]<br /> [[Category:TOS episodes]]</div> 2023-12-08T14:41:24Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Talk:Old_Friends,_New_Planets_(episode)?diff=3083237 Talk:Old Friends, New Planets (episode) <p>Lucamauri: /* Goodgey? */ new section</p> <hr /> <div>{{talkpage|ep}}<br /> <br /> == Ice Field ==<br /> <br /> When Mariner is running away from the Ferengi into an ice field with the Ferengi Genesis Device the scene is similar to a scene from the film Titan A.E., which was a movie about finding a device that was capable of creating a planet.[[User:Revan2574|Revan2574]] ([[User talk:Revan2574|talk]]) 13:48, 3 November 2023 (UTC)<br /> <br /> == Goodgey? ==<br /> <br /> Can we reasonably say the delta-shaped hologram that appears on the ''Cerritos'' is [[Goodgey]]? Shall we add it to &quot;Background characters&quot; and / or to &quot;References&quot;? --[[User:Lucamauri|Lucamauri]] ([[User talk:Lucamauri|talk]]) 16:18, 3 November 2023 (UTC)</div> 2023-11-03T16:18:04Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Talk:The_Inner_Fight_(episode)?diff=3080787 Talk:The Inner Fight (episode) <p>Lucamauri: /* First air date */ new section</p> <hr /> <div>{{talkpage|ep}}<br /> <br /> == First air date ==<br /> <br /> Since the inception of this article, the episode's first air date is written as &quot;28 October 2023&quot;. According to [https://www.imdb.com/title/tt22805930 IMDB] this is wrong and the correct date is &quot;''26'' October 2023&quot;, international distribution also took place on Thursday, as usual. I'd like to check here if there's a specific reason for the 28 to be written instead of 26, or if this is simply a typo that went unnoticed. --[[User:Lucamauri|Lucamauri]] ([[User talk:Lucamauri|talk]]) 19:51, 27 October 2023 (UTC)</div> 2023-10-27T19:51:46Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_CH/Information_Technology_Strategy/Experts_Involved&diff=25360655 Wikimedia CH/Information Technology Strategy/Experts Involved <p>Lucamauri: /* Luca Mauri */</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;templatestyles src=&quot;Wikimedia CH/ResponsiveStyle.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> &lt;noinclude&gt;<br /> {{Stub}}<br /> This page is a total stub. Thank you for your collaboration and any fix and feedback. Feel free to improve a profile (better if you are the involved person).<br /> &lt;/noinclude&gt;<br /> == Experts involved ==<br /> <br /> NOTE: Some experts have yet to be involved! This is a draft! Thank you!<br /> <br /> Thank you to all the persons and external volunteer experts who are directly involved in the discussion on the IT Strategy document of Wikimedia CH. If you have a specific feedback, you can also report it to these people for their kind volunteer opinion.<br /> <br /> Sorting: male names last, then alphabetical order by surname.<br /> <br /> &lt;!-- start Madbob --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-5 color-purple&quot;&gt;<br /> <br /> === MadBob ===<br /> :aka '''Roberto Guido''' · President of Italian Linux Society<br /> <br /> The Italian Linux Society is a non-profit organization based in Italy, focused on digital freedoms, since 1994. The contribution of Roberto is appreciated thanks to the experience in the field of Free licensing, contacts with Italian and European communities, and the experience with public institutions.<br /> <br /> In the spare time, Roberto is an active contributor of the project ''Officina Informatica Libera'', based in Torino. Appreciator of ''bagna cauda'' and local beer steward.<br /> <br /> ----<br /> <br /> Contact:<br /> : (en) (it) [[w:it:Discussioni utente:MadBob]]<br /> <br /> Mastodon:<br /> : Yes<br /> <br /> Declaration of interests:<br /> :I love Italian pizza<br /> :I don't work for Wikimedia CH. I work in Torino, as freelance developer.<br /> :I'm involved as volunteer president of Italian Linux Society.<br /> :I'm involved as volunteer, as external expert for Wikimedia CH.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-1 image-box hide-on-med-and-down&quot;&gt;[[File:Laptop with Free and Open Source and hacking stickers.jpg|250px|alt=]]&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end .row --&gt;<br /> &lt;!-- end Madbob --&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!-- start Nur --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-5 color-light-red&quot;&gt;<br /> <br /> === Nur ===<br /> :aka '''Nur Aiman Fadel''' · Scientific Engineer<br /> <br /> Nur works in the field of the HPC (High Performance Computing) in Lugano, Switzerland. Nur is involved for the experience in the field of applied mathematics, physics and software, and knowledge of Open Data and software freedoms.<br /> <br /> In the spare time, Nur is an experienced OpenStreetMap surveyor. Top player in StreetComplete.<br /> <br /> ----<br /> <br /> Contact:<br /> : (en) (it) ...<br /> <br /> Declaration of interests:<br /> :I like apples (the fruit, not the company)<br /> :I don't work for Wikimedia CH.<br /> :I'm involved as volunteer, as external expert for Wikimedia CH.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-1 image-box hide-on-med-and-down&quot;&gt;[[File:Suiren2 in KEK.jpg|250px|alt=]]&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end .row --&gt;<br /> &lt;!-- end Nur --&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!-- start Ruphy --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-1 image-box&quot;&gt;[[File:Riccardo Iaconelli - governo-it - 2017.jpg|250px|alt=]]&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-5 color-light-turquoise&quot;&gt;<br /> <br /> === Ruphy ===<br /> :aka '''Riccardo Iaconelli''' · Department of Digital Transformation<br /> <br /> Riccardo was involved as founder of WikiToLearn&lt;ref&gt;https://developers.italia.it/it/software/wikitolearn-wikitolearn-534495.html&lt;/ref&gt;. The contribution of Riccardo can be appreciated as physicist who worked at CERN, in Geneva; and as Open Source Project Leader in the Italian Department of Digital Transformation, since 2017.<br /> <br /> In the spare time, Ruphy is a contributor in the KDE project. Ukulele secret Rockstar.<br /> <br /> ----<br /> <br /> Contact:<br /> : (en) (it) <br /> <br /> Mastodon:<br /> : Yes<br /> <br /> Declaration of interests:<br /> :I love coffee<br /> :I'm involved as volunteer, as external expert for Wikimedia CH.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end .row --&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!-- start Lucamauri --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-1 image-box hide-on-med-and-down&quot;&gt;[[File:A deep infrared view of the Orion Nebula from HAWK-I - Eso1625a (rotated).jpg|250px|alt=]]&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-5 color-purple&quot;&gt;<br /> <br /> === Luca Mauri ===<br /> :Information Technology Manager (multi-national company)<br /> <br /> Luca Mauri was involved for the prior experience in IT strategies in an enterprise sector.<br /> <br /> In the spare time, Luca is a Space Exploration enthusiast. Lover of Mediawiki, Wikibase and Semantic MediaWiki: on this software stack he built WikiTrek.<br /> <br /> ----<br /> <br /> Contact:<br /> : (en) (it) [[User:Lucamauri]]<br /> <br /> Mastodon:<br /> : No<br /> <br /> Declaration of interests:<br /> :I love photography.<br /> :The employee of Luca Mauri does not do consulting for Wikimedia projects.<br /> :I don't work for Wikimedia CH. I work in Milano, as IT Manager.<br /> :I'm involved as volunteer, as external expert for Wikimedia CH.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end .row --&gt;<br /> &lt;!-- end Lucamauri --&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-5 color-teal&quot;&gt;<br /> <br /> === Phabi ===<br /> :aka '''Mrs./Mr. Placeholder''' · Innovative Lorem Ipsum Specialist<br /> <br /> I'm a placeholder for a very special expert. Maybe you!<br /> <br /> In the spare time, I'm an experienced Lorem Ipsum writer.<br /> <br /> When I'm bold enough, I press the edit button and I change the world. When this is not possible, I change the world to have an edit button.<br /> <br /> I'm pink since I was trying the palette.<br /> <br /> ----<br /> <br /> Contact:<br /> : (en) (de) ...<br /> <br /> Declaration of interests:<br /> :I love kiwis<br /> :I'm involved as volunteer placeholder<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-1 image-box hide-on-med-and-down&quot;&gt;[[File:Phabricator Sticker 2.png|250px|alt=]]&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end .row --&gt;<br /> &lt;noinclude&gt;<br /> == Notes ==<br /> &lt;references /&gt;<br /> &lt;/noinclude&gt;</div> 2023-07-28T10:48:16Z 2023-07-28T10:48:16Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_CH/Information_Technology_Strategy/Experts_Involved //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Rigel_V?diff=3044181 Rigel V <p>Lucamauri: Link to concept instead of book</p> <hr /> <div>{{sidebar planet<br /> | name = Rigel V<br /> | type = [[Planet]]<br /> | location = [[Rigel system|Rigel]] [[star system|system]]&lt;br/&gt;[[Alpha Quadrant]]<br /> | status = Habitable<br /> | datestatus = 2267<br /> }}<br /> <br /> '''Rigel V''' was the [[inhabited planets|inhabited]] [[fifth planets|fifth]] [[planet]] of the [[Rigel system|Rigel]] [[star system|system]]. <br /> <br /> Prior to [[stardate]] [[2268|3842]], an [[experiment]]al medical trial of a chemical [[stimulant]] was successfully completed on [[Rigelian]] test subjects on this planet. This stimulant sped up reproduction and replacement of [[blood]] in the [[body]]. ({{TOS|Journey to Babel}})<br /> <br /> {{Rigel system}}<br /> <br /> == Appendices ==<br /> === Background information ===<br /> This planet's quadrant of origin is inferred based on the position of its star system as seen in the [[star chart]] appearing in {{film|6}}.<br /> <br /> During the [[Whale Probe]] crisis of [[2286]], a [[Starfleet]] Command Table Operator reported that they were updating graphics from Rigel V. The line mentioning this location was scripted for {{film|4}}, but was ultimately unused in that [[Star Trek films|film]]. ''{{st-minutiae|resources/scripts/tvh.txt}}''<br /> <br /> According to ''[[Star Trek: Star Charts]]'' (pp. 52, 59, &quot;United Federation of Planets I&quot;), Rigel V, also known as Beta Rigel V, was an [[Star Trek: Star Charts#Planetary classification|M-class]] planet. The planet was a member planet of both the {{mb|United Rigel Colonies}} and the [[United Federation of Planets]]. Rigel IV was admitted, along with the United Rigel Colonies, to the Federation in [[2202]].<br /> <br /> === Apocrypha ===<br /> According to ''[[The Worlds of the Federation]]'' (p. 36), Rigel V became a [[Federation members|Federation member]] in [[2184]].<br /> <br /> The novel [[Tower of Babel (novel)|''Tower of Babel'']] depicted Rigel V as the home of the Jelna, the [[Rigelian]]s seen in ''Star Trek: Enterprise''. They were the first species in their system to achieve spaceflight and made contact with their neighbors, the Zami of [[Rigel IV]] and the [[Rigellian|Chelons]] of [[Rigel III]]. Together, all three native species as well as extrasolar immigrants formed the system-spanning United Rigel Worlds and Colonies, which were admitted into the Federation in 2164.<br /> <br /> === External link ===<br /> * {{mbeta}}<br /> <br /> [[de:Rigel V]]<br /> [[es:Rigel V]]<br /> [[ja:ベータ・ライジェル5号星]]<br /> [[nl:Rigel V]]<br /> [[pl:Rigel V]]<br /> [[Category:Planets|Rigel 05]]</div> 2023-07-11T08:51:43Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Mount_St._Joseph_(Peterborough,_Ontario)&diff=1164533696 Talk:Mount St. Joseph (Peterborough, Ontario) <p>Lucamauri: /* Page move */ new section</p> <hr /> <div>{{WikiProject Canada |class=C |importance=Low}}<br /> <br /> == Page move ==<br /> <br /> Since the location now has a new name, as explained in the first sentence of the article, I propose to move the page to &quot;''The Mount Community Centre''&quot;. [[User:Lucamauri|Luca Mauri]] ([[User talk:Lucamauri|talk]]) 17:27, 9 July 2023 (UTC)</div> 2023-07-09T17:27:34Z 2023-07-09T17:27:34Z Lucamauri https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Mount_St._Joseph_(Peterborough,_Ontario) //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tellarites&diff=1162071156 Tellarites <p>Lucamauri: Anchor on the page</p> <hr /> <div>#REDIRECT [[List of Star Trek aliens#Tellarite]]<br /> <br /> {{Redirect category shell|1=<br /> {{R from plural}}<br /> }}<br /> <br /> [[Category:Star Trek species]]</div> 2023-06-26T20:48:54Z 2023-06-26T20:48:54Z Lucamauri https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Tellarites //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Volkswagen_Phaeton&diff=133684003 Volkswagen Phaeton <p>Lucamauri: Disambigua</p> <hr /> <div>{{Auto<br /> |nome = Volkswagen Phaeton<br /> |immagine = VW Phaeton 3.0 V6 front.JPG<br /> |didascalia = <br /> |bandiera = DEU<br /> |costruttore = Volkswagen<br /> |tipo = Berlina<br /> |inizio_produzione = 2002<br /> |antenata = <br /> |fine_produzione = 2016<br /> |stelleEU = <br /> |stelleEUanno = &lt;!-- Sezione dimensioni e pesi --&gt;<br /> |lunghezza = da 5060 a 5180<br /> |larghezza = 1902<br /> |altezza = 1450<br /> |passo = da 2881 a 3001<br /> |peso = da 1995 a 2598<br /> &lt;!-- Sezione altro --&gt;|altre_versioni = <br /> |assemblaggio = [[Dresda]]<br /> |progetto = <br /> |design = <br /> |design2 = <br /> |altre_antenate = <br /> |altre_eredi = <br /> |famiglia = [[Audi A8]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Bentley Continental Flying Spur (2005)|Bentley Continental Flying Spur]] <br /> |concorrenti = [[BMW Serie 7]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Jaguar XJ]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Lexus LS]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Maserati Quattroporte]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Mercedes-Benz Classe S]]<br /> |esemplari = 84.235&lt;ref name=&quot;produzione&quot; /&gt;<br /> |note = <br /> |immagine2 = VW Phaeton 3.0 V6 rear.JPG<br /> |didascalia2 = <br /> }}<br /> La '''Volkswagen ''Phaeton''''' è una [[berlina]] di [[lusso]] presentata dalla [[Volkswagen]] nel [[2002]] e rimasta in produzione sino al [[2016]]. Era il modello di punta della [[casa automobilistica]] [[Germania|tedesca]]. Unica vettura del marchio ad aver occupato il blasonato [[segmento F]], quello delle luxury cars.<br /> <br /> ==Il contesto==<br /> {{dx|[[File:VW Phaeton 3.0 TDI 4Motion Tarantellaschwarz Interieur.JPG|thumb|left|Interno di una Phaeton]]}}<br /> La ''Phaeton'' era costruita sulla base dell'[[Audi A8]], ma si differenziava da quest'ultima per alcuni dettagli (ad esempio non era dotata del [[telaio (meccanica)|telaio]] in [[alluminio]] che invece equipaggia l'[[Audi]]). Condivideva alcuni particolari con la [[Bentley Continental GT]].<br /> <br /> Nel settembre [[2007]] la vettura fu oggetto di un leggero [[restyling (auto)|restyling]] al frontale e dotata del nuovo [[motore diesel|diesel]] 3.0 TDI da 233 [[cavallo vapore|CV]] già predisposto per rispettare la normativa antinquinamento [[Euro V|Euro 5]]. L'ultimo [[restyling (auto)|restyling]] di questo modello è stato effettuato nell'agosto del [[2010]].<br /> <br /> Verso la fine degli [[anni 1990|anni novanta]] [[Ferdinand Piëch]], allora capo della Volkswagen, consegnò agli [[ingegnere|ingegneri]] una lista di 10 parametri tecnici che la vettura avrebbe dovuto rispettare. Nonostante molti pareri contrastanti che ritenevano il progetto rischioso, si decise di produrre lo stesso la nuova ammiraglia. Per il solo assemblaggio della ''Phaeton'' fu costruita una nuova fabbrica chiamata Glaserne Manufaktur situata a [[Dresda]] &lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|lingua=de|url=https://www.volkswagen-media-services.com/detailpage/-/detail/Glserne-Manufaktur-wird-neu-ausgerichtet-Schaufenster-fr-Elektromobilitt-und-Digitalisierung-entsteht/view/3297765/7a5bbec13158edd433c6630f5ac445da?p_p_auth=q4GEhg09|titolo=Gläserne Manufaktur wird neu ausgerichtet: Schaufenster für Elektromobilität und Digitalisierung entsteht|data=18 marzo 2016|accesso=27 dicembre 2016|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20160329175633/https://www.volkswagen-media-services.com/detailpage/-/detail/Glserne-Manufaktur-wird-neu-ausgerichtet-Schaufenster-fr-Elektromobilitt-und-Digitalisierung-entsteht/view/3297765/7a5bbec13158edd433c6630f5ac445da?p_p_auth=q4GEhg09|dataarchivio=29 marzo 2016|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> {{dx|[[File:VW Phaton (2. Facelift) – Frontansicht, 7. Mai 2011, Düsseldorf.jpg|miniatura|284x284px|Restyling 2010]]}}<br /> A causa dei bassi volumi di vendita, la ''Phaeton'' è stata una perdita per la [[Volkswagen]]&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url = http://www.autoblog.it/post/280321/la-smart-di-prima-generazione-e-lauto-che-ha-generato-maggiori-perdite-economiche|titolo = La classifica delle automobili più in perdita mai realizzate.|data = 30 settembre 2013|accesso = 27 dicembre 2016|dataarchivio = 9 maggio 2017|urlarchivio = https://web.archive.org/web/20170509203108/http://www.autoblog.it/post/280321/la-smart-di-prima-generazione-e-lauto-che-ha-generato-maggiori-perdite-economiche|urlmorto = sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Il 18 marzo 2016 viene prodotto l'ultimo esemplare, il numero 84.235 presso lo stabilimento di Dresda&lt;ref name=&quot;produzione&quot;&gt;{{Cita web |url=http://www.faz.net/aktuell/technik-motor/auto-verkehr/vws-luxuslimousine-phaeton-findet-wenige-abnehmer-14135061.html |titolo=Das gescheiterte Luxusprojekt von VW |data=20 marzo 2016 |lingua=de |accesso=27 dicembre 2016}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> == Gamma ==<br /> La gamma della ''Phaeton'' era fino ad inizio [[2011]] composta da quattro [[Motore a combustione interna|motorizzazioni]], tutte abbinate esclusivamente alla [[trazione integrale]] ''4Motion'':<br /> *3.2 [[Motore V6|V6]] [[Motore a benzina|a benzina]] da 241CV<br /> *3.6 V6 a benzina da 280 CV<br /> *4.2 [[Motore V8|V8]] a benzina da 335&amp;nbsp;CV<br /> *6.0 [[Motore a W|W12]] a benzina da 450&amp;nbsp;CV<br /> *3.0 V6 TDI diesel da 239&amp;nbsp;CV<br /> *5.0 V10 TDI diesel da 313&amp;nbsp;CV<br /> <br /> Sono presenti due allestimenti: a 5 o a 4 posti (quest'ultima variante è la più costosa).<br /> <br /> == Motorizzazioni ==<br /> {|class=&quot;wikitable&quot; style=&quot;text-align:center; font-size:90%; background-color:#ffffff &quot;<br /> |-style=&quot;background:#DCDCDC; font-weight: bold&quot;<br /> | Modello<br /> | Disponibilità<br /> | Motore<br /> | Cilindrata&lt;br /&gt;(cm³)<br /> | Potenza<br /> | Coppia max&lt;br /&gt;(Nm)<br /> | Emissioni [[anidride carbonica|CO&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;]]&lt;br /&gt;(g/km)<br /> | 0–100&amp;nbsp;km/h&lt;br /&gt;(secondi)<br /> | Velocità max&lt;br /&gt;(km/h)<br /> | Consumo medio&lt;br /&gt;(km/L)<br /> |-<br /> |'''3.2 V6'''||dall'esordio al 2008||[[Benzina]] ||3189||177 kW (241 CV)||315||290||12,2||239||7,7<br /> |-<br /> |'''3.6 V6'''||dal 2008 al 2009|| [[Benzina]] ||3597||206 kW (280 CV)||370||273||8,9||250||7,9<br /> |-<br /> |'''4.2 V8'''||dal 2003 al 2011|| [[Benzina]] ||4172||246 kW (335 CV)||430||298||6,9||250||7,2<br /> |-<br /> |'''6.0 W12'''||dall'esordio al 2005||[[Benzina]] ||5998||308 kW (420 CV)||550||374||6,1||250||5,9<br /> |-<br /> |'''6.0 W12/450 CV'''||dal 2005 al 2010|| [[Benzina]] ||5998||331 kW (450 CV)||580||348||6,1||250||6,4<br /> |-<br /> |'''3.0 V6 TDI DPF'''||dal 2004 al 2007|| [[Motore Diesel|Diesel]] ||2967||165 kW (224 CV)||450||259||8,8||234||9,9<br /> |-<br /> |'''3.0 V6 TDI/235 CV DPF'''||dal 2007 al 2008|| [[Motore Diesel|Diesel]] ||2967||171 kW (233 CV)||450||260||9,0||235||9,9<br /> |-<br /> |'''3.0 V6 TDI/240 CV DPF'''||dal 2008|| [[Motore Diesel|Diesel]] ||2967||176 kW (239 CV)||500||224||8,3||237||11,2<br /> |-<br /> |'''5.0 V10 TDI'''||dal 2003 al 2007|| [[Motore Diesel|Diesel]] ||4921||230 kW (313 CV)||750||308||6,9||250||8,2<br /> |-<br /> |}<br /> &lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.automoto.it/catalogo/volkswagen/phaeton/phaeton--2002-15|titolo= Volkswagen Phaeton (2002-15)|accesso=27 dicembre 2016}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references/&gt;<br /> <br /> ==Altri progetti==<br /> {{interprogetto}}<br /> <br /> {{Volkswagen}}<br /> {{Portale|automobili}}<br /> <br /> [[Categoria:Automobili Volkswagen|Phaeton]]</div> 2023-05-26T13:49:34Z 2023-05-26T13:49:34Z Lucamauri https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discussione:Volkswagen_Phaeton //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_nuclear_power_stations&diff=1152143131 List of nuclear power stations <p>Lucamauri: /* In service */ Format</p> <hr /> <div>{{Short description|none}}<br /> {{see also|List of commercial nuclear reactors}}<br /> {{GeoGroup}}<br /> The following page lists operating '''[[nuclear power station]]s'''. The list is based on figures from PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) maintained by [[International Atomic Energy Agency]].&lt;ref name=pris&gt;[https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryStatisticsLandingPage.aspx ''Country Statistics''] PRIS Power Reactor Information System&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == In service ==<br /> This table lists all currently operational power stations. Some of these may have reactors under construction, but only current net capacity is listed. Capacity of permanently shut-down reactors is not included, but capacity of long-term shut-down reactors (today mainly in Japan) is included.<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;sortable wikitable&quot;<br /> |-<br /> ! Power station !! # units&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;Units in service only&lt;/ref&gt; !! Net capacity&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;Reference Unit Power&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;br&gt;([[MWe]]) !! Country or Territory !! [[Geographic coordinate system|Location]] !! {{Tooltip|Refs|References}}<br /> |-<br /> |''[[Akademik Lomonosov]]''<br /> |2<br /> |64<br /> |{{Flag|Russia}}<br /> |{{Coord|69.7097|170.3061|format=dms|name=Akademik Lomonosov}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> |''[[Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant|Akkuyu]]''<br /> |4<br /> |{{nts|3,200}}<br /> |{{Flag|Turkey}}<br /> |{{Coord|36|08|40|N|33|32|28|E|format=dms|name=Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant|Almaraz]] || 2 || {{nts|2017}} || {{Flag|Spain}} || {{Coord|39|48|29|N|05|41|49|W|name=Almaraz Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Angra Nuclear Power Plant|Angra]] || 2 || {{nts|1884}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1,245 MW reactor under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Brazil}} || {{Coord|23|00|30|S|44|28|26|W|name=Angra Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Arkansas Nuclear One|ANO]] || 2 || {{nts|1839}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|35|18|37|N|93|13|53|W|name=Arkansas Nuclear One}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Ascó Nuclear Power Plant|Ascó]] || 2 || {{nts|1992}} || {{Flag|Spain}} || {{Coord|41|12|00|N|00|34|10|E|name=Ascó Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant|Atucha]] || 2 || {{nts|1033}}|| {{Flag|Argentina}} || {{Coord|33|58|3|S|59|12|18|W|name=Atucha Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant|Balakovo]] || 4 || {{nts|3800}} || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|52|05|28|N|47|57|19|E|name=Balakovo Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Barakah nuclear power plant|Barakah]] || 2 || {{nts|2690}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;Another 2 reactors with 2,690 MW total under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|UAE}} || {{Coord|23|59|6|N|52|17|1|E|name=Braka Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Beaver Valley Nuclear Generating Station|Beaver Valley]] || 2 || {{nts|1738}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|40|37|24|N|80|25|50|W|name=Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Belarusian nuclear power plant project|Belarusian]] || 1 || {{nts|1110}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactors with 1,110 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; ||{{Flag|Belarus}} || {{Coord|54|45|43|N|26|7|12|E|name=Belarusian Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title=BELARUSIAN-1|url=https://pris.iaea.org/pris/CountryStatistics/ReactorDetails.aspx?current=1056|access-date=2020-11-07|website=pris.iaea.org|publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title=BELARUSIAN-2|url=https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/ReactorDetails.aspx?current=1061|access-date=2020-11-07|website=pris.iaea.org|publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Belleville Nuclear Power Plant|Belleville]] || 2 || {{nts|2620}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|47|30|35|N|02|52|30|E|name=Belleville Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;&amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station|Beloyarsk]] || 2 || {{nts|1597}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 248 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|56|50|30|N|61|19|21|E|name=Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station}} ||<br /> |-<br /> |[[Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant|Bilibino]]<br /> |3<br /> | {{nts|33}} <br /> |{{Flag|Russia}}<br /> |{{coord|68|3|1|N|166|32|19|E|region:RU-CHU_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Blayais Nuclear Power Plant|Blayais]] || 4 || {{nts|3640}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|45|15|21|N|00|41|35|W|name=Blayais Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant|Bohunice]]<br /> |2<br /> |{{nts|943}} &lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;3 reactors are permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; <br /> |{{Flag|Slovakia}}<br /> |{{coord|48|29|40|N|17|40|55|E|type:landmark_scale:15000_region:SK}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> |[[Borssele Nuclear Power Station|Borssele]]<br /> |1<br /> |{{nts|482}} <br /> |{{Flag|Netherlands}}<br /> |{{coord|51|25|51|N|3|43|06|E|region:NL-ZE_type:landmark_source:dewiki}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Braidwood Nuclear Generating Station|Braidwood]] || 2 || {{nts|2330}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|14|37|N|88|13|45|W|name=Braidwood Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant|Browns Ferry]] || 3 || {{nts|3300}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|34|42|14|N|87|07|07|W|name=Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Bruce Nuclear Generating Station|Bruce]] || 8 || {{nts|6600}}|| {{Flag|Canada}} || {{Coord|44|19|31|N|81|35|58|W|name=Bruce Nuclear Generating Station}} ||&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|url=https://www.brucepower.com/2021/10/14/bruce-power-announces-increased-power-output-and-isotope-harvest-milestones-as-a-part-of-made-in-ontario-economic-recovery-plan/|title = Bruce Power announces increased power output and isotope harvest milestones as a part of 'Made in Ontario' economic recovery plan – Bruce Power| date=14 October 2021 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=Bruce&gt;[http://www.brucepower.com/6926/news/bruce-power%E2%80%99s-unit-2-sends-electricity-to-ontario-grid-for-first-time-in-17-years/ Bruce the largest nuclear generating facility in the world] {{webarchive|url=https://archive.today/20130102114510/http://www.brucepower.com/6926/news/bruce-power%E2%80%99s-unit-2-sends-electricity-to-ontario-grid-for-first-time-in-17-years/ |date=2013-01-02 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|url=https://www.brucepower.com/bruce-power-increases-output-though-innovation-and-efficiency/|title=Bruce Power increases output though innovation and efficiency|publisher=Bruce Power|access-date=30 November 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Brunswick Nuclear Generating Station|Brunswick]] || 2 || {{nts|1858}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|33|57|30|N|78|0|37|W|name=Brunswick Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Bugey Nuclear Power Plant|Bugey]] || 4 || {{nts|3580}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;540 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|45|48|00|N|05|16|15|E|name=Bugey Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot;&gt;{{cite web | url=http://www.industcards.com/nuclear-france.htm | title=Nuclear Power Plants in France | publisher=Power Plants Around The World | work=Gallery | date=1 February 2012 | access-date=28 February 2014 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140218222851/http://www.industcards.com/nuclear-france.htm | archive-date=18 February 2014 | url-status=live }}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |- <br /> | [[Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant|Bushehr]] || 1 || {{nts|915}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;one reactor with 974 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Iran}} || {{Coord|28|49|47|N|50|53|10|E|name=Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant}} || <br /> |-<br /> | [[Byron Nuclear Generating Station|Byron]] || 2 || {{nts|2300}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|42|4|27|N|89|16|55|W|name=Byron Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Callaway Plant|Callaway]] || 1 || {{nts|1190}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|38|45|42|N|91|46|48|W|name=Callaway Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant|Calvert Cliffs]] || 2 || {{nts|1735}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|38|25|55|N|76|26|32|W|name=Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Catawba Nuclear Station|Catawba]] || 2 || {{nts|2258}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|35|3|6|N|81|4|12|W|name=Catawba Nuclear Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant|Cattenom]] || 4 || {{nts|5200}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|49|24|57|N|06|13|05|E|name=Cattenom Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant|Cernavodă]] || 2 || {{nts|1300}} || {{Flag|Romania}} || {{Coord|44|19|20|N|28|03|26|E|name=Cernavoda Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Changjiang Nuclear Power Plant|Changjiang]] || 2 || {{nts|1220}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;one reactor with 610 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|19|27|37|N|108|54|0|E|name=Changjiang Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;&gt;{{cite web|title=Nuclear Power Reactors in China|publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)|url=http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=CN|access-date=15 July 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151118105202/https://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=CN|archive-date=18 November 2015|url-status=live}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Chashma Nuclear Power Plant|Chashma]] || 4 || {{nts|1230}} || {{Flag|Pakistan}} || {{Coord|32|23|25|N|71|27|45|E|name=Chashma Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Chinon Nuclear Power Plant|Chinon]] || 4 || {{nts|3620}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;3 reactors with 610 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|47|13|50|N|00|10|14|E|name=Chinon Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Chooz Nuclear Power Plant|Chooz]] || 2 || {{nts|3000}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;305 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|50|05|24|N|04|47|22|E|name=Chooz Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Civaux Nuclear Power Plant|Civaux]] || 2 || {{nts|2990}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|46|27|24|N|00|39|10|E|name=Civaux Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Clinton Nuclear Generating Station|Clinton]] || 1 || {{nts|1043}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|40|10|20|N|88|50|06|W|name=Clinton Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant|Cofrentes]] || 1 || {{nts|1064}} || {{Flag|Spain}} || {{Coord|39|13|00|N|01|03|00|W|name=Cofrentes Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Columbia Generating Station|Columbia]] || 1 || {{nts|1107}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|46|28|16|N|119|20|02|W|name=Columbia Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Comanche Peak Nuclear Generating Station|Comanche Peak]] || 2 || {{nts|2367}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|32|17|54|N|97|47|06|W|name=Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Cooper Nuclear Station|Cooper]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|770}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|40|21|43|N|95|38|29|W|region:US-NE_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Cruas Nuclear Power Plant|Cruas]] || 4 || {{nts|3660}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|44|37|59|N|04|45|24|E|name=Cruas Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Dampierre Nuclear Power Plant|Dampierre]] || 4 || {{nts|3560}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|47|43|59|N|02|31|00|E|name=Dampierre Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Darlington Nuclear Generating Station|Darlington]] || 4 || {{nts|3512}} || {{Flag|Canada}} || {{Coord|43|52|22|N|78|43|11|W|name=Darlington Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station|Davis-Besse]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|965}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|41|35|48|N|83|5|11|W|region:US-OH_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant|Daya Bay]] || 2 || {{nts|1888}} || {{Flag|China}}|| {{Coord|22|35|52|N|114|32|37|E|name=Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearChina&quot;&gt;{{cite web | url=http://www.industcards.com/nuclear-china.htm | title=Nuclear Power Plants in China | publisher=Power Plants Around The World | work=Gallery | date=11 January 2014 | access-date=28 February 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Diablo Canyon Power Plant|Diablo Canyon]] || 2 || {{nts|2240}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|35|12|39|N|120|51|22|W|name=Diablo Canyon Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Doel Nuclear Power Station|Doel]] || 4 || {{nts|2911}} || {{Flag|Belgium}} || {{Coord|51|19|29|N|04|15|31|E|name=Doel Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Donald C. Cook Nuclear Generating Station|Donald C. Cook]] || 2 || {{nts|2069}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|58|31|N|86|33|57|W|name=Donald Cook Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Dresden Nuclear Power Plant|Dresden]] || 2 || {{nts|1734}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;197 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|23|23|N|88|16|5|W|name=Dresden Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Dukovany Nuclear Power Station|Dukovany]] || 4 || {{nts|1878}}|| {{Flag|Czech Republic}} || {{Coord|49|05|06|N|16|08|56|E|name=Dukovany Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Power Plant|Edwin I. Hatch]] || 2 || {{nts|1759}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|31|56|03|N|82|20|38|W|name=Edwin Hatch Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Embalse nuclear power plant|Embalse]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|600}} <br /> |{{Flag|Argentina}}<br /> |{{coord|32.232|S|64.443|W|region:AR_source:dewiki}}<br /> |&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title=BNamericas - The Embalse Nuclear Power Plant returns to s...|url=https://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/the-embalse-nuclear-power-plant-returns-to-service-for-a-new-cycle-of-30-years|website=BNamericas.com}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station|Fermi]] || 1 || {{nts|1122}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;61 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|57|46|N|83|15|27|W|name=Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Plant|Fangchenggang]] || 2 || {{nts|2000}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with total 2000 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|21|40|00|N|108|33|47|E|name=Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Fangjiashan Nuclear Power Plant|Fangjiashan]]|| 2 || {{nts|2000}} || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|30|26|29|N|120|56|30|E|name=Fangjiashan Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant|Flamanville]] || 2 || {{nts|2660}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1600 MW reactor under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|49|32|11|N|01|52|54|W|name=Flamanville Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant|Forsmark]] || 3 || {{nts|3138}} || {{Flag|Sweden}} || {{Coord|60|24|12|N|18|10|00|E|name=Forsmark Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant|Fuqing]] || 6 || {{nts|6120}}|| {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|25|26|39|N|119|26|46|E|name=Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Genkai Nuclear Power Plant|Genkai]] || 2 || {{nts|2254}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 1,058 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|33|30|56|N|129|50|14|E|name=Genkai Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;Genkai Nuclear Power Plant &quot;&gt;{{cite web | url=http://globalenergyobservatory.org/form.php?pid=3292 | publisher=Global Energy Observatory | title=Genkai Nuclear Power Plant | access-date=28 February 2014 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140228134752/http://globalenergyobservatory.org/form.php?pid=3292 | archive-date=28 February 2014 | url-status=live }}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Ginna nuclear power plant|Ginna]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|610}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|43|16|40|N|77|18|36|W|region:US-NY_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |- <br /> | [[Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant|Gösgen]] || 1 || {{nts|1010}} || {{Flag|Switzerland}} || {{Coord|47|21|57|N|07|58|00|E|name=Goesgen Nuclear Power Station}} || <br /> |-<br /> | [[Golfech Nuclear Power Plant|Golfech]] || 2 || {{nts|2620}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|44|06|24|N|00|50|43|E|name=Golfech Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Grand Gulf Nuclear Generating Station|Grand Gulf]] || 1 || {{nts|1419}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|32|0|24|N|91|2|54|W|name=Grand Gulf Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant|Gravelines]] || 6 || {{nts|5460}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{coord|51|00|55|N|02|08|10|E|name=Gravelines Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant|Haiyang]] || 1 || {{nts|1000}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactors with 1,000 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|36|42|33|N|121|22|54|E|name=Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant|Hamaoka]] || 3 || {{nts|3473}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 1,321 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|34|37|25|N|138|08|33|E|name=Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Hanbit Nuclear Power Station|Hanbit]] || 6 || {{nts|5875}} || {{Flag|South Korea}} || {{Coord|35|24|54|N|126|25|26|E|name=Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=ko/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Hanul Nuclear Power Plant|Hanul]] || 7 || {{nts|7264}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactors with 1,340 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt;|| {{Flag|South Korea}} || {{Coord|37|5|34|N|129|23|1|E|name=Hanul Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=ko&gt;{{Cite web|title=Nuclear Power Reactors in South Korea|publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)|url=http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=KR|access-date=2014-03-09|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140303170138/http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=KR|archive-date=2014-03-03|url-status=live}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Hartlepool Nuclear Power Station|Hartlepool]] || 2 || {{nts|1190}} || {{Flag|United Kingdom}} || {{Coord|54|38|06|N|01|10|51|W|name=Hartlepool Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[H. B. Robinson Nuclear Generating Station|H. B. Robinson]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|735}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|34|24|10|N|80|9|30|W|region:US-SC_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Heysham nuclear power station|Heysham]] || 4 || {{nts|2400}} || {{Flag|United Kingdom}} || {{Coord|54|01|44|N|02|54|58|W|name=Heysham nuclear power station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Higashidōri Nuclear Power Plant|Higashidōri]] || 1 || {{nts|1067}} || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|41|11|17|N|141|23|25|E|name=Higashidōri Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant|Hongyanhe]]|| 6 || {{nts|6244}} || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|39|47|52|N|121|28|19|E|name=Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearChina&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station|Hope Creek]] || 1 || {{nts|1191}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|39|28|04|N|75|32|17|W|name=Hope Creek Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Ikata Nuclear Power Plant|Ikata]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|845}} <br /> |{{Flag|Japan}}<br /> |{{coord|33|29|27|N|132|18|41|E|region:JP_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> |[[James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant|James A. FitzPatrick]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|838}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|43|31.4|N|76|23.9|W|type:landmark_region:US-NY}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Generating Station|Joseph M. Farley]] || 2 || {{nts|1711}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|31|13|23|N|85|06|42|W|name=Joseph Farley Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant|Kalinin]] || 4 || {{nts|3800}} || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|57|54|20|N|35|03|37|E|name=Kalinin Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Kaiga Atomic Power Station|Kaiga]]<br /> |4<br /> | {{nts|808}} <br /> |{{Flag|India}}<br /> |{{coord|14|51|55|N|74|26|22|E|region:IN_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kakrapar Atomic Power Station|Kakrapar]] || 3 || {{nts|1034}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;630 MW reactor under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|India}} || {{Coord|21|14|19|N|73|21|00|E|name=Kakrapar Atomic Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Karachi Nuclear Power Complex|Karachi]] || 2 || {{nts|2028}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;90 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Pakistan}} || {{Coord|24|50|49.8|N|66|47|17.7|E|name=Karachi Nuclear Power Complex}} || &lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web |title=Karachi 3 begins supplying electricity |url=https://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Karachi-3-begins-supplying-electricity |access-date=2022-03-25 |website=www.world-nuclear-news.org}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant|Kashiwazaki-Kariwa]] || 7 || {{nts|7965}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;All reactors shut down since 2011&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|37|25|45|N|138|35|43|E|name=Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot;&gt;{{cite web | url=http://www.industcards.com/nuclear-japan.htm | title=Nuclear Power Plants in Japan | publisher=Power Plants Around The World | work=Gallery | date=12 February 2014 | access-date=28 February 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web | url=http://globalenergyobservatory.org/form.php?pid=3806 | title=Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant | publisher=Global Energy Observatory | access-date=28 February 2014 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140228134755/http://globalenergyobservatory.org/form.php?pid=3806 | archive-date=28 February 2014 | url-status=live }}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Khmelnytskyi Nuclear Power Plant|Khmelnytskyi]] || 2 || {{nts|1900}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;Another 1,900 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Ukraine}} || {{Coord|50|18|5|N|26|38|59|E|name=Khmelnytskyi Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Koeberg Nuclear Power Station|Koeberg]] || 2 || {{nts|1830}} || {{Flag|South Africa}} || {{Coord|33|40|35|S|18|25|55|E|name=Koeberg Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kola Nuclear Power Plant|Kola]] || 4 || {{nts|1644}} || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|67|28|00|N|32|28|00|E|name=Kola Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kori Nuclear Power Plant|Kori]] || 7 ||{{nts|7489}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;576 MW reactor permanently shut down; 2 reactors with total 2,680 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt;||{{Flag|South Korea}} || {{Coord|35|19|01|N|129|18|00|E|name=Kori Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant|Kozloduy]] || 2 || {{nts|2006}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;4 reactors with 1,632 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Bulgaria}} || {{Coord|43|44|46|N|23|46|14|E|name=Kozloduy Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Krško Nuclear Power Plant|Krško]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|688}} <br /> |{{Flag|Slovenia}}<br /> |{{coord|45|56|18|N|15|30|56|E|region:SI_type:landmark_source:dewiki}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant|Kuosheng]] || 1 || {{nts|985}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactor with 985 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Taiwan}} || {{Coord|25|12|11|N|121|39|46|E|name=Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=tai/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant|Kudankulam]] || 2 || {{nts|1834}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;917 MW reactor under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|India}} || {{Coord|8|10|06|N|77|42|45|E|name=Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Kursk Nuclear Power Plant|Kursk]] || 3 || {{nts|2775}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactor with 925 MW permanently shut down. 2 reactors with total 2,230 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt;||{{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|51|40|30|N|35|36|20|E|name=Kursk Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station|Laguna Verde]] || 2 || {{nts|1300}} || {{Flag|Mexico}} || {{Coord|19|43|15|N|96|24|23|W|name=Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station|LaSalle]] || 2 || {{nts|2238}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|14|44|N|88|40|9|W|name=LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant|Leibstadt]] || 1 || {{nts|1190}} || {{Flag|Switzerland}} || {{Coord|47|36|11|N|08|11|05|E|name=Leibstadt Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant|Leningrad]] || 2 || {{nts|1850}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with total 1,850 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|59|50|50|N|29|02|37|E|name=Leningrad Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant II|Leningrad II]] || 2 || {{nts|2167}} || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|59|49|50|N|29|3|26|E|name=Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant II}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Limerick Nuclear Power Plant|Limerick]] || 2 || {{nts|2264}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|40|13|36|N|75|35|14|W|name=Limerick Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plant|Ling Ao]] || 4 || {{nts|3876}} ||{{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|22|36|17|N|114|33|5|E|name=Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearChina&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant|Loviisa]] || 2 || {{nts|1014}} || {{Flag|Finland}} || {{Coord|60|22|20|N|26|20|50|E|name=Loviisa Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[McGuire Nuclear Station|McGuire]] || 2 || {{nts|2200}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|35|25|57|N|80|56|54|W|name=McGuire Nuclear Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant|Maanshan]] || 2 || {{nts|1841}} || {{Flag|Taiwan}} || {{Coord|21|57|29|N|120|45|6|E|name=Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=tai/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Madras Atomic Power Station|Madras]]<br /> |2<br /> | {{nts|410}}<br /> |{{Flag|India}}<br /> |{{coord|12|33|27|N|80|10|30|E|region:IN_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> |[[Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant|Metsamor]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|448}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;376 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |{{Flag|Armenia}}<br /> |{{coord|40|10|51|N|44|8|56|E|type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> |[[Mihama Nuclear Power Plant|Mihama]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|780}} <br /> |{{Flag|Japan}}<br /> |{{coord|35|42|12|N|135|57|48|E|type:landmark_region:JP}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Millstone Nuclear Power Plant|Millstone]] || 3 || {{nts|2102}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;641 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|18|43|N|72|10|07|W|name=Millstone Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant|Monticello]] || 1 || {{nts|647}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|45|20|1|N|93|50|57|W|name=Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant|Mochovce]]<br /> | 2<br /> | {{nts|905}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with total 880 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; <br /> |{{Flag|Slovakia}}<br /> |{{coord|48|15|50|N|18|27|25|E|type:landmark_region:SK}} <br /> |<br /> |-<br /> |[[Narora Atomic Power Station|Narora]]<br /> |2<br /> | {{nts|404}} <br /> |{{Flag|India}}<br /> |{{coord|28|09|29|N|78|24|34|E|region:IN_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station|Nine Mile Point]] || 2 || {{nts|1764}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|43|31|15|N|76|24|25|W|name=Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Ningde Nuclear Power Plant|Ningde]] || 4 || {{nts|4072}} || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|27|02|46|N|120|17|18|E|name=Ningde Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearChina&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Nogent Nuclear Power Plant|Nogent]] || 2 || {{nts|2620}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|48|30|55|N|03|31|04|E|name=Nogent Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[North Anna Nuclear Generating Station|North Anna]] || 2 || {{nts|1875}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|38|03|38|N|77|47|22|W|name=North Anna Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant|Novovoronezh I]] || 3 || {{nts|1720}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 533 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|51|16|30|N|39|12|00|E|name=Novovoronezhskaya Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II|Novovoronezh II]] || 2 ||{{nts|2228}}||{{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|59|49|50|N|29|3|26|E|name=Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Oconee Nuclear Generating Station|Oconee]] || 3 || {{nts|2538}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|34|47|38|N|82|53|53|W|name=Oconee Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Ōi Nuclear Power Plant|Ōi]] || 2 || {{nts|2254}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 2,240 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|35|32|26|N|135|39|07|E|name=Ōi Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant|Olkiluoto]] || 3 || {{nts|3380}} || {{Flag|Finland}} || {{Coord|61|14|13|N|21|26|27|E|name=Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant|Onagawa]] || 2 || {{nts|1592}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactor with 498 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|38|24|04|N|141|29|59|E|name=Onagawa Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant|Oskarshamn]] || 1 || {{nts|1400}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;638 MW and 473 MW reactors permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Sweden}} || {{Coord|57|24|56|N|16|40|16|E|name=Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Paks Nuclear Power Plant|Paks]] || 4 || {{nts|1889}} || {{Flag|Hungary}} || {{Coord|46|34|21|N|18|51|15|E|name=Paks Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station|Palo Verde]] || 3 || {{nts|3942}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|33|23|21|N|112|51|54|W|name=Palo Verde Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Paluel Nuclear Power Plant|Paluel]] || 4 || {{nts|5320}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|49|51|29|N|00|38|08|E|name=Paluel Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Penly Nuclear Power Plant|Penly]] || 2 || {{nts|2660}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|49|58|36|N|01|12|43|E|name=Penly Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station|Peach Bottom]] || 2 || {{nts|2234}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;40 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|39|45|30|N|76|16|05|W|name=Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Perry Nuclear Generating Station|Perry]] || 1 || {{nts|1240}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|48|03|N|81|08|36|W|name=Perry Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Pickering Nuclear Generating Station|Pickering]] || 6 || {{nts|3094}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 1030 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Canada}} || {{Coord|43|48|42|N|79|03|57|W|name=Pickering Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Point Beach Nuclear Plant|Point Beach]] || 2 || {{nts|1182}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|44|16|52|N|87|32|12|W|name=Point Beach Nuclear Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station|Point Lepreau]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|635}} <br /> |{{Flag|Canada}}<br /> |{{coord|45|04|08|N|66|27|17|W|type:landmark_region:CA-NB}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant|Prairie Island]] || 2 || {{nts|1114}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|44|37|18|N|92|37|59|W|name=Prairie Island Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant|Qinshan]] || 7 || {{nts|4101}} || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|30|26|08|N|120|57|23|E|name=Qinshan Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearChina&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Quad Cities Nuclear Generating Station|Quad Cities]] || 2 || {{nts|1774}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|43|35|N|90|18|36|W|name=Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Rajasthan Atomic Power Station|Rajasthan]] || 6 || {{nts|1085}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;reactor with 630 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|India}} || {{Coord|24|52|20|N|75|36|50|E|name=Rajasthan Atomic Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant|Ringhals]] || 2 || {{nts|2189}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 1,733 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Sweden}} || {{Coord|57|15|35|N|12|06|39|E|name=Ringhals Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[River Bend Nuclear Generating Station|River Bend]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|967}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|30|45.4|N|91|20|W|type:landmark_region:US-LA}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Rivne Nuclear Power Plant|Rivne]] || 4 || {{nts|2645}} || {{Flag|Ukraine}} || {{Coord|51|19|40|N|25|53|30|E|name=Rivne Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Rostov Nuclear Power Plant|Rostov]] || 4 || {{nts|3922}} || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|47|35|58|N|42|22|19|E|name=Rostov Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Saint-Alban Nuclear Power Plant|Saint-Alban]] || 2 || {{nts|2670}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|45|24|16|N|04|45|16|E|name=Saint-Alban Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title=Nuclear Power Reactors in France|publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)|url=http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=FR|access-date=2014-03-09|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140329082322/http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=FR|archive-date=2014-03-29|url-status=live}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Plant|Saint-Laurent]] || 2 || {{nts|1830}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 855 MW permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|47|43|12|N|01|34|39|E|name=Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[St. Lucie Nuclear Power Plant|Saint Lucie]] || 2 || {{nts|1678}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|27|20|55|N|80|14|47|W|name=Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Salem Nuclear Power Plant|Salem]] || 2 || {{nts|2332}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|39|27|46|N|75|32|08|W|name=Salem Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Sanmen Nuclear Power Station|Sanmen]] || 2 || {{nts|2314}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactor with 1163 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt;|| {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|29|06|04|N|121|38|23|E|name=Sanmen}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant|Seabrook]] || 1 || {{nts|1247}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|42|53|56|N|70|51|03|W||name=Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Sendai Nuclear Power Plant|Sendai]] || 2 || {{nts|1692}} || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|31|50|01|N|130|11|23|E|name=Sendai Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot;&gt;{{cite web | url=http://www.industcards.com/nuclear-japan.htm | title=Nuclear Power Plants in Japan | publisher=Power Plants Around The World | work=Gallery | date=12 February 2014 | access-date=28 February 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Sequoyah Nuclear Generating Station|Sequoyah]] || 2 || {{nts|2278}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|35|13|35|N|85|05|30|W|name=Sequoyah Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant|Shearon Harris]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|964}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|35|38.0|N|78|57.3|W|region:US-NC_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> |[[Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Plant|Shidao Bay]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|200}} <br /> |{{Flag|China}}<br /> | {{WikidataCoord|Q14159771|display=}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Shika Nuclear Power Plant|Shika]] || 2 || {{nts|1613}} || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|37|03|40|N|136|43|35|E|name=Shika Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Shimane Nuclear Power Plant|Shimane]]|| 1 || {{nts|789}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;1 reactor with 439 MW permanently shut down, 1 reactor with 1,325 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; ||{{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|35|32|18|N|132|59|57|E|name=Shimane Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Sizewell nuclear power stations#Sizewell B|Sizewell-B]] || 1<br /> || {{nts|1188}} || {{Flag|United Kingdom}} || {{Coord|52|12|48|N|01|37|07|E|name=Sizewell-B Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Smolensk Nuclear Power Plant|Smolensk]] || 3<br /> || {{nts|2775}} || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|54|10|09|N|33|14|48|E|name=Smolensk Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[South Texas Nuclear Generating Station|South Texas]] || 2<br /> || {{nts|2560}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|28|47|44|N|96|02|56|W|name=South Texas Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[South Ukraine Nuclear Power Plant|South Ukraine]] || 3<br /> || {{nts|2850}} || {{Flag|Ukraine}} || {{Coord|47|49|00|N|31|13|00|E|name=South Ukraine Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Surry Nuclear Power Plant|Surry]] || 2 || {{nts|1638}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|37|09|56|N|76|41|52|W|name=Surry Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Susquehanna Steam Electric Station|Susquehanna]] || 2<br /> || {{nts|2429}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|05|20|N|76|08|56|W|name=Susquehanna Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Taishan Nuclear Power Plant|Taishan]] || 2 || {{nts|3320}} || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|21|54|34|N|112|58|45|E|name=Taishan}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Takahama Nuclear Power Plant|Takahama]] || 4<br /> || {{nts|3220}} || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|35|31|20|N|135|30|17|E|name=Takahama Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Tarapur Atomic Power Station|Tarapur]] || 4<br /> || {{nts|1280}} || {{Flag|India}} || {{Coord|19|49|40|N|72|39|40|E|name=Tarapur Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Temelín Nuclear Power Station|Temelín]] || 2<br /> || {{nts|2056}}|| {{Flag|Czech Republic}} || {{Coord|49|10|48|N|14|22|34|E|name=Temelin Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant|Tianwan]] || 6<br /> || {{nts|6070}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 2,342 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|34|41|13|N|119|27|35|E|name=Tianwan Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearChina&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Tihange Nuclear Power Station|Tihange]] || 3<br /> || {{nts|3016}} || {{Flag|Belgium}} || {{Coord|50|32|05|N|05|16|21|E|name=Tihange Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Tōkai Nuclear Power Plant|Tokai]] || 1<br /> || {{nts|1060}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;137 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|36|27|59|N|140|36|24|E|name=Tokai Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Tomari Nuclear Power Plant|Tomari]] || 3<br /> || {{nts|1966}} || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|43|02|10|N|140|30|45|E|name=Tomari Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Torness Nuclear Power Station|Torness]] || 2<br /> || {{nts|1205}} || {{Flag|United Kingdom}} || {{Coord|55|58|05|N|02|24|33|W|name=Torness Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Tricastin Nuclear Power Center|Tricastin]] || 4<br /> || {{nts|3660}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|44|19|47|N|04|43|56|E|name=Tricastin Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearFrance&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Trillo Nuclear Power Plant|Trillo]] || 1<br /> || {{nts|1003}} || {{Flag|Spain}} || {{Coord|40|42|04|N|02|37|19|W|name=Trillo Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant|Tsuruga]] || 1 || {{nts|1108}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;340 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|35|40|22|N|136|04|38|E|name=Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;IndustryCardsNuclearJapan&quot; /&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station|Turkey Point]] || 2<br /> || {{nts|1658}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|25|26|03|N|80|19|50|W|name=Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Vandellòs Nuclear Power Plant|Vandellòs]] || 1<br /> || {{nts|1045}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;480 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Spain}} || {{Coord|40|57|05|N|00|52|00|E|name=Vandellos Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |[[Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Generating Station|Virgil C. Summer]]<br /> |1<br /> | {{nts|973}} <br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> |{{coord|34|17|55|N|81|18|53|W|region:US-SC_type:landmark}}<br /> |<br /> |-<br /> | [[Vogtle Electric Generating Plant|Vogtle]] || 2<br /> || {{nts|2302}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;2 reactors with 2,234 MW under construction&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|33|08|35|N|81|45|57|W|name=Vogtle Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Waterford Nuclear Generating Station|Waterford]] || 1<br /> || {{nts|1168}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|29|59|43|N|90|28|16|W|name=Waterford Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station|Watts Bar]] || 2<br /> || {{nts|2288}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|35|36|10|N|84|47|22|W|name=Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Wolf Creek Generating Station|Wolf Creek]] || 1<br /> || {{nts|1160}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|38|14|20|N|95|41|20|W|name=Wolf Creek Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant|Wolseong]] || 5<br /> || {{nts|3835}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;661 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|South Korea}} || {{Coord|35|42|40|N|129|28|30|E|name=Wolseong Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Yangjiang Nuclear Power Plant|Yangjiang]] || 6 || {{nts|6000}} || {{Flag|China}} || {{Coord|21|42|35|N|112|15|38|E|name=Yangjiang Nuclear Power Plant}} || &lt;ref name=&quot;cn&quot;/&gt;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant|Zaporizhzhia]] || 6<br /> || {{nts|5,700}} || {{Flag|Ukraine}} || {{coord|47|30|44|N|34|35|09|E|name=Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Under construction ==<br /> [[File:Nuclear Power Plant Lungmen.jpg|thumb|The [[Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant]] under construction (now halted)]]<br /> This table lists stations under construction stations without any reactor in service. Planned connection column indicates the connection of the first reactor, not thus whole capacity.<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;sortable wikitable&quot;<br /> |-<br /> ! Power station !! No. of&lt;br&gt;units !! Net capacity&lt;br&gt;under construction&lt;br&gt;([[Megawatt|MW]]) !! Construction&lt;br&gt;start !! Planned&lt;br&gt;connection !! Country !! [[Geographic coordinate system|Location]]<br /> |-<br /> | [[Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant|Akkuyu]] || 4 || {{nts|4456}} || 2015 || 2023 || {{Flag|Turkey}} || {{Coord|36|08|40|N|33|32|28|E|name=Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[El Dabaa Nuclear Power Plant|El Dabaa]] || 1 || {{nts|1194}} || 2022 || 2026 || {{Flag|Egypt}} || {{WikidataCoord|Q30083718|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> |[[Hinkley Point C nuclear power station|Hinkley Point C]]<br /> |2<br /> |{{nts|3300}}<br /> |2018<br /> |2027<br /> |{{Flag|United Kingdom}}<br /> | {{Coord|51|12|22|N|3|8|38|W|name=Hinkley Point C Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> &lt;!-- |-<br /> | [[Hanhikivi Nuclear Power Plant|Hanhikivi]] || 4 || {{nts|1200}} || 2016 || 2024 || {{Flag|Finland}} || {{Coord|64|31|40|N|24|15|56|E|name=Hanhikivi Nuclear Power Plant}} --&gt;<br /> &lt;!-- on-hold |-<br /> | [[Kaliningrad Nuclear Power Plant|Kaliningrad]] || {{nts|1082}} || 2012 || 2017 || {{Flag|Russia}} || {{Coord|54|56|20|N|22|09|40|E|name=Kaliningrad Nuclear Power Plant}} --&gt;<br /> &lt;!-- on-hold |-<br /> | [[Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant|Lungmen]] || 2 || {{nts|2600}} || 1999 || 2014 || {{Flag|Taiwan}} || {{Coord|25|02|19|N|121|55|27|E|name=Lungmen Nuclear Power Station} --&gt; <br /> |-<br /> | [[Ōma Nuclear Power Plant|Ōma]] || 1 || {{nts|1325}} || 2010 || 2028 ||{{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|41|30|35|N|140|54|37|E|name=Ōma Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant|Rooppur]] || 2 || {{nts|2160}} || 2017 || 2023 || {{Flag|Bangladesh}} || {{Coord|24|4|0|N|89|2|50|E|name=Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> |[[San’ao Nuclear Power Plant|San’ao]]&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title=PRIS - Reactor Details|url=https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/ReactorDetails.aspx?current=1094|access-date=2022-01-11|website=pris.iaea.org}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title=PRIS - Reactor Details|url=https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/ReactorDetails.aspx?current=1107|access-date=2022-01-11|website=pris.iaea.org}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title=Zhejiang San'ao Nuclear Power Plant - NS Energy|url=https://www.nsenergybusiness.com/projects/zhejiang-sanao-nuclear-power-plant/|access-date=2022-01-11|language=en-US}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |2<br /> |2,234<br /> |2020<br /> |2026<br /> |{{Flag|China}}<br /> |{{WikidataCoord|Q109377736|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Xudabao Nuclear Power Plant|Xudabao]]<br /> | 2<br /> | {{nts|2400}}<br /> | 2021<br /> | 2028<br /> |{{Flag|China}}<br /> | {{WikidataCoord|Q28223974|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Vogtle Nuclear Generating Station|Vogtle]] (expansion)<br /> | 2<br /> | {{nts|2234}}<br /> | 2012<br /> | 2024<br /> |{{Flag|United States}}<br /> | {{WikidataCoord|Q28223974|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> |[[Zhangzhou Nuclear Power Plant|Zhangzhou]]<br /> |2<br /> |{{nts|2252}}<br /> |2019<br /> |2024<br /> |{{Flag|China}}<br /> | {{WikidataCoord|Q85817090|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Permanently shut down==<br /> [[File:Lubmin Hafen.jpg|thumb|The site of former [[Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant]]]]<br /> This table lists stations that are permanently shut down. Listed on 1985, 2005-2022 ongoing. <br /> {| class=&quot;sortable wikitable&quot;<br /> |-<br /> ! Power station !! Past capacity ([[Megawatt|MW]]) !! Country Or Territory !! [[Geographic coordinate system|Location]]<br /> |-<br /> | [[Barsebäck Nuclear Power Plant|Barsebäck]] || {{nts|1200}} || {{Flag|Sweden}} || {{Coord|55|44|40|N|12|55|15|E|name=Barsebäck Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Biblis Nuclear Power Plant|Biblis]] || {{nts|2407}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|49|42|36|N|08|24|55|E|name=Biblis Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Brokdorf Nuclear Power Plant|Brokdorf]] || {{nts|1410}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|53|51|03|N|09|20|41|E|name=Brokdorf Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Caorso Nuclear Power Plant|Caorso]]||860||{{flag|Italy}}||{{WikidataCoord|Q1739370|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Chin Shan Nuclear Power Plant|Chin Shan]]&lt;ref name=tai&gt;{{Cite web|title=Nuclear Power Reactors in Taiwan|publisher=International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)|url=https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=TW|access-date=2018-10-10|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181010174317/https://pris.iaea.org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails.aspx?current=TW|archive-date=2018-10-10|url-status=live}}&lt;/ref&gt; || {{nts|1208}} || {{Flag|Taiwan}} || {{Coord|25|17|10|N|121|35|15|E|name=Chin Shan Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant|Chernobyl]] || {{nts|3515}} || {{Flag|Ukraine}} || {{Coord|51|23|22|N|30|05|57|E|name=Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> |[[Dungeness Nuclear Power Station|Dungeness]]<br /> | {{nts|1540}}<br /> |{{Flag|United Kingdom}}<br /> |{{Coord|50|54|50|N|00|57|50|E|name=Dungeness Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Emsland Nuclear Power Plant|Emsland]] || {{nts|1329}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|52|28|27|N|07|19|04|E|name=Emsland Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Plant (Italy)|Enrico Fermi]]||260||{{flag|Italy}}||{{WikidataCoord|Q1626301|display=}}<br /> |- <br /> | [[Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant|Fessenheim]] || {{nts|1760}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|47|54|11|N|07|33|47|E|name=Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Fort Calhoun Nuclear Generating Station|Fort Calhoun]] || {{nts|478.6}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{coord|41|31|13|N|96|4|38|W|name=Fort Calhoun Nuclear Generating Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant|Fukushima Daiichi]] || {{nts|4546}} || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|37|25|17|N|141|01|57|E|name=Fukushima I Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant|Fukushima Daini]] || {{nts|4400}} || {{Flag|Japan}} || {{Coord|37|19|10|N|141|01|16|E|name=Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Garigliano Nuclear Power Plant|Garigliano]]||150||{{flag|Italy}}||{{WikidataCoord|Q1724901|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant|Grafenrheinfeld]] || {{nts|1275}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|49|59|02|N|10|11|05|E|name=Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant|Greifswald]] || {{nts|2040}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|54|08|26|N|13|39|52|E|name=Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Grohnde Nuclear Power Plant|Grohnde]] || {{nts|1360}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|52|02|07|N|09|24|48|E|name=Grohnde Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Gundremmingen Nuclear Power Plant|Gundremmingen]] || {{nts|2809}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|48|30|53|N|10|24|08|E|name=Gundremmingen Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> |[[Hinkley Point A nuclear power station|Hinkley Point A]] || {{nts|470}}<br /> |{{Flag|United Kingdom}}<br /> | {{WikidataCoord|Q1765322|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> |[[Hinkley Point B nuclear power station|Hinkley Point B]] || {{nts|870}}<br /> |{{Flag|United Kingdom}}<br /> |{{coord|51.209|-3.128|region:GB_type:landmark}}<br /> |-<br /> |[[Hunterston B nuclear power station|Hunterston B]]<br /> | {{nts|985}}<br /> |{{Flag|United Kingdom}}<br /> |{{coord|55.722|-4.890|type:landmark}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant|Ignalina]] || {{nts|2370}} || {{Flag|Lithuania}} || {{Coord|55|36|16|N|26|33|36|E|name=Ignalina Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Indian Point Energy Center|Indian Point]] || {{nts|2285}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|41|16|11|N|73|57|08|W|name=Indian Point Energy Center}} <br /> |-<br /> | [[Isar Nuclear Power Plant|Isar]] || {{nts|1410}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;878 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|48|36|20|N|12|17|35|E|name=Isar Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> | [[Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant|Krümmel]] || {{nts|1346}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|53|24|36|N|10|24|32|E|name=Krummel Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Latina Nuclear Power Plant|Latina]]||153||{{flag|Italy}}||{{WikidataCoord|Q1739429|display=}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Mülheim-Kärlich Nuclear Power Plant|Mülheim-Kärlich]] || {{nts|1219}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|50|24|29|N|07|29|24|E|name=Mülheim-Kärlich Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Neckarwestheim Nuclear Power Plant|Neckarwestheim]] || {{nts|1310}}&lt;ref group=&quot;note&quot;&gt;785 MW reactor permanently shut down&lt;/ref&gt; || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|49|02|30|N|09|10|30|E|name=Neckarwestheim Nuclear Power Station}} || &amp;nbsp;<br /> |-<br /> |-<br /> | [[Palisades Nuclear Generating Station|Palisades]] || {{nts|805}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|42|19|22|N|86|18|52|W|name=Palisades Nuclear Generating Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Philippsburg Nuclear Power Plant|Philippsburg]] || {{nts|2292}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|49|15|09|N|08|26|11|E|name=Philippsburg Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station|Pilgrim]] || {{nts|677}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{coord|41|56.7|N|70|34.7|W|name=Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station|Three Mile Island]] || {{nts|1685}} ||{{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|40|09|14|N|76|43|29|W|name=Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station|San Onofre]] || {{nts|2586}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|33|22|08|N|117|33|18|W|name=San Onofre Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Superphénix]] || {{nts|1200}} || {{Flag|France}} || {{Coord|45|45|30|N|05|28|20|E|name=Superphénix}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Trojan Nuclear Power Plant|Trojan]] || {{nts|1095}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|46|02|18|N|122|53|06|W|name=Trojan Nuclear Power Plant}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Unterweser Nuclear Power Plant|Unterweser]] || {{nts|1345}} || {{Flag|Germany}} || {{Coord|53|25|40|N|08|28|49|E|name=Unterweser Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |-<br /> | [[Zion Nuclear Power Station|Zion]] || {{nts|2080}} || {{Flag|United States}} || {{Coord|42|26|47|N|87|48|11|W|name=Zion Nuclear Power Station}}<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Gallery of power plants ==<br /> &lt;gallery&gt;<br /> File:Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant 14-Aug-2019.jpg|Aerial view of the [[Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Kori Nuclear Power Plant (8505820845).jpg|The [[Kori Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Bruce-Nuclear-Szmurlo.jpg|The [[Bruce Nuclear Generating Station]], the world's largest fully operational nuclear power facility<br /> File:Kernkraftwerk Saporischschja.JPG|The [[Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Centrale nucléaire de Gravelines.JPG|The [[Gravelines Nuclear Power Station]]<br /> File:Nuclear Power Plant Cattenom.jpg|The [[Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Hamaoka NPP 201005.jpg|The [[Hamaoka Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Ohi Nuclear Power Plant (02010077).jpg|The [[Ōi Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Pickering Nuclear Plant.jpg|The [[Pickering Nuclear Generating Station]]<br /> File:Eurodif.JPG|The [[Tricastin Nuclear Power Center]]<br /> File:Chinon nuclear power plant.JPG|The [[Chinon Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Centrale-nucleaire-Bugey.jpg|The [[Bugey Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Ringhals.JPG|The [[Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 and 2.jpg|The [[Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Browns ferry NPP.jpg|The [[Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:CANDU at Qinshan.jpg|The [[Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Centrale nogent.jpeg|The [[Nogent Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Gelände des Kernkraftwerk Isar (KKI).jpg|The [[Isar Nuclear Power Plant]]<br /> File:Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant 2010-1.jpg|The [[Koeberg Nuclear Power Station]]<br /> &lt;/gallery&gt;<br /> <br /> == See also ==<br /> * [[List of nuclear reactors]] — shows individual reactors and dates<br /> * [[List of boiling water reactors]] <br /> * [[List of small modular reactor designs]]<br /> * [[Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents]]<br /> * [[Nuclear power by country]]<br /> <br /> == Notes ==<br /> {{reflist|group=note|25em}}<br /> <br /> == References ==<br /> {{reflist|33em}}<br /> <br /> == External links ==<br /> * [http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/ PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) database] maintained by [[International Atomic Energy Agency]]<br /> * [http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/facts-and-figures/reactor-database.aspx World Nuclear Power Reactors database] maintained by [[World Nuclear Association]]<br /> <br /> {{world topic|List of nuclear power stations in|title=Lists of nuclear power stations|noredlinks=yes}}<br /> {{Power stations|state=expanded}}<br /> <br /> [[Category:Nuclear power stations|*]]<br /> [[Category:Lists of power stations|Nuclear]]<br /> [[Category:Nuclear technology-related lists|nuclear power stations]]</div> 2023-04-28T13:40:08Z 2023-04-28T13:40:08Z Lucamauri https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:List_of_nuclear_power_stations //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Talk:V%C3%B5x_(episode)?diff=3004164 Talk:Võx (episode) <p>Lucamauri: /* Two Starfleets? */ new section</p> <hr /> <div>{{talkpage|ep}}<br /> <br /> == Notice about title ==<br /> <br /> The title is actually &quot;Võx&quot;, not &quot;Vox&quot; &amp;ndash; please, however, continue to link it to the latter until further notice. &amp;ndash;[[User:Gvsualan|Gvsualan]] ([[User talk:Gvsualan|talk]]) 13:59, 13 April 2023 (UTC)<br /> <br /> == In universe date ==<br /> Are we remembering that the ''Enterprise'' took 4 days to get to Q'onoS? Archer's log entry comes towards the ''end'' of the journey, not the beginning. The ship was launched on April 12, not April 16th. Confirmed by Blass and Matalas on Twitter multiple times. --[[User:TimPendragon|TimPendragon]] ([[User talk:TimPendragon|talk]]) 10:48, 15 April 2023 (UTC)<br /> :And since it's apparently all over the place there... do you at least have some links to share rather than making everyone search through both of their timelines? -- [[User:Sulfur|Sulfur]] ([[User talk:Sulfur|talk]]) 11:43, 15 April 2023 (UTC)<br /> <br /> == Two Starfleets? ==<br /> <br /> Regarding the line:<br /> &lt;blockquote&gt;<br /> One of bravery, perseverance and sacrifice that would lead to the birth of what we know today as Starfleet.<br /> &lt;/blockquote&gt;<br /> by [[Elizabeth Shelby]], in the text it is said that this seems to be a continuity error and that she probably meant the [[United Federation of Planets]].&lt;br /&gt;<br /> On the contrary, can't this be a confirmation of the fact that the Starfleet seen on [[Star Trek: Enterprise]] is a formally different entity than the one that came after the formation of the Federation?&lt;br /&gt;<br /> It might be they have the same name and similar objectives, but the one of Earth origin dissolved on the creation of the Organization as we know now. [[User:Lucamauri|Lucamauri]] ([[User talk:Lucamauri|talk]]) 14:21, 15 April 2023 (UTC)</div> 2023-04-15T14:21:21Z Lucamauri http://vignette3.wikia.nocookie.net/memoryalpha/images/6/64/Favicon.ico/revision/latest?cb=20080612103849&path-prefix=en #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Translations:Wikimedia_Foundation/Legal/2023_ToU_updates/Proposed_update/122/it&diff=24643515 Translations:Wikimedia Foundation/Legal/2023 ToU updates/Proposed update/122/it <p>Lucamauri: Created page with &quot;&lt;ins&gt;Modifiche effettuate da utenti che ricevono un compenso senza segnalarlo generano un carico di lavoro insostenibile per i volontari che devono indagare e far rispettare le politiche dalla comunità. Di conseguenza, per violazione della sezione relativa a modifiche pagate e non segnalate chiaramente, accetti di sottoporti a una “''Med-Arb''” (una “''Marketing Company Mediation''”) vincolante, come...&quot;</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;ins&gt;Modifiche effettuate da utenti che ricevono un compenso senza segnalarlo generano un carico di lavoro insostenibile per i volontari che [[:en:Wikipedia:Plain_and_simple_conflict_of_interest_guide|devono indagare e far rispettare le politiche dalla comunità]]. Di conseguenza, per violazione della sezione relativa a modifiche pagate e non segnalate chiaramente, accetti di sottoporti a una “''Med-Arb''” (una “''Marketing Company Mediation''”) vincolante, come descritto nella Sezione 14 di queste Condizioni d'Uso.&lt;/ins&gt;</div> 2023-02-28T13:30:19Z 2023-02-28T13:30:19Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Translations_talk:Wikimedia_Foundation/Legal/2023_ToU_updates/Proposed_update/122/it //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_Foundation/Legal/2023_ToU_updates/Proposed_update/it&diff=24643516 Wikimedia Foundation/Legal/2023 ToU updates/Proposed update/it <p>Lucamauri: Created page with &quot;&lt;ins&gt;Modifiche effettuate da utenti che ricevono un compenso senza segnalarlo generano un carico di lavoro insostenibile per i volontari che devono indagare e far rispettare le politiche dalla comunità. Di conseguenza, per violazione della sezione relativa a modifiche pagate e non segnalate chiaramente, accetti di sottoporti a una “''Med-Arb''” (una “''Marketing Company Mediation''”) vincolante, come...&quot;</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;languages /&gt;&lt;templateStyles src=&quot;ToU23/comparison.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> {{Template:2023 ToU updates/Header}}<br /> {{ombox|text= &lt;span class=&quot;mw-translate-fuzzy&quot;&gt;{{Template:2023 ToU updates/Header}}&lt;/span&gt;}}<br /> <br /> &lt;div id=&quot;hideTOCnumbers&quot;&gt;__TOC__&lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == Summary ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div style=&quot;text-align:center; background-color:#8EB4E6;font-size:150%;margin:.3em auto;text-align:center;font-weight:bold;&quot;&gt;&lt;span lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;Terms of Use&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/div&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikimedia-logo.svg|75px|{{dir|{{#invoke:Caller title|lang|base=Terms of use-Summary}}|left|right}}]]<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;mobile-margin-reset&quot; style=&quot;padding:0.3em 0;text-align:center;margin: 4px 10%;&quot;&gt;&lt;span lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;This is a human-readable summary of the Terms of Use.&lt;/span&gt; &lt;span lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;To read the full terms, {{#ifeq: {{BASEPAGENAME}} | Terms of use|scroll down or}} [[Special:Mylanguage/Terms of use#introduction|click here]].&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;div style=&quot;text-align:center; font-size:90%; font-style: italic; padding: 0.3em; margin:0 6em 2.3em;&quot;&gt;&lt;span lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;Disclaimer: This summary is not a part of the Terms of Use and is not a legal document. It is simply a handy reference for understanding the full terms. Think of it as the user-friendly interface to the legal language of our Terms of Use.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;div style=&quot;margin: 4px 10%;&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''Part of our mission is to''':<br /> * '''Empower and Engage''' people around the world to collect and develop educational content and either publish it under a free license or dedicate it to the public domain.<br /> * '''Disseminate''' this content effectively and globally, free of charge.<br /> * &lt;ins&gt;We offer websites and technical infrastructure to help you do this.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''You are free to''':<br /> * '''Read and Print''' our articles and other media free of charge.<br /> * '''Share and Reuse''' our articles and other media under free and open licenses.<br /> * '''Contribute To and Edit''' our various sites or Projects.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''Under the following conditions''':<br /> * '''Responsibility''' — You take responsibility for your edits (since we only ''host'' your content).<br /> * '''Civility''' — You support a civil environment and do not harass other users.<br /> * '''Lawful Behavior''' — You do not violate copyright, &lt;ins&gt;post illegal content&lt;/ins&gt; or &lt;ins&gt;violate&lt;/ins&gt; other laws.<br /> * '''No Harm''' — You do not harm our technology infrastructure &lt;ins&gt;and follow the policies for that infrastructure&lt;/ins&gt;.<br /> * '''Terms of Use and Policies''' — You adhere to the below Terms of Use, &lt;ins&gt;the Universal Code of Conduct&lt;/ins&gt; and to the applicable community policies when you visit our sites or participate in our communities.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''With the understanding that''':<br /> * '''You License Freely Your Contributions''' — you generally must license your contributions and edits to our sites or Projects under a free and open license (unless your contribution is in the public domain).<br /> * '''No Professional Advice''' — the content of articles and other projects is for informational purposes only and does not constitute professional advice.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;'''If you need help or you want to report a violation of these terms of use you can:'''&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> * &lt;ins&gt;'''Ask for help on our sites''': Click “help” on the left side of most pages&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> * &lt;ins&gt;'''Ask for help by email''': Contact experienced volunteers for help by emailing info@wikimedia.org&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> * &lt;ins&gt;'''Contact the Wikimedia Foundation''': You can reach us at our [https://wikimediafoundation.org/about/contact/ contact page] &lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;noinclude&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == Our Terms of Use ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''''Imagine a world in which every single human being can freely share in the sum of all knowledge. That's our commitment.''''' – [https://wikimediafoundation.org/about/vision/ Our Vision Statement]<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Welcome to Wikimedia! The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (“we” or “us”), is a &lt;ins&gt;501(c)(3)&lt;/ins&gt; nonprofit charitable organization, &lt;ins&gt;headquartered in San Francisco, California&lt;/ins&gt; whose [https://wikimediafoundation.org/about/mission/ mission] is to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop content under a [[w:en:Free content|free license]] or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally, free of charge.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> To support our vibrant community, we provide the essential infrastructure and organizational framework for the development of multilingual wiki projects and their editions (as explained [https://wikimediafoundation.org/our-work/wikimedia-projects/ here]) and other endeavors which serve this mission. We strive to make and keep educational and informational content from the Projects available on the internet free of charge, in perpetuity.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> We welcome you (“you” or the “user”) as a reader, &lt;s&gt;editor, author, &lt;/s&gt;or contributor of the Wikimedia Projects, and we encourage you to join the Wikimedia community. Before you participate, however, we ask that you please read and agree to the following Terms of Use (“Terms of Use”).<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == Overview ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> These Terms of Use tell you about our public services at the Wikimedia Foundation, our relationship to you as a user, and the rights and responsibilities that guide us both. We &lt;s&gt;want you to know that we&lt;/s&gt; host an incredible quantity of educational and informational content, all of which is contributed and made possible by users like yourself. Generally we do not contribute, monitor, or delete content (with &lt;s&gt;the&lt;/s&gt; rare exception&lt;ins&gt;s, such as under&lt;/ins&gt; policies like these Terms of Use or legal compliance, &lt;s&gt;for [[w:en:Digital Millennium Copyright Act|DMCA]] notices&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;or when faced with urgent threats of serious harm&lt;/ins&gt;). This means that editorial control is in the hands of you and your fellow users who create and manage the content. &lt;s&gt;We merely host this content.&lt;/s&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The community – the network of users who are constantly building and using the various sites or Projects – are the principal means through which the goals of the mission are achieved. The community contributes to and helps govern our sites. The community undertakes the critical function of creating and enforcing policies for the specific Project editions (such as the different language editions for the Wikipedia Project or the Wikimedia Commons multi-lingual edition).<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> You are welcome to join as a contributor, editor, or author, but you should follow the policies that govern each of the independent Project editions, &lt;ins&gt;including the Universal Code of Conduct (UCoC), which applies to all Project editions&lt;/ins&gt;. The largest of our Projects is Wikipedia, but we host other Projects too, each with different objectives and work methods. Each Project edition has a team of contributors, editors or authors who work together to create and manage the content on that Project edition. You are welcome to join these teams and work with them to improve these Projects. &lt;ins&gt;Since&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;Because&lt;/s&gt; we are dedicated to making content freely accessible to the public, &lt;s&gt;we generally require that all&lt;/s&gt; content you contribute is &lt;ins&gt;made&lt;/ins&gt; available under a free license or &lt;s&gt;in&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;released in&lt;/ins&gt; the public domain.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Please be aware that you are legally responsible for all of your contributions, edits, and re-use of Wikimedia content under the laws of the United States of America and other applicable laws (which may include &lt;s&gt;the&lt;/s&gt; laws where you &lt;ins&gt;or the subject you’re writing about are located&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;live or where you view or edit content&lt;/s&gt;). This means it is important that you &lt;s&gt;use&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;exercise&lt;/ins&gt; caution when posting, &lt;ins&gt;modifying or reusing&lt;/ins&gt; content. In light of this responsibility, we have some rules about what you cannot &lt;s&gt;post&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;do&lt;/ins&gt;, most of which &lt;s&gt;is&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;are&lt;/ins&gt; either for your own protection or for the protection of other users like yourself. Please keep in mind that the content we host is for general informational purposes only, so if you need expert advice for a particular question (such as medical, legal, or financial issues), you should seek the help of &lt;s&gt;a licensed or qualified&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;an appropriate&lt;/ins&gt; professional. We also include other important notices and disclaimers, so please read these Terms of Use in their entirety.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> For clarity, other organizations, such as [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Wikimedia_chapters|local Wikimedia chapters]] and associations, that may share in the same mission are nevertheless legally independent and separate from the Wikimedia Foundation. &lt;s&gt;and&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;Unless otherwise stated by the Foundation as an authorized party on a given Project's website, those other organizations&lt;/ins&gt; have no responsibility for the operations of the website or its content.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 1. Our Services ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The Wikimedia Foundation is dedicated to encouraging the growth, development and distribution of free multilingual content, and to hosting the full content of these wiki-based Projects for the public free of charge. Our role is to host some of the largest collaboratively edited reference Projects in the world, which can be found [https://www.wikimedia.org here]. However, we act only as a hosting service, maintaining the infrastructure and organizational framework that allows our users to build the Wikimedia Projects by contributing and editing content themselves, &lt;ins&gt;and to reuse that content, including&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;We also provide and maintain&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;specialized&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;the&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;technological infrastructure that enables users to programmatically interact with and re-use content on Wikimedia Projects (“APIs”), and mobile applications.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;As used throughout the rest of the terms our services consist of: The websites we host (found here), technological infrastructure that we maintain, and any technical spaces that we host for the maintenance and improvement of our projects.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Because of our unique role, there are a couple of things you should be aware of when considerig our relationship to you, the Projects, and the other users:<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;OL STYLE=&quot;list-style-type: lower-alpha&quot;&gt;&lt;li&gt;<br /> '''We do not take an editorial role:''' Because the Wikimedia Projects are collaboratively edited, &lt;ins&gt;the vast majority&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;all&lt;/s&gt; of the &lt;ins&gt;encyclopedic&lt;/ins&gt; content that we host is provided by users &lt;s&gt;like yourself&lt;/s&gt;, and we do not take an editorial role. This means that we generally do not monitor or edit the content of the Project websites, and we do not take any responsibility for this content. Similarly, &lt;ins&gt;unless we have expressly stated otherwise&lt;/ins&gt;, we do not endorse any opinions expressed via our services, and we do not represent or guarantee the truthfulness, accuracy, or reliability of any submitted community content. &lt;s&gt;Instead, we simply provide access to the content that your fellow users have contributed and edited.&lt;/s&gt;&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''You are responsible for your own actions:''' You are legally responsible for your edits and contributions on Wikimedia Projects, &lt;ins&gt;your re-use of content on Wikimedia Projects, your use of the APIs, and your use of our services more generally.&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;ins&gt;For&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;so for&lt;/s&gt; your own protection you should exercise caution and avoid &lt;ins&gt;taking any actions&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;contributing any content&lt;/s&gt; that may result in criminal or civil liability under any applicable laws. For clarity, applicable law includes at least the laws of the United States of America &lt;ins&gt;and is determined for other countries on a case by case basis&lt;/ins&gt;. Although we may not agree with such actions, we warn editors and contributors that authorities may seek to apply other country laws to you, including local laws where you live or where you view or edit content. &lt;ins&gt;We&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;WMF&lt;/s&gt; generally cannot offer any protection, guarantee, immunity or indemnification &lt;ins&gt;against the application of such laws.&lt;/ins&gt;&lt;/li&gt;&lt;/ol&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 2. Privacy Policy ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> We ask that you review the terms of our [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Privacy policy|Privacy Policy]], so that you are aware of how we collect and use your information. &lt;s&gt;Because our services are used by people all over the world, personal information that we collect may be stored and processed in the United States of America or any other country in which we or our agents maintain facilities. By using our services, you consent to any such transfer of information outside your country.&lt;/s&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 3. Content We Host ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;OL STYLE=&quot;list-style-type: lower-alpha&quot;&gt;&lt;li&gt;<br /> '''You may find some material objectionable or erroneous:''' Because we provide a wide array of content that is produced or gathered by fellow users, you may encounter material that you find offensive, erroneous, misleading, mislabeled, or otherwise objectionable. We therefore ask that you use common sense and proper judgment when using our services.&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''Our content is for general informational purposes only:''' Although we host a great deal of information that pertains to professional topics, including medical, legal, or financial issues, this content is presented for general informational purposes only. It should not be taken as professional advice. Please seek independent professional counseling from someone who is licensed or qualified in the applicable area in lieu of acting on any information, opinion, or advice contained in one of the Project websites.&lt;/li&gt;&lt;/OL&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 4. Refraining from Certain Activities ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The Projects hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation only exist because of the vibrant community of users like you who collaborate to write, edit, and curate the content. We happily welcome your participation in this community. We encourage you to be civil and polite in your interactions with others in the community, to act in good faith, and to make edits and contributions aimed at furthering the mission of the shared Project. &lt;ins&gt; We ask that all users review and follow the Universal Code of Conduct (UCoC), which lays out requirements for collegial, civil collaboration across all Projects that we host.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Certain activities, whether legal or illegal, may be harmful to other users and violate our rules, and some activities may also subject you to liability. Therefore, for your own protection and for that of other users, you may not engage in such activities on &lt;ins&gt;or otherwise using, our services&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;our sites&lt;/s&gt;. These activities include:<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''Harassing and Abusing Others'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* Engaging in &lt;s&gt;harassment,&lt;/s&gt; threats, stalking, spamming, &lt;s&gt;or&lt;/s&gt; vandalism &lt;ins&gt;or harassment as described in the UCoC&lt;/ins&gt;; &lt;s&gt;and&lt;/s&gt;<br /> ::* Transmitting chain mail, junk mail, or spam to other users.<br /> ::* &lt;ins&gt;Posting or modifying content with the intention to seriously harm others, such as deliberate inducements to self-harm, or deliberate triggering of epilepsy.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''Violating the Privacy of Others'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* Infringing the privacy rights of others under the laws of the United States of America or other applicable laws (which may include the laws where you live or where you view or edit content);<br /> ::* Soliciting personally identifiable information for purposes of harassment, exploitation, &lt;ins&gt;or&lt;/ins&gt; violation of privacy, or &lt;ins&gt;for&lt;/ins&gt; any promotional or commercial purpose not explicitly approved by the Wikimedia Foundation; and<br /> ::* Soliciting personally identifiable information from anyone under the age of 18, &lt;ins&gt;or under the age of majority where you are if higher than 18&lt;/ins&gt;, for an illegal purpose or violating any applicable law regarding the health or well-being of minors.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''Engaging in False Statements, Impersonation, or Fraud'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* Intentionally or knowingly posting content that constitutes libel or defamation;<br /> ::* &lt;s&gt;With the intent to deceive,&lt;/s&gt; &lt;s&gt;p&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;P&lt;/ins&gt;osting &lt;ins&gt;or modifying&lt;/ins&gt; content &lt;ins&gt;with the intent to deceive or mislead others&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;that is false or inaccurate&lt;/s&gt;;<br /> ::* Attempting to impersonate another user or individual, misrepresenting your affiliation with any individual or entity, &lt;ins&gt;hiding your affiliation with any individual or entity when disclosure is required by these terms or local project policy&lt;/ins&gt;, or using the &lt;ins&gt;name or&lt;/ins&gt; username of another &lt;ins&gt;person&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;user&lt;/s&gt; with the intent to deceive; and<br /> ::* Engaging in fraud.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''Committing Infringement &lt;ins&gt;of Intellectual Property Rights&lt;/ins&gt;'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* Infringing copyrights, trademarks, patents, or other proprietary rights under applicable law.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''Misusing Our Services for Other Illegal Purposes'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* Posting child pornography or any other content that violates applicable law concerning child pornography &lt;ins&gt;or child sexual abuse material&lt;/ins&gt;;<br /> ::* Posting or trafficking in obscene material that is unlawful under applicable law; and<br /> ::* Using the services in a manner that is inconsistent with applicable law.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''Engaging in Disruptive and Illegal Misuse of Facilities'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* Posting or distributing content that contains any viruses, malware, worms, Trojan horses, malicious code, or other device that could harm our technical infrastructure or system or that of our users;<br /> ::* Engaging in automated uses of the site that are abusive or disruptive of the services, &lt;ins&gt;that violate acceptable usage policies where available&lt;/ins&gt;, &lt;ins&gt;or&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;and&lt;/s&gt; have not been approved by the Wikimedia community;<br /> ::* Disrupting the services by placing an undue burden on a&lt;ins&gt;n API&lt;/ins&gt;, Project website or the networks or servers connected with a Project website;<br /> ::* Disrupting the services by inundating any of the Project websites with communications or other traffic that suggests no serious intent to use the Project website for its stated purpose;<br /> ::* Knowingly accessing, tampering with, or using any of our non-public areas in our computer systems without authorization; and<br /> ::* Probing, scanning, or testing the vulnerability of any of our technical systems or networks unless all the following conditions are met:<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> :::* such actions do not unduly abuse or disrupt our technical systems or networks;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> :::* such actions are not for personal gain (except for credit for your work);<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> :::* you report any vulnerabilities to &lt;ins&gt;the relevant&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;MediaWiki&lt;/s&gt; developers (or fix it yourself); and<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> :::* you do not undertake such actions with malicious or destructive intent.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''&lt;ins&gt;Unauthorized Uploading of Third-Party Technical Resources&lt;/ins&gt;'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* &lt;ins&gt;Uploading third-party technical resources in contravention of the Third Party Resources Policy maintained by the Foundation’s technical teams&lt;/ins&gt;.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> {{anchor|paid-contrib-disclosure}}<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> : '''Paid contributions without disclosure'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> :: &lt;s&gt;These Terms of Use prohibit engaging in deceptive activities, including misrepresentation of affiliation, impersonation, and fraud. As part of these obligations, y&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;Y&lt;/ins&gt;ou must disclose &lt;ins&gt;each and any&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;your&lt;/s&gt; employer, client, &lt;ins&gt;intended beneficiary&lt;/ins&gt; and affiliation with respect to any contribution for which you receive, or expect to receive, compensation. You must make that disclosure in at least one of the following ways:<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ::* a statement on your user page,<br /> ::* a statement on the talk page accompanying any paid contributions, or<br /> ::* a statement in the edit summary accompanying any paid contributions.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> :: &lt;ins&gt;In addition, if you make a public posting on a third-party service advertising editing services on Wikipedia in exchange for pay, you must disclose what Wikipedia accounts you will use for this service in the public posting on the third-party service.&lt;/ins&gt; <br /> :: Applicable law, or community and Foundation policies and guidelines, such as those addressing conflicts of interest, may further limit paid contributions or require more detailed disclosure.<br /> :: A Wikimedia Project community may adopt an alternative paid contribution disclosure policy. If a Project adopts an alternative disclosure policy, you may comply with that policy instead of the requirements in this section when contributing to that Project. &lt;s&gt;An alternative paid contribution policy will only supersede these requirements if it is approved by the relevant Project community and listed in the [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Alternative paid contribution disclosure policies|alternative disclosure policy page]].&lt;/s&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> :: For more information, please read our [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Terms of use/FAQ on paid contributions without disclosure|FAQ on disclosure of paid contributions]].<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> We reserve the right to exercise our enforcement discretion with respect to the above terms. &lt;ins&gt;Where required, enforcement of these terms may include actions not listed in the Wikimedia Foundation [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Office_actions|Office Action Policy]]. If enforcement is required in new circumstances, we will make an effort within at most one year to update the Office Action Policy to catalog the new type of action.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''&lt;ins&gt;Marketing Company Mediations&lt;/ins&gt;'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;ins&gt;Modifiche effettuate da utenti che ricevono un compenso senza segnalarlo generano un carico di lavoro insostenibile per i volontari che [[:en:Wikipedia:Plain_and_simple_conflict_of_interest_guide|devono indagare e far rispettare le politiche dalla comunità]]. Di conseguenza, per violazione della sezione relativa a modifiche pagate e non segnalate chiaramente, accetti di sottoporti a una “''Med-Arb''” (una “''Marketing Company Mediation''”) vincolante, come descritto nella Sezione 14 di queste Condizioni d'Uso.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 5. Password Security ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> You are responsible for safeguarding your own password &lt;ins&gt;and other security credentials&lt;/ins&gt; and should never disclose &lt;ins&gt;them&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;it&lt;/s&gt; to any third party.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 6. Trademarks ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Although you have considerable freedoms for re-use of the content on the Project websites, it is important that, at the Wikimedia Foundation, we protect our trademark rights so that we can protect our users from fraudulent impersonators. Because of this, we ask that you please respect our trademarks. All Wikimedia Foundation trademarks belong to the Wikimedia Foundation, and any use of our trade names, trademarks, service marks, logos, or domain names must be in compliance with these Terms of Use and in compliance with our [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Trademark policy|Trademark Policy]].<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 7. Licensing of Content ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> To grow the commons of free knowledge and free culture, all users contributing to the Projects are required to grant broad permissions to the general public to re-distribute and re-use their contributions freely, so long as that use is properly attributed and the same freedom to re-use and re-distribute is granted to any derivative works. In keeping with our goal of providing free information to the widest possible audience, we require that when necessary all submitted content be licensed so that it is freely reusable by anyone who cares to access it.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> You agree to the following licensing requirements:<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;OL STYLE=&quot;list-style-type: lower-alpha&quot;&gt;&lt;LI&gt;<br /> '''Text to which you hold the copyright:''' When you submit text to which you hold the copyright, you agree to license it under:<br /> * [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ &lt;ins&gt;Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;3.0 Unported License&lt;/s&gt;] (“CC BY-SA &lt;ins&gt;4.0&lt;/ins&gt;”), and<br /> * [https://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html GNU Free Documentation License] (“GFDL”) (unversioned, with no invariant sections, front-cover texts, or back-cover texts).<br /> &lt;p&gt;(Re-users may comply with either license or both.)&lt;/p&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The only exception is if the Project edition or feature requires a different license. In that case, you agree to license any text you contribute under that particular license. &lt;s&gt;For example, at the publication of this version of the Terms of Use, English Wikinews mandates that all text content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic License (CC BY 2.5) and does not require a dual license with GFDL.&lt;/s&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Please note that these licenses do allow commercial uses of your contributions, as long as such uses are compliant with the terms. &lt;ins&gt;Where you own Sui Generis Database Rights covered by CC BY-SA 4.0, you waive these rights. As an example, this means facts you contribute to the projects may be reused freely without attribution.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''Attribution:''' Attribution is an important part of these licenses. We consider it giving credit where credit is due – to authors like yourself. When you contribute text, you agree to be attributed in any of the following fashions:<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;OL STYLE=&quot;list-style:lower-roman&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> Through hyperlink (where possible) or URL to the article to which you contributed (since each article has a history page that lists all authors and editors);&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> Through hyperlink (where possible) or URL to an alternative, stable online copy that is freely accessible, which conforms with the license, and which provides credit to the authors in a manner equivalent to the credit given on the Project website; or&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> Through a list of all authors (but please note that any list of authors may be filtered to exclude very small or irrelevant contributions).&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/ol&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''Importing text:''' You may import text that you have found elsewhere or that you have co-authored with others, but in such case you warrant that the text is available under terms that are compatible with &lt;s&gt;the&lt;/s&gt; CC BY-SA &lt;s&gt;3.0 license&lt;/s&gt; (or, as explained above, another license when exceptionally required by the Project edition or feature) &lt;s&gt;(&quot;CC BY-SA&quot;). Content available only under GFDL is not permissible.&lt;/s&gt; &lt;ins&gt;For a list of compatible licenses, see [https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/licensing-considerations/compatible-licenses/ Creative Commons]. You may not import content that is available solely under GFDL.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;p&gt;You agree that, if you import text under a CC BY-SA license that requires attribution, you must credit the author(s) in a reasonable fashion. Where such credit is commonly given through page histories (such as Wikimedia-internal copying), it is sufficient to give attribution in the edit summary, which is recorded in the page history, when importing the text. The attribution requirements are sometimes too intrusive for particular circumstances (regardless of the license), and there may be instances where the Wikimedia community decides that imported text cannot be used for that reason.&lt;/p&gt;&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''Non-text media:''' Non-text media on the Projects are available under a variety of different licenses that support the general goal of allowing unrestricted re-use and re-distribution. When you contribute non-text media, you agree to comply with the requirements for such licenses as described in our [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Resolution:Licensing policy|Licensing Policy]], and also comply with the requirements of the specific Project edition or feature to which you are contributing. Also see the [[:commons:Commons:Licensing|Wikimedia Commons Licensing Policy]] for more information on contributing non-text media to that Project.&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''No revocation of license:''' Except as consistent with your license, you agree that you will not unilaterally revoke or seek invalidation of any license that you have granted under these Terms of Use for text content or non-text media contributed to the Wikimedia Projects or features, even if you terminate use of our services.&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''Public domain content:''' Content that is in the public domain is welcome! It is important however that you confirm the public domain status of the content under the law of the United States of America as well as the laws of any other countries as required by the specific Project edition. When you contribute content that is in the public domain, you warrant that the material is actually in the public domain, and you agree to label it appropriately.&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''Re-use:''' Re-use of content that we host is welcome, though exceptions exist for content contributed under &quot;fair use&quot; or similar exemptions under copyright law. Any re-use must comply with the underlying license(s).<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;p&gt;When you re-use or re-distribute a text page developed by the Wikimedia community, you agree to attribute the authors in any of the following fashions:&lt;/p&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;OL STYLE=&quot;list-style:lower-roman&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> Through hyperlink (where possible) or URL to the page or pages that you are re-using (since each page has a history page that lists all authors and editors);&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> Through hyperlink (where possible) or URL to an alternative, stable online copy that is freely accessible, which conforms with the license, and which provides credit to the authors in a manner equivalent to the credit given on the Project website; or&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> Through a list of all authors (but please note that any list of authors may be filtered to exclude very small or irrelevant contributions).&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/ol&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> If the text content was imported from another source, it is possible that the content is licensed under a compatible CC BY-SA license but not GFDL (as described in “Importing text,” above). In that case, you agree to comply with the compatible CC BY-SA license and do not have the option to re-license it under GFDL. To determine the license that applies to the content that you seek to re-use or re-distribute, you should review the page footer, page history, and discussion page.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> In addition, please be aware that text that originated from external sources and was imported into a Project may be under a license that attaches additional attribution requirements. Users agree to indicate these additional attribution requirements clearly. Depending on the Project, such requirements may appear for example in a banner or other notations pointing out that some or all of the content was originally published elsewhere. Where there are such visible notations, re-users should preserve them.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> For any non-text media, you agree to comply with whatever license under which the work has been made available (which can be discovered by clicking on the work and looking at the licensing section on its description page or reviewing an applicable source page for that work). When re-using any content that we host, you agree to comply with the relevant attribution requirements as they pertain to the underlying license or licenses.&lt;/li&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;li&gt;<br /> '''Modifications or additions to material that you re-use:''' When modifying or making additions to text that you have obtained from a Project website, you agree to license the modified or added content under CC BY-SA &lt;ins&gt;4&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;3&lt;/s&gt;.0 or later (or, as explained above, another license when exceptionally required by the specific Project edition or feature).<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;p&gt;When modifying or making additions to any non-text media that you have obtained from a Project website, you agree to license the modified or added content in accordance with whatever license under which the work has been made available.&lt;/p&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> With both text content and non-text media, you agree to clearly indicate that the original work has been modified. If you are re-using text content in a wiki, it is sufficient to indicate in the page history that you made a change to the imported text. For each copy or modified version that you distribute, you agree to include a licensing notice stating which license the work is released under, along with either a hyperlink or URL to the text of the license or a copy of the license itself.&lt;/li&gt;&lt;/ol&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 8. DMCA Compliance ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The Wikimedia Foundation wants to ensure that the content that we host can be re-used by other users without fear of liability and that it is not infringing the proprietary rights of others. In fairness to our users, as well as to other creators and copyright holders, our policy is to respond to notices of alleged infringement that comply with the formalities of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). Pursuant to the DMCA, we will terminate, in appropriate circumstances, users and account holders of our system and network who are repeat infringers.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> However, we also recognize that not every takedown notice is valid or in good faith. In such cases, we strongly encourage users to file counter-notifications when they appropriately believe a DMCA takedown demand is invalid or improper. For more information on what to do if you think a DMCA notice has been improperly filed, you may wish to consult the &lt;ins&gt;[https://lumendatabase.org/ Lumen Database]&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;[https://www.chillingeffects.org/ Chilling Effects]&lt;/s&gt; website.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> If you are the owner of content that is being improperly used on one of the Projects without your permission, you may request that the content be removed under the DMCA. To make such a request, please email us at &lt;tt&gt;legal&lt;/tt&gt;{{@}}&lt;tt&gt;wikimedia.org&lt;/tt&gt; or snail mail our designated agent at this [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Designated agent|address]].<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Alternatively, you may make a request to our community, which often handles copyright issues faster and more effectively than prescribed under the DMCA. In that case, you can post a notice explaining your copyright concerns. For a non-exhaustive and non-authoritative list of the relevant processes for the different Project editions, look [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Copyright problems|here]]. Before filing a DMCA claim, you also have the option of sending an email to the community at &lt;tt&gt;info&lt;/tt&gt;{{@}}&lt;tt&gt;wikimedia.org&lt;/tt&gt;.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 9. Third-party Websites and Resources ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> You are solely responsible for your use of any third-party websites or resources. Although the Projects contain links to third-party websites and resources, we do not endorse and are not responsible or liable for their availability, accuracy, or the related content, products, or services (including, without limitation, any viruses or other disabling features), nor do we have any obligation to monitor such third-party content.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 10. Management of Websites ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The community has the primary role in creating and enforcing policies applying to the different Project editions. At the Wikimedia Foundation, we rarely intervene in community decisions about policy and its enforcement.<br /> &lt;/div&gt; <br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;It is possible to notify us of illegal content, or content that violates our Terms of Use (including all policies and other documents incorporated by reference) for other reasons. Our contact details are available [https://wikimediafoundation.org/about/contact/ here]. However, you can typically make a request directly to our community: this may be more efficient, and is more consistent with our Projects’ aim to empower the user community.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;Each Project will usually provide “Help” or “Contact” pages for further guidance, or specific tools for reporting issues. Alternatively - if in doubt - you can ask members of the community for help, by sending an email to info[at]wikimedia.org or the more specific addresses listed [https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Volunteer_Response_Team here]. Please note that these mailboxes are monitored by users of the Projects, not the Foundation. So they should not be threatened or issued with legal demands.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;If you contact the Foundation with a problem, we will typically explore whether and how existing community-led mechanisms can investigate and, where appropriate, resolve it.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> In an unusual case, the need may arise, or the community may ask us, to address an especially problematic user &lt;ins&gt; or especially problematic content&lt;/ins&gt; because of significant Project disturbance or dangerous behavior. In such cases, we reserve the right, &lt;ins&gt;at our sole discretion (or where legally compelled)&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;but do not have the obligation&lt;/s&gt; to:<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> * Investigate your use of the service (a) to determine whether a violation of these Terms of Use, Project edition policy, or other applicable law or policy has occurred, or (b) to comply with any applicable law, legal process, or appropriate governmental request;<br /> * Detect, prevent, or otherwise address fraud, &lt;ins&gt;false or unverifiable information&lt;/ins&gt; security, or technical issues or respond to user support requests;<br /> * Refuse, &lt;ins&gt;revert,&lt;/ins&gt; disable, or restrict access to &lt;s&gt;the&lt;/s&gt; contribution of any user who violates these Terms of Use;<br /> * Ban a user from editing or contributing or block a user's account or access for actions violating these Terms of Use, including repeat &lt;ins&gt;posting of unlawful material&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;copyright infringement&lt;/s&gt;;<br /> * Take legal action against users who violate these Terms of Use (including reports to law enforcement authorities); and<br /> * Manage otherwise the Project websites in a manner designed to facilitate their proper functioning and protect the rights, property, and safety of ourselves and our users, licensors, partners, and the public.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;Those Foundation moderation activities may be informed or performed by software (such as traffic flood (“Denial of Service”) protection). In those cases human review is normally available, upon [https://wikimediafoundation.org/about/contact/ request].&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt; <br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> In the interests of our users and the Projects, in the extreme circumstance that any individual has had his or her account or access blocked under this provision, he or she is prohibited from creating or using another account on or seeking access to the same Project, unless we provide explicit permission. Without limiting the authority of the community, the Wikimedia Foundation itself will not ban a user from editing or contributing or block a user's account or access solely because of good faith criticism that does not result in actions otherwise violating these Terms of Use or community policies.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The Wikimedia community and its members may also take action when so allowed by the community or Foundation policies applicable to the specific Project edition, including but not limited to warning, investigating, blocking, or banning users who violate those policies. You agree to comply with the final decisions of dispute resolution bodies that are established by the community for the specific Project editions (such as arbitration committees); these decisions may include sanctions as set out by the policy of the specific Project edition.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Especially problematic users who have had accounts or access blocked on multiple Project editions may be subject to a ban from all of the Project editions, in accordance with the [[m:Special:MyLanguage/Global bans|Global Ban Policy]]. In contrast to Board resolutions or these Terms of Use, policies established by the community, which may cover a single Project edition or multiple Projects editions (like the Global Ban Policy), may be modified by the relevant community according to its own procedures.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The blocking of an account or access or the banning of a user under this provision shall be in accordance with Section &lt;ins&gt;13&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;12&lt;/s&gt; of these Terms of Use.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;If you believe we have not satisfactorily acted on a problematic content report, or if you have been subjected to a Foundation moderation action that you wish to challenge, see [here]. Other information about routes of appeal may also be explained to you at the time, or in Project-specific help pages.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;We reserve the right to suspend (temporarily, or permanently) our handling of reports or other correspondence from users or third parties, whether about allegedly illegal or otherwise problematic content or conduct, or requesting appeals against moderation actions, if such correspondence was made in bad faith, repetitive, unfounded, and/or abusive. In appropriate circumstances, your email address may even be blocked on our email system(s), and you will then need to contact us [https://wikimediafoundation.org/about/contact/ at our postal address] if you wish to further correspond with us during that block. For less serious cases (e.g. up to three polite emails about one or more meritless complaints), this is likely to be temporary. More frequent or more abusive communications are more likely to lead to permanent measures.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == 11. Resolutions and Project Policies ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees releases [[foundation:Resolutions|official policies]] from time to time. Some of these policies may be mandatory for a particular Project or Project edition, and, when they are, you agree to abide by them as applicable.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == &lt;ins&gt;12. API Terms&lt;/ins&gt; ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;We make available a set of APIs, which include documentation and associated tools, to enable users to build products that promote free knowledge. By using our APIs, you agree to abide by all applicable policies governing the use of the APIs, which include but are not limited to the [[m:Special:MyLanguage/User-Agent_policy|User-Agent Policy]], the [https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/Robot_policy#Remote_loaders:~:text=rate%20than%20this.-,Remote%20loaders,-Wikimedia%20system%20administrators Robot Policy], and the [https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/API:Etiquette#Request_limit API:Etiquette] (collectively, “API Documentation”), which are incorporated into these Terms of Use by reference.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == &lt;ins&gt;13.&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;12.&lt;/s&gt; Termination ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Though we hope you will stay and continue to contribute to the Projects, you can stop using our services any time. In certain (hopefully unlikely) circumstances it may be necessary for either ourselves or the Wikimedia community or its members (as described in Section 10) to terminate part or all of our services, terminate these Terms of Use, block your account or access, or ban you as a user. If your account or access is blocked or otherwise terminated for any reason, your public contributions &lt;ins&gt; and a record of your activities on or in relation to the Projects (including any correspondence you have sent us) will be unaffected&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;will remain publicly available&lt;/s&gt; (subject to applicable policies), and&lt;s&gt;, unless we notify you otherwise,&lt;/s&gt; you may still access our public pages for the sole purpose of reading publicly available content on the Projects. In such circumstances, however, you may not be able to access your account or settings. &lt;ins&gt;However, regardless of any other provision in these Terms of Use, w&lt;/ins&gt;&lt;s&gt;W&lt;/s&gt;e reserve the right to suspend or end the services at any time, with or without cause, and with or without notice. Even after your use and participation are banned, blocked or otherwise suspended, these Terms of Use will remain in effect with respect to relevant provisions, including Sections 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9-&lt;ins&gt;16&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;15&lt;/s&gt;, and &lt;ins&gt;18&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;17&lt;/s&gt;.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div style=&quot;background: #FFFFCD;&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == &lt;ins&gt;14.&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;13.&lt;/s&gt; Disputes and Jurisdiction ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ''Highlighted for emphasis''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> We hope that no serious disagreements arise involving you, but, in the event there is a dispute, we encourage you to seek resolution through the dispute resolution procedures or mechanisms provided by the Projects or Project editions and the Wikimedia Foundation. If you seek to file a legal claim against us, you agree to file and resolve it exclusively in a state or federal court located in San Francisco County, California. You also agree that the laws of the State of California and, to the extent applicable, the laws of the United States of America will govern these Terms of Use, as well as any legal claim that might arise between you and us (without reference to conflict of laws principles). You agree to submit to the personal jurisdiction of, and agree that venue is proper in, the courts located in San Francisco County, California, in any legal action or proceeding relating to us or these Terms of Use.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> To ensure that disputes are dealt with soon after they arise, you agree that regardless of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action you might have arising out of or related to use of our services or these Terms of Use must be filed within the applicable statute of limitations or, if earlier, one (1) year after the pertinent facts underlying such claim or cause of action could have been discovered with reasonable diligence (or be forever barred).<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''&lt;ins&gt;Marketing company mediations&lt;/ins&gt;'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;As described in section 4 of these Terms of Use, you agree to resolve violations of the paid contributions without disclosure section in a Marketing Company Mediation at the Foundation's discretion. Marketing Company Mediations are '''binding''' mediations where, at the end of either a half or full day session, any disputed items that remain unresolved will be decided by the mediator in a legally binding decision. They will be conducted in meetings by teleconference or videoconference. If an in-person meeting is required, then the Marketing Company Mediation will take place in San Francisco, California. The parties will split all fees and expenses related to the mediation/arbitration equally.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt; <br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;You agree, as part of a Marketing Company Mediation, to cooperate with the Foundation, including by timely providing any documentation in your possession relating to your undisclosed paid editing activities including the accounts used, articles affected, and clients who purchased such services.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt; <br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;Marketing Company Mediations are subject to and governed by the Federal Arbitration Act to the extent that the mediator becomes an arbitrator. The prevailing party shall be entitled to recover its attorneys’ fees (including all fees necessary to determine the applicability of the Marketing Company Mediation and to enforce the binding result) and all costs relating to the investigation and enforcement of its rights. A party may be deemed “prevailing” even if it is not successful on every claim asserted.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt; <br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;ins&gt;If for some reason the entirety of these Marketing Company Mediation requirements are found to be unenforceable, you agree to resolve any disputes as described in the beginning of this section.&lt;/ins&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == &lt;ins&gt;15.&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;14.&lt;/s&gt; Disclaimers ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ''Highlighted for emphasis''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> At the Wikimedia Foundation, we do our best to provide educational and informational content to a very wide audience, but your use of our services is at your sole risk. We provide these services on an &quot;as is&quot; and &quot;as available&quot; basis, and we expressly disclaim all express or implied warranties of all kinds, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. We make no warranty that our services will meet your requirements, be safe, secure, uninterrupted, timely, accurate, or error-free, or that your information will be secure.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> We are not responsible for the content, data, or actions of third parties, and you release us, our directors, officers, employees, and agents from any claims and damages, known and unknown, arising out of or in any way connected with any claim you have against any such third parties. No advice or information, whether oral or written, obtained by you from us or through or from our services creates any warranty not expressly stated in these Terms of Use.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Any material downloaded or otherwise obtained through your use of our services is done at your own discretion and risk, and you will be solely responsible for any damage to your computer system or loss of data that results from the download of any such material. You agree that we have no responsibility or liability for the deletion of, or the failure to store or to transmit, any content or communication maintained by the service. We retain the right to create limits on use and storage at our sole discretion at any time with or without notice.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Some states or jurisdictions do not allow the types of disclaimers in this section, so they may not apply to you either in part or in full depending on the law.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == &lt;ins&gt;16.&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;15.&lt;/s&gt; Limitation on Liability ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> ''Highlighted for emphasis''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> The Wikimedia Foundation will not be liable to you or to any other party for any direct, indirect, incidental, special, consequential or exemplary damages, including but not limited to, damages for loss of profits, goodwill, use, data, or other intangible losses, regardless of whether we were advised of the possibility of such damage. In no event shall our liability exceed one thousand U.S. dollars (USD 1000.00) in aggregate. In the case that applicable law may not allow the limitation or exclusion of liability or incidental or consequential damages, the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you, although our liability will be limited to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == &lt;ins&gt;17.&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;16.&lt;/s&gt; Modifications to these Terms of Use ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Just as the Wikimedia community's input is essential for the growth and maintenance of the Projects, we believe that community input is essential for these Terms of Use to properly serve our users. It is also essential for a fair contract. Therefore, we will provide these Terms of Use, as well as any substantial future revisions of these Terms of Use, to the community for comment at least thirty (30) days before the end of the comment period. If a future proposed revision is substantial, we will provide an additional 30 days for comments after posting a translation of the proposed revision in at least three languages (selected at our discretion). The community will be encouraged to translate the proposed revision in other languages as appropriate. For changes for legal or administrative reasons, to correct an inaccurate statement, or changes in response to community comments, we will provide at least three (3) days' notice.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Because it may be necessary to modify these Terms of Use from time to time, we will provide notice of such modifications and the opportunity to comment via the Project websites, and via a notification on [[mail:wikimediaannounce-l|WikimediaAnnounce-l]]. However, we ask that you please periodically review the most up-to-date version of these Terms of Use. Your continued use of our services after the new Terms of Use become official following the notice and review period constitutes an acceptance of these Terms of Use on your part. For the protection of the Wikimedia Foundation and other users like yourself, if you do not agree with our Terms of Use, you cannot use our services.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == &lt;ins&gt;18.&lt;/ins&gt; &lt;s&gt;17.&lt;/s&gt; Other Terms ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> These Terms of Use do not create an employment, agency, partnership, &lt;ins&gt;joint control&lt;/ins&gt; or joint venture relationship between you and us, the Wikimedia Foundation. &lt;ins&gt;For the purposes of EEA and UK law, or others that involve a similar concept, you are not acting “under the authority of” the Foundation when you use the services.&lt;/ins&gt; If you have not signed a separate agreement with us, these Terms of Use are the entire agreement between you and us. If there is any conflict between these Terms of Use and a signed written agreement between you and us, the signed agreement will control.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> You agree that we may provide you with notices, including those regarding changes to the Terms of Use, by email, regular mail, or postings on Project websites.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> If in any circumstance, we do not apply or enforce any provision of these Terms of Use, it is not a waiver of that provision.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> You understand that, unless otherwise agreed to in writing by us, you have no expectation of compensation for any activity, contribution, or idea that you provide to us, the community, or the Wikimedia Projects or Project editions.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary in these Terms of Use, we (the Wikimedia Foundation) and you agree not to modify the applicable terms and requirements of any free license that is employed on the Projects or Project editions when such free license is authorized by these Terms of Use.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> These Terms of Use were written in English (U.S.). While we hope that translations of these Terms of Use are accurate, in the event of any differences in meaning between the original English version and a translation, the original English version takes precedence.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> If any provision or part of a provision of these Terms of Use is found unlawful, void, or unenforceable, that provision or part of the provision is deemed severable from these Terms of Use and will be enforced to the maximum extent permissible, and all other provisions of these Terms of Use will remain in full force and effect.<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> == Thank You! ==<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> We appreciate your taking the time to read these Terms of Use, and we are very happy to have you contributing to the Projects and using our services. Through your contributions, you are helping to build something really big – not only an important collection of collaboratively edited reference Projects that provides education and information to millions who might otherwise lack access, but also a vibrant community of like-minded and engaged peers, focused on a very noble goal.<br /> ----<br /> &lt;!--'''These Terms of Use went into effect on June 16, 2014. Previous versions of the terms:'''<br /> * '''&lt;span class='plainlinks'&gt;[https://foundation.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Terms_of_Use&amp;oldid=82013 Terms of Use (2012–2014)]&lt;/span&gt;: effective from May 24, 2012 until June 16, 2014'''<br /> * '''&lt;span class='plainlinks'&gt;[https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use_(2009) Terms of Use (2009)]&lt;/span&gt;: effective from 2009 until May 24, 2012.'''!--&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;div lang=&quot;en&quot; dir=&quot;ltr&quot; class=&quot;mw-content-ltr&quot;&gt;<br /> '''In the event of any differences in meaning between the original English version and a translation, the original English version takes precedence.'''<br /> &lt;/div&gt;</div> 2023-02-28T13:30:19Z 2023-02-28T13:30:19Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_Foundation/Legal/2023_ToU_updates/Proposed_update/it //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Smalltalk&diff=1139388153 Smalltalk <p>Lucamauri: /* Object-oriented programming */ Formatting</p> <hr /> <div>{{short description|Object-oriented programming language first released in 1972}}<br /> {{About|the programming language||Small talk (disambiguation)}}<br /> {{Infobox programming language<br /> | name = Smalltalk<br /> | logo = Smalltalk Balloon.svg<br /> | logo size = 150px<br /> | logo caption = <br /> | paradigm = [[Object-oriented programming|Object-oriented]]<br /> | year = {{Start date and age|1972}} (development began in 1969)<br /> | designer = [[Alan Kay]], [[Dan Ingalls]], [[Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|Adele Goldberg]]<br /> | developer = Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg, [[Ted Kaehler]], [[Diana Merry]], Scott Wallace, [[L. Peter Deutsch|Peter Deutsch]] and [[PARC (company)|Xerox PARC]]<br /> | latest release version = Smalltalk-80 version 2<br /> | latest release date = {{Start date and age|1980}}<br /> | typing = [[Object (computer science)|objects]], but in some implementations, [[strong typing|Strong]] or [[dynamic typing|dynamic]]<br /> | scope = [[Scope (computer science)|Lexical]] (static)<br /> | programming language = Smalltalk<br /> | platform = [[Xerox Alto]] ([[74181]])&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web |title=Alto I Schematics |url=http://bitsavers.org/pdf/xerox/alto/schematics/AltoI_Schematics.pdf |website=Bitsavers |access-date=21 July 2016 |page=54}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=alto&gt;{{cite web |title=History of Computers and Computing, Birth of the modern computer, Personal computer, Xerox Alto |access-date=2016-04-19 |url=http://history-computer.com/ModernComputer/Personal/Alto.html}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> | implementations = [[Amber Smalltalk|Amber]], [[Dolphin Smalltalk]], [[Gemstone (database)|GemStone/S]], [[GNU Smalltalk]], [[Pharo]], Smalltalk/X, [[Squeak]], Cuis, Haver, [[IBM VisualAge|VA Smalltalk]], [[VisualWorks]]<br /> | dialects = <br /> | influenced by = [[Lisp (programming language)|Lisp]],&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;&gt;{{cite web|url=http://www.purl.org/stefan_ram/pub/doc_kay_oop_en|title=E-Mail of 2003-07-23|last1=Kay|first1=Alan|last2=Ram|first2=Stefan|date=2003-07-23|work=Dr. Alan Kay on the Meaning of 'Object-Oriented Programming'|access-date=2009-01-03}}&lt;/ref&gt; [[Simula]],&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;/&gt; [[Euler (programming language)|Euler]],&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;/&gt; [[IMP (programming language)|IMP]],&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;/&gt; [[Planner (programming language)|Planner]],&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;/&gt; [[Logo (programming language)|Logo]],&lt;ref name=&quot;History&quot;/&gt; [[Sketchpad]],&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;/&gt; [[ARPAnet]],&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;/&gt; [[Burroughs B5000]]&lt;ref name=&quot;kay2003&quot;/&gt;<br /> | influenced = [[AppleScript]], [[Common Lisp Object System]], [[Dart (programming language)|Dart]], [[Dylan (programming language)|Dylan]], [[Erlang (programming language)|Erlang]], [[Etoys (programming language)|Etoys]], [[Go (programming language)|Go]], [[Groovy (programming language)|Groovy]], [[Io (programming language)|Io]], [[Ioke (programming language)|Ioke]], [[Java (programming language)|Java]], [[Lasso (programming language)|Lasso]], [[Logtalk]], [[Newspeak (programming language)|Newspeak]], [[NewtonScript]], [[Object REXX]], [[Objective-C]], [[PHP]] 5, [[Python (programming language)|Python]], [[Raku (programming language)|Raku]], [[Ruby (programming language)|Ruby]], [[Scala (programming language)|Scala]], [[Scratch (programming language)|Scratch]], [[Self (programming language)|Self]], [[Swift (programming language)|Swift]]<br /> | operating system = [[Cross-platform]] (multi-platform)<br /> | wikibooks = Smalltalk<br /> | website = hide<br /> }}<br /> <br /> '''Smalltalk''' is a purely [[object oriented programming|object oriented]] [[programming language]] (OOP), created in the [[1970s]] for [[education]]al use, specifically for [[constructionist learning]], at [[PARC (company)|Xerox PARC]] by Learning Research Group (LRG) scientists, including [[Alan Kay]], [[Dan Ingalls]], [[Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|Adele Goldberg]], [[Ted Kaehler]], [[Diana Merry]], and Scott Wallace.<br /> <br /> In Smalltalk, executing programs are built of opaque, atomic, so-called objects, which are instances of template-code stored in classes, and these objects intercommunicate by passing of messages, via an intermediary [[virtual machine]] environment (VM). A relatively small number of objects, called primitives, are not amenable to live redefinition, sometimes being defined independently of the Smalltalk programming environment.<br /> <br /> Having undergone significant [[Industrial sector|industry]] development toward other uses, including business and [[database]] functions, Smalltalk is still in use today. When first publicly released, Smalltalk-80 presented innovative and foundational ideas for the nascent field of object-oriented programming (OOP).<br /> <br /> Since inception, the language provided [[interactive programming]] via an integrated [[Interactive Development Environment|development environment]]. This requires [[reflection (computer science)|reflection]] and [[late binding]] in the language [[executable code|execution of code]]. Later development has led to at least one instance of Smalltalk execution environment which lacks such an integrated [[graphical user interface]] or front-end.<br /> <br /> Smalltalk-like languages are in active development and have gathered loyal communities of users around them. [[ANSI]] Smalltalk was ratified in 1998 and represents the standard version of Smalltalk.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web |url=http://www.smalltalk.org/versions/ANSIStandardSmalltalk.html |title=ANSI Smalltalk Standard |date=2004 |publisher=Smalltalk.org |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060216073334/http://www.smalltalk.org/versions/ANSIStandardSmalltalk.html |url-status=dead |archive-date=2006-02-16 |access-date=2021-03-02}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Smalltalk took second place for &quot;most loved programming language&quot; in the [[Stack Overflow]] Developer Survey in 2017,&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web| url = https://insights.stackoverflow.com/survey/2017#technology-most-loved-dreaded-and-wanted-languages| title = Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt; but it was not among the 26 most loved programming languages of the 2018 survey.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web| url = https://insights.stackoverflow.com/survey/2018#technology-most-loved-dreaded-and-wanted-languages| title = Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == History ==<br /> There are a large number of Smalltalk variants.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|url=http://www.smalltalk.org/versions|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150908041133/http://www.smalltalk.org/versions|url-status=dead|archive-date=2015-09-08|title=Versions|publisher=Smalltalk.org|access-date=2007-09-13}}&lt;/ref&gt; The unqualified word ''Smalltalk'' is often used to indicate the Smalltalk-80 language and compatible VM, the first version to be made publicly available and created in 1980. The first hardware-environments which run the Smalltalk VMs were [[Xerox Alto]] computers.<br /> <br /> Smalltalk was the product of research led by [[Alan Kay]] at [[Xerox Palo Alto Research Center]] (PARC); Alan Kay designed most of the early Smalltalk versions, [[Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|Adele Goldberg]] wrote most of the documentation, and [[Dan Ingalls]] implemented most of the early versions. The first version, termed Smalltalk-71, was created by Kay in a few mornings on a bet that a programming language based on the idea of [[message passing]] inspired by [[Simula]] could be implemented in &quot;a page of code&quot;.&lt;ref name=&quot;History&quot;&gt;{{cite web |last=Kay |first=Alan |title=The Early History of Smalltalk |url=http://gagne.homedns.org/~tgagne/contrib/EarlyHistoryST.html |access-date=2007-09-13}}&lt;/ref&gt; A later variant used for research work is now termed Smalltalk-72 and influenced the development of the [[Actor model]]. Its [[Actor model#Smalltalk|syntax and execution model]] were very different from modern Smalltalk variants.<br /> <br /> After significant revisions which froze some aspects of execution semantics to gain performance (by adopting a [[Simula]]-like class [[Inheritance (computer science)|inheritance]] model of execution), Smalltalk-76 was created. This system had a [[Development environment (software development process)|development environment]] featuring most of the now familiar tools, including a class library code browser/editor. Smalltalk-80 added [[metaclass]]es, to help maintain the &quot;everything is an object&quot; (except variables) paradigm by associating properties and behavior with individual classes, and even primitives such as integer and boolean values (for example, to support different ways to create instances).<br /> <br /> Smalltalk-80 was the first language variant made available outside of PARC, first as Smalltalk-80 Version 1, being given to a small number of firms ([[Hewlett-Packard]], [[Apple Computer]], [[Tektronix]], and [[Digital Equipment Corporation]] (DEC)) and universities ([[UC Berkeley]]) for ''[[peer review]]'' and implementing on their platforms. Later, in 1983, a general availability implementation, named Smalltalk-80 Version 2, was released as an image (platform-independent file with object definitions) and a [[virtual machine]] specification. ANSI Smalltalk has been the standard language reference since 1998.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|url=http://www.smalltalk.org/versions/ANSIStandardSmalltalk.html|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150907224300/http://www.smalltalk.org/versions/ANSIStandardSmalltalk.html|url-status=dead|archive-date=2015-09-07|title=ANSI Smalltalk Standard|publisher=Smalltalk.org|access-date=2007-09-13}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Two currently popular Smalltalk implementation variants are descendants of those original Smalltalk-80 images. [[Squeak]] is an [[open-source software|open source]] implementation derived from Smalltalk-80 Version 1 by way of Apple Smalltalk. [[VisualWorks]] is derived from Smalltalk-80 version 2 by way of Smalltalk-80 2.5 and ObjectWorks (both products of ParcPlace Systems, a Xerox PARC spin-off company formed to bring Smalltalk to the market). As an interesting link between generations, in 2001 Vassili Bykov implemented Hobbes, a virtual machine running Smalltalk-80 inside VisualWorks.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web |url = http://wiki.cs.uiuc.edu/VisualWorks/Smalltalk-80+in+a+box |title = Hobbes |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20030419030217/http://wiki.cs.uiuc.edu/VisualWorks/Smalltalk-80+in+a+box |archive-date=19 April 2003 |url-status=dead}}&lt;/ref&gt; ([[Dan Ingalls]] later ported Hobbes to Squeak.)<br /> <br /> During the late 1980s to mid-1990s, Smalltalk environments—including support, training and add-ons—were sold by two competing organizations: ParcPlace Systems and Digitalk, both California based. ParcPlace Systems tended to focus on the Unix/Sun microsystems market, while Digitalk focused on Intel-based PCs running Microsoft Windows or IBM's OS/2. Both firms struggled to take Smalltalk mainstream due to Smalltalk's substantial memory needs, limited run-time performance, and initial lack of supported connectivity to [[SQL]]-based [[relational database]] servers. While the high price of ParcPlace Smalltalk limited its market penetration to mid-sized and large commercial organizations, the Digitalk products initially tried to reach a wider audience with a lower price. IBM initially supported the Digitalk product, but then entered the market with a Smalltalk product in 1995 called VisualAge/Smalltalk. Easel introduced Enfin at this time on Windows and OS/2. Enfin became far more popular in Europe, as IBM introduced it into IT shops before their development of IBM Smalltalk (later VisualAge). Enfin was later acquired by [[Cincom Systems]], and is now sold under the name [[ObjectStudio]], and is part of the Cincom Smalltalk product suite.<br /> <br /> In 1995, ParcPlace and Digitalk merged into ParcPlace-Digitalk and then rebranded in 1997 as ObjectShare, located in Irvine, CA. ObjectShare ([[NASDAQ]]: OBJS) was traded publicly until 1999, when it was delisted and dissolved. The merged firm never managed to find an effective response to [[Java (programming language)|Java]] as to market positioning, and by 1997 its owners were looking to sell the business. In 1999, Seagull Software acquired the ObjectShare Java development lab (including the original Smalltalk/V and Visual Smalltalk development team), and still owns VisualSmalltalk, although worldwide distribution rights for the Smalltalk product remained with ObjectShare who then sold them to [[Cincom]].&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|url=http://www.seagullsoftware.com/about/history.html#1999|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20020806160121/http://seagullsoftware.com/about/history.html#1999|url-status=dead|archive-date=2002-08-06|title=History|publisher=Seagull Software|access-date=2007-09-13}}&lt;/ref&gt; VisualWorks was sold to [[Cincom]] and is now part of Cincom Smalltalk. Cincom has backed Smalltalk strongly, releasing multiple new versions of VisualWorks and ObjectStudio each year since 1999.<br /> <br /> [[Cincom]], GemTalk, and Instantiations, continue to sell Smalltalk environments. IBM has 'end of life'd VisualAge Smalltalk having in the late 1990s decided to back Java instead and it is, {{as of|2005|lc=on}}, supported by Instantiations, Inc.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web| url = http://www.instantiations.com/company/ibm-transition.html| title = VisualAge Smalltalk Transition FAQ}}&lt;/ref&gt; who renamed the product VA Smalltalk (VAST Platform) and continue to release new versions yearly. The open [[Squeak]] implementation has an active community of developers, including many of the original Smalltalk community, and has recently been used to provide the Etoys environment on the [[OLPC]] project, a toolkit for developing collaborative applications [[Croquet Project]], and the [[Open Cobalt]] virtual world application. [[GNU Smalltalk]] is a [[free software]] implementation of a derivative of Smalltalk-80 from the [[GNU]] project. [[Pharo]] Smalltalk is a fork of [[Squeak]] oriented toward research and use in commercial environments.<br /> <br /> A significant development, that has spread across all Smalltalk environments as of 2016, is the increasing usage of two web frameworks, [[Seaside (software)|Seaside]] and [[AIDA/Web]], to simplify the building of complex web applications. Seaside has seen considerable market interest with Cincom, Gemstone, and Instantiations incorporating and extending it.<br /> <br /> ==Influences==<br /> Smalltalk was one of many object-oriented programming languages based on [[Simula]].&lt;ref&gt;The Simula language was also object-oriented and preceded (and was acknowledged as an influence on) Smalltalk but it was a simulation language, not a general purpose programming language.&lt;/ref&gt; Smalltalk is also one of the most influential programming languages. Virtually all of the object-oriented languages that came after—[[Flavors (programming language)|Flavors]],&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|last=Cannon|first=Howard|title=Flavors A non-hierarchical approach to object-oriented programming|url=http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/MIT/nnnfla1-20040122.pdf|work=softwarepreservation.org|access-date=17 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt; [[CLOS]], [[Objective-C]], [[Java (programming language)|Java]], [[Python (programming language)|Python]], [[Ruby (programming language)|Ruby]],&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|title=About Ruby|url=https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/about/|work=ruby-lang.org|access-date=17 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt; and many others—were influenced by Smalltalk. Smalltalk was also one of the most popular languages for [[agile software development]] methods, [[rapid application development]] (RAD) or prototyping, and [[software design pattern]]s.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|title=Where Did Refactoring Come From?|url=http://sourcemaking.com/refactoring/where-did-refactoring-come-from|work=sourcemaking.com|access-date=17 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt; The highly productive environment provided by Smalltalk platforms made them ideal for rapid, iterative development.<br /> <br /> Smalltalk emerged from a larger program of [[Advanced Research Projects Agency]] (ARPA) funded research that in many ways defined the modern world of computing. In addition to Smalltalk, working prototypes of things such as [[hypertext]], GUIs, [[multimedia]], the mouse, [[telepresence]], and the Internet were developed by ARPA researchers in the 1960s.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|title=DARPA / ARPA|url=http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_darpa.htm|work=livinginternet.com|access-date=16 December 2013|quote=To meet this need, ARPA established the IPTO in 1962 with a mandate to build a survivable computer network to interconnect the DoD's main computers at the Pentagon, Cheyenne Mountain, and SAC HQ.}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|title=Engelbart's Role in Early Computer Networking|url=http://www.dougengelbart.org/firsts/internet.html|work=dougengelbart.org|access-date=17 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt; Alan Kay (one of the inventors of Smalltalk) also described a tablet computer he called the [[Dynabook]] which resembles modern tablet computers like the iPad.&lt;ref name=&quot;History&quot;/&gt;<br /> <br /> Smalltalk environments were often the first to develop what are now common object-oriented software design patterns. One of the most popular is the [[model–view–controller]] (MVC) pattern for [[user interface]] design. The MVC pattern enables developers to have multiple consistent views of the same underlying data. It's ideal for software development environments, where there are various views (e.g., entity-relation, dataflow, object model, etc.) of the same underlying specification. Also, for simulations or games where the underlying model may be viewed from various angles and levels of abstraction.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite journal|last1=Krasner|first1=Glen|last2=Pope|first2=Stephen|title=A Cookbook for Using the Model-View-Controller User Interface Paradigm in Smalltalk -80|journal=Journal of Object-Oriented Programming|date=August–September 1988}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> In addition to the MVC pattern, the Smalltalk language and environment were highly influential in the history of the [[graphical user interface]] (GUI) and the ''what you see is what you get'' ([[WYSIWYG]]) user interface, font editors, and desktop metaphors for UI design. The powerful built-in debugging and object inspection tools that came with Smalltalk environments set the standard for all the [[integrated development environment]]s, starting with [[Lisp Machine]] environments, that came after.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|title=Our Influence|url=http://www.cincomsmalltalk.com/main/about-us/the-big-influence-of-smalltalk/|work=cincomsmalltalk.com|access-date=16 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Object-oriented programming ==<br /> {{main|Object-oriented programming}}<br /> [[File:Smalltalk80book.jpg|thumb|right|''Smalltalk-80: The Language and its Implementation'', a.k.a. the &quot;Blue book&quot;, an original book on the language]]<br /> <br /> As in other object-oriented languages, the central concept in Smalltalk-80 (but not in Smalltalk-72) is that of an ''object''. An object is always an ''instance'' of a ''class''. Classes are &quot;blueprints&quot; that describe the properties and behavior of their instances. For example, a GUI's window class might declare that windows have properties such as the label, the position and whether the window is visible or not. The class might also declare that instances support operations such as opening, closing, moving and hiding. Each particular window object would have its own values of those properties, and each of them would be able to perform operations defined by its class.<br /> <br /> A Smalltalk object can do exactly three things:<br /> # Hold state (references to other objects).<br /> # [[Message passing|Receive a message]] from itself or another object.<br /> # In the course of processing a message, send messages to itself or another object.<br /> <br /> The state an object holds is always private to that object. Other objects can query or change that state only by sending requests (messages) to the object to do so. Any message can be sent to any object: when a message is received, the receiver determines whether that message is appropriate. Alan Kay has commented that despite the attention given to objects, messaging is the most important concept in Smalltalk: &quot;The big idea is 'messaging'—that is what the kernel of Smalltalk/Squeak is all about (and it's something that was never quite completed in our Xerox PARC phase).&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web |last=Kay |first=Alan |title=Prototypes vs Classes (e-mail on Squeak list) |url=http://lists.squeakfoundation.org/pipermail/squeak-dev/1998-October/017019.html |date=October 10, 1998}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Unlike most other languages, Smalltalk objects can be modified while the system is running. [[Live coding]] and applying fixes ‘on-the-fly’ is a dominant programming methodology for Smalltalk and is one of the main reasons for its efficiency.<br /> <br /> Smalltalk is a &quot;pure&quot; object-oriented programming language, meaning that, unlike [[C++]] and [[Java (programming language)|Java]], there is no difference between values which are objects and values which are primitive types. In Smalltalk, primitive values such as integers, booleans and characters are also objects, in the sense that they are instances of corresponding classes, and operations on them are invoked by sending messages. A programmer can change or extend (through [[Subclass (computer science)|subclassing]]) the classes that implement primitive values, so that new behavior can be defined for their instances—for example, to implement new control structures—or even so that their existing behavior will be changed. This fact is summarized in the commonly heard phrase &quot;In Smalltalk everything is an object&quot;, which may be more accurately expressed as &quot;all values are objects&quot;, as variables are not.<br /> <br /> Since all values are objects, [[Class (computer science)|classes]] are also objects. Each class is an instance of the ''[[metaclass]]'' of that class. Metaclasses in turn are also objects, and are all instances of a class called Metaclass. [[#Code blocks|Code block]]s—Smalltalk's way of expressing [[anonymous function]]s—are also objects.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite book|last1=Goldberg|first1=Adele|author-link1=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|last2=Robson|first2=David|title=Smalltalk-80 The Language|year=1989|publisher=Addison Wesley|isbn=0-201-13688-0|pages=31, 75–89}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Reflection ==<br /> [[Reflection (computer programming)|Reflection]] is a term that computer scientists apply to software programs that have the ability to inspect their own structure, for example their [[parse tree]] or [[data type]]s of input and output parameters. Reflection is a feature of dynamic, interactive languages such as Smalltalk and Lisp. Interactive programs with reflection (either interpreted or compiled) maintain the state of all in-memory objects, including the code object itself, which are generated during parsing/compilation and are programmatically accessible and modifiable.<br /> <br /> Reflection is also a feature of having a meta-model as Smalltalk does. The meta-model is the model that describes the language, and developers can use the meta-model to do things like walk through, examine, and modify the parse tree of an object, or find all the instances of a certain kind of structure (e.g., all instances of the Method class in the meta-model).<br /> <br /> Smalltalk-80 is a totally reflective system. Smalltalk-80 provides both structural and computational reflection. Smalltalk is a structurally reflective system which structure is defined by Smalltalk-80 objects. The classes and [[method (computer programming)|methods]] that define the system are also objects and fully part of the system that they help define. The Smalltalk compiler compiles textual source code into method objects, typically instances of &lt;code&gt;CompiledMethod&lt;/code&gt;. These get added to classes by storing them in a class's method dictionary. The part of the class hierarchy that defines classes can add new classes to the system. The system is extended by running Smalltalk-80 code that creates or defines classes and methods. In this way a Smalltalk-80 system is a &quot;living&quot; system, carrying around the ability to extend itself at run time.<br /> <br /> Since the classes are objects, they can be asked questions such as &quot;what methods do you implement?&quot; or &quot;what fields/slots/instance variables do you define?&quot;. So objects can easily be inspected, copied, (de)[[serialization|serialized]] and so on with generic code that applies to any object in the system.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite journal|last=Clark|first=A.N.|title=Metaclasses and Reflection in Smalltalk|year=1997|citeseerx=10.1.1.33.5755}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Smalltalk-80 also provides computational reflection, the ability to observe the computational state of the system. In languages derived from the original Smalltalk-80 the current activation of a method is accessible as an object named via a pseudo-variable (one of the six reserved words), &lt;code&gt;thisContext&lt;/code&gt;. By sending messages to &lt;code&gt;thisContext&lt;/code&gt; a method activation can ask questions like &quot;who sent this message to me&quot;. These facilities make it possible to implement [[coroutine|co-routines]] or [[Prolog]]-like back-tracking without modifying the virtual machine. The exception system is implemented using this facility. One of the more interesting uses of this is in the [[Seaside (software)|Seaside]] web framework which relieves the programmer of dealing with the complexity of a Web Browser's back button by storing continuations for each edited page and switching between them as the user navigates a web site. Programming the web server using Seaside can then be done using a more conventional programming style.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|last1=Ducasse|first1=Stéphane|last2=Lienhard|first2=Adrian|last3=Renggli|first3=Lukas|title=Seaside – A Multiple Control Flow Web Application Framework|url=http://scg.unibe.ch/archive/papers/Duca04eSeaside.pdf|work=scg.unibe.ch|publisher=Software Composition Group Institut fur Informatik und angewandte Mathematik Universitaat Bern, Switzerland|access-date=16 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> An example of how Smalltalk can use reflection is the mechanism for handling errors. When an object is sent a message that it does not implement, the virtual machine sends the object the &lt;code&gt;doesNotUnderstand:&lt;/code&gt; message with a [[reification (computer science)|reification]] of the message as an argument. The message (another object, an instance of &lt;code&gt;Message&lt;/code&gt;) contains the selector of the message and an &lt;code&gt;Array&lt;/code&gt; of its arguments. In an interactive Smalltalk system the default implementation of &lt;code&gt;doesNotUnderstand:&lt;/code&gt; is one that opens an error window (a Notifier) reporting the error to the user. Through this and the reflective facilities the user can examine the context in which the error occurred, redefine the offending code, and continue, all within the system, using Smalltalk-80's reflective facilities.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite journal|last1=Foote|first1=Brian|last2=Johnson|first2=Ralph|title=Reflective Facilities in Smalltalk-80|journal=Oopsla '89|pages=327–335|date=1–6 October 1989|url=http://www.laputan.org/ref89/ref89.html|access-date=16 December 2013|doi=10.1145/74877.74911|isbn=0897913337|s2cid=14207536|doi-access=free}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cite journal|last=Smith|first=Brian C|title=Procedural Reflection in Programming Languages|journal=MIT Technical Report|date=1982-01-01|issue=MIT-LCS-TR-272|url=http://publications.csail.mit.edu/lcs/specpub.php?id=840|access-date=16 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> By creating a class that understands (implements) only doesNotUnderstand:, one can create an instance that can intercept any message sent to it via its doesNotUnderstand: method. Such instances are called transparent proxies.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite journal|last1=Denker|first1=Marcus|last2=Peck|first2=Mariano Martinez|last3=Bouraqadi|first3=Noury|last4=Fabresse|first4=Luc|last5=Ducasse|first5=Stéphane|title=Efficient Proxies in Smalltalk|url=https://hal.inria.fr/inria-00614720/file/Mart11a-IWST11-Marea.pdf}}&lt;/ref&gt; Such proxies can then be used to implement a number of facilities such as distributed Smalltalk where messages are exchanged between multiple Smalltalk systems, database interfaces where objects are transparently faulted out of a database, [[Futures and promises|promises]], etc. The design of distributed Smalltalk influenced such systems as [[CORBA]].<br /> <br /> ==Syntax==<br /> {{more citations needed section|date=June 2014}}<br /> '''Smalltalk-80''' syntax is rather minimalist, based on only a handful of declarations and reserved words. In fact, only six &quot;keywords&quot; are reserved in Smalltalk: &lt;code&gt;true&lt;/code&gt;, &lt;code&gt;false&lt;/code&gt;, &lt;code&gt;nil&lt;/code&gt;, &lt;code&gt;self&lt;/code&gt;, &lt;code&gt;super&lt;/code&gt;, and &lt;code&gt;thisContext&lt;/code&gt;. These are properly termed ''pseudo-variables'', identifiers that follow the rules for variable identifiers but denote bindings that a programmer cannot change. The &lt;code&gt;true&lt;/code&gt;, &lt;code&gt;false&lt;/code&gt;, and &lt;code&gt;nil&lt;/code&gt; pseudo-variables are [[singleton pattern|singleton]] instances. &lt;code&gt;self&lt;/code&gt; and &lt;code&gt;super&lt;/code&gt; refer to the receiver of a message within a method activated in response to that message, but sends to &lt;code&gt;super&lt;/code&gt; are looked up in the superclass of the method's defining class rather than the class of the receiver, which allows methods in subclasses to invoke methods of the same name in superclasses. &lt;code&gt;thisContext&lt;/code&gt; refers to the current activation record. The only built-in language constructs are message sends, assignment, method return and literal syntax for some objects. From its origins as a language for children of all ages, standard Smalltalk syntax uses punctuation in a manner more like English than mainstream coding languages. The remainder of the language, including control structures for conditional evaluation and iteration, is implemented on top of the built-in constructs by the standard Smalltalk class library. (For performance reasons, implementations may recognize and treat as special some of those messages; however, this is only an optimization and is not hardwired into the language syntax.)<br /> <br /> The adage that &quot;Smalltalk syntax fits on a [[postcard]]&quot; may have originated in Alan Kay's original conception of the language, as related by him in practically every of tens or hundreds of public lectures, op. cit., or perhaps it could refer to a code snippet by [[Ralph Johnson (computer scientist)|Ralph Johnson]], demonstrating all the basic standard syntactic elements of methods:&lt;ref&gt;http://sdmeta.gforge.inria.fr/Programmez/OnTheWeb/Art2-Eng-AminimalistSyntax.pdf {{Bare URL PDF|date=March 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;http://scg.unibe.ch/archive/lectures/DucasseLectures/Duca00y1SmalltalkLectures.pdf {{Bare URL PDF|date=March 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> exampleWithNumber: x<br /> | y |<br /> true &amp; false not &amp; (nil isNil) ifFalse: [self halt].<br /> y := self size + super size.<br /> #($a #a 'a' 1 1.0)<br /> do: [ :each |<br /> Transcript show: (each class name);<br /> show: ' '].<br /> ^x &lt; y<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> ===Literals===<br /> The following examples illustrate the most common objects which can be written as literal values in Smalltalk-80 methods.<br /> <br /> Numbers. The following list illustrates some of the possibilities.<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> 42<br /> -42<br /> 123.45<br /> 1.2345e2<br /> 2r10010010<br /> 16rA000<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> The last two entries are a binary and a hexadecimal number, respectively. The number before the 'r' is the [[radix]] or base. The base does not have to be a power of two; for example 36rSMALLTALK is a valid number equal to 80738163270632 decimal.<br /> <br /> Characters are written by preceding them with a dollar sign:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;$A&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Strings are sequences of characters enclosed in single quotes:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;'Hello, world!'&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> To include a quote in a string, escape it using a second quote:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;'I said, ''Hello, world!'' to them.'&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Double quotes do not need escaping, since single quotes delimit a string:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;'I said, &quot;Hello, world!&quot; to them.'&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Two equal strings (strings are equal if they contain all the same characters) can be different objects residing in different places in memory. In addition to strings, Smalltalk has a class of character sequence objects called Symbol. Symbols are guaranteed to be unique—there can be no two equal symbols which are different objects. Because of that, symbols are very cheap to compare and are often used for language artifacts such as message selectors (see below).<br /> <br /> Symbols are written as # followed by a [[string literal]]. For example:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;#'foo'&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> If the sequence does not include whitespace or punctuation characters,<br /> this can also be written as:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;#foo&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Arrays:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;#(1 2 3 4)&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> defines an array of four integers.<br /> <br /> Many implementations support the following literal syntax for ByteArrays:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;#[1 2 3 4]&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> defines a ByteArray of four integers.<br /> <br /> And last but not least, blocks ([[anonymous function]] literals)<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;[... Some smalltalk code...]&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Blocks are explained in detail further in the text.<br /> <br /> Many Smalltalk dialects implement additional syntaxes for other objects, but the ones above are the essentials supported by all.<br /> <br /> ===Variable declarations===<br /> The two kinds of variables commonly used in Smalltalk are instance variables and temporary variables. Other variables and related terminology depend on the particular implementation. For example, [[VisualWorks]] has class shared variables and namespace shared variables, while [[Squeak]] and many other implementations have class variables, pool variables and global variables.<br /> <br /> Temporary variable declarations in Smalltalk are variables declared inside a method (see below). They are declared at the top of the method as names separated by spaces and enclosed by vertical bars. For example:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;| index |&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> declares a temporary variable named index which contains initially the value &lt;code&gt;nil&lt;/code&gt;.<br /> <br /> Multiple variables may be declared within one set of bars:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;| index vowels |&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> declares two variables: index and vowels. All variables are initialized. Variables are initialized to nil except the indexed variables of Strings, which are initialized to the null character or ByteArrays which are initialized to 0.<br /> <br /> ===Assignment===<br /> A variable is assigned a value via the '&lt;code&gt;:=&lt;/code&gt;' syntax. So:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;vowels := 'aeiou'&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Assigns the string &lt;code&gt;'aeiou'&lt;/code&gt; to the formerly declared vowels variable. The string is an object (a sequence of characters between single quotes is the syntax for literal strings), created by the compiler at compile time.<br /> <br /> In the original Parc Place image, the glyph of the underscore character ⟨_⟩ appeared as a left-facing arrow ⟨←⟩ (like in the 1963 version of the [[ASCII]] code). Smalltalk originally accepted this left-arrow as the only assignment operator. Some modern code still contains what appear to be underscores acting as assignments, hearkening back to this original usage. Most modern Smalltalk implementations accept either the underscore or the colon-equals syntax.<br /> <br /> ===Messages===<br /> The message is the most fundamental language construct in Smalltalk. Even control structures are implemented as [[message passing|message sends]]. Smalltalk adopts by default a [[dynamic dispatch]] and [[single dispatch]] strategy (as opposed to [[multiple dispatch]], used by some other object-oriented languages).<br /> <br /> The following example sends the message 'factorial' to number 42:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;42 factorial&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> In this situation 42 is called the message ''receiver'', while 'factorial' is the message ''selector''. The receiver responds to the message by returning a value (presumably in this case the [[factorial]] of 42). Among other things, the result of the message can be assigned to a variable:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;aRatherBigNumber := 42 factorial&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> &quot;factorial&quot; above is what is called a ''unary message'' because only one object, the receiver, is involved. Messages can carry additional objects as ''arguments'', as follows:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;2 raisedTo: 4&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> In this expression two objects are involved: 2 as the receiver and 4 as the message argument. The message result, or in Smalltalk parlance, ''the answer'' is supposed to be 16. Such messages are called ''keyword messages''. A message can have more arguments, using the following syntax:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;'hello world' indexOf: $o startingAt: 6&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> which answers the index of character 'o' in the receiver string, starting the search from index 6. The selector of this message is &quot;indexOf:startingAt:&quot;, consisting of two pieces, or ''keywords''.<br /> <br /> Such interleaving of keywords and arguments is meant to improve readability of code, since arguments are explained by their preceding keywords. For example, an expression to create a rectangle using a C++ or Java-like syntax might be written as:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;java&quot;&gt;new Rectangle(100, 200);&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> It's unclear which argument is which. By contrast, in Smalltalk, this code would be written as:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;Rectangle width: 100 height: 200&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> The receiver in this case is &quot;Rectangle&quot;, a class, and the answer will be a new instance of the class with the specified width and height.<br /> <br /> Finally, most of the special (non-alphabetic) characters can be used as what are called ''binary messages''. These allow mathematical and logical operators to be written in their traditional form:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;3 + 4&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> which sends the message &quot;+&quot; to the receiver 3 with 4 passed as the argument (the answer of which will be 7). Similarly,<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;3 &gt; 4&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> is the message &quot;&gt;&quot; sent to 3 with argument 4 (the answer of which will be false).<br /> <br /> Notice, that the Smalltalk-80 language itself does not imply the meaning of those operators. The outcome of the above is only defined by how the receiver of the message (in this case a Number instance) responds to messages &quot;+&quot; and &quot;&gt;&quot;.<br /> <br /> A side effect of this mechanism is [[operator overloading]]. A message &quot;&gt;&quot; can also be understood by other objects, allowing the use of expressions of the form &quot;a &gt; b&quot; to compare them.<br /> <br /> ===Expressions===<br /> An expression can include multiple message sends. In this case expressions are parsed according to a simple order of precedence. Unary messages have the highest precedence, followed by binary messages, followed by keyword messages. For example:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;3 factorial + 4 factorial between: 10 and: 100&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> is evaluated as follows:<br /> <br /> #3 receives the message &quot;factorial&quot; and answers 6<br /> #4 receives the message &quot;factorial&quot; and answers 24<br /> #6 receives the message &quot;+&quot; with 24 as the argument and answers 30<br /> #30 receives the message &quot;between:and:&quot; with 10 and 100 as arguments and answers true<br /> <br /> The answer of the last message sent is the result of the entire expression.<br /> <br /> Parentheses can alter the order of evaluation when needed. For example,<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;(3 factorial + 4) factorial between: 10 and: 100&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> will change the meaning so that the expression first computes &quot;3 factorial + 4&quot; yielding 10. That 10 then receives the second &quot;factorial&quot; message, yielding 3628800. 3628800 then receives &quot;between:and:&quot;, answering false.<br /> <br /> Note that because the meaning of binary messages is not hardwired into Smalltalk-80 syntax, all of them are considered to have equal precedence and are evaluated simply from left to right. Because of this, the meaning of Smalltalk expressions using binary messages can be different from their &quot;traditional&quot; interpretation:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;3 + 4 * 5&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> is evaluated as &quot;(3 + 4) * 5&quot;, producing 35. To obtain the expected answer of 23, parentheses must be used to explicitly define the order of operations:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;3 + (4 * 5)&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Unary messages can be ''[[method chaining|chained]]'' by writing them one after another:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;3 factorial factorial log&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> which sends &quot;factorial&quot; to 3, then &quot;factorial&quot; to the result (6), then &quot;log&quot; to the result (720), producing the result 2.85733.<br /> <br /> A series of expressions can be written as in the following (hypothetical) example, each separated by a period. This example first creates a new instance of class Window, stores it in a variable, and then sends two messages to it.<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> | window |<br /> window := Window new.<br /> window label: 'Hello'.<br /> window open<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> If a series of messages are sent to the same receiver as in the example above, they can also be written as a ''[[method cascading|cascade]]'' with individual messages separated by semicolons:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> Window new<br /> label: 'Hello';<br /> open<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> This rewrite of the earlier example as a single expression avoids the need to store the new window in a temporary variable. According to the usual precedence rules, the unary message &quot;new&quot; is sent first, and then &quot;label:&quot; and &quot;open&quot; are sent to the answer of &quot;new&quot;.<br /> <br /> ===Code blocks===<br /> A block of code (an anonymous function) can be expressed as a literal value (which is an object, since all values are objects). This is achieved with square brackets:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;[ :params | &lt;message-expressions&gt; ]&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Where '':params'' is the list of parameters the code can take. This means that the Smalltalk code:<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;[:x | x + 1]&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> can be understood as:<br /> <br /> :&lt;math&gt;f(x) = x + 1&lt;/math&gt;<br /> <br /> or expressed in lambda terms as:<br /> <br /> :&lt;math&gt;\lambda x.x + 1&lt;/math&gt;<br /> <br /> and<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;[:x | x + 1] value: 3&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> can be evaluated as<br /> <br /> :&lt;math&gt;f(3) = 3 + 1&lt;/math&gt;<br /> <br /> Or in lambda terms as:<br /> <br /> :&lt;math&gt;(\lambda x. x + 1)\,3 \underset{\beta}\rightarrow 3+1&lt;/math&gt;<br /> <br /> The resulting block object can form a [[closure (computer science)|closure]]: it can access the variables of its enclosing lexical scopes at any time. Blocks are [[first-class object]]s.<br /> <br /> Blocks can be executed by sending them the ''value'' message (compound variations exist in order to provide parameters to the block e.g. 'value:value:' and 'valueWithArguments:').<br /> <br /> The literal representation of blocks was an innovation which on the one hand allowed certain code to be significantly more readable; it allowed algorithms involving iteration to be coded in a clear and concise way. Code that would typically be written with loops in some languages can be written concisely in Smalltalk using blocks, sometimes in a single line. But more importantly blocks allow control structure to be expressed using messages and [[Polymorphism (computer science)|polymorphism]], since blocks defer computation and polymorphism can be used to select alternatives. So if-then-else in Smalltalk is written and implemented as<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;expr ifTrue: [statements to evaluate if expr] ifFalse: [statements to evaluate if not expr]&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> ''True methods for evaluation''<br /> {{pre|'''ifTrue:''' trueAlternativeBlock '''ifFalse:''' falseAlternativeBlock&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;^trueAlternativeBlock value}}<br /> <br /> ''False methods for evaluation''<br /> {{pre|'''ifTrue:''' trueAlternativeBlock '''ifFalse:''' falseAlternativeBlock&lt;br /&gt;<br /> &amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;^falseAlternativeBlock value}}<br /> <br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;positiveAmounts := allAmounts select: [:anAmount | anAmount isPositive]&lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> Note that this is related to [[functional programming]], wherein patterns of computation (here selection) are [[abstraction (computer science)|abstracted]] into [[higher-order function]]s. For example, the message ''select:'' on a Collection is equivalent to the higher-order function [[Filter (higher-order function)|filter]] on an appropriate [[function object|functor]].&lt;ref&gt;{{cite book|last1=Goldberg|first1=Adele|author-link1=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|last2=Robson|first2=David|title=Smalltalk-80 The Language|year=1989|publisher=Addison Wesley|isbn=0-201-13688-0|pages=17–37}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> ==Control structures==<br /> Control structures do not have special syntax in Smalltalk. They are instead implemented as messages sent to objects. For example, conditional execution is implemented by sending the message ifTrue: to a Boolean object, passing as an argument the block of code to be executed if and only if the Boolean receiver is true. The two subclasses of Boolean both implement ifTrue:, where the implementation in subclass True always evaluates the block and the implementation in subclass False never evaluates the block.<br /> <br /> The following code demonstrates this:<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> result := a &gt; b<br /> ifTrue:[ 'greater' ]<br /> ifFalse:[ 'less or equal' ]<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> Blocks are also used to implement user-defined control structures, enumerators, visitors, [[exception handling]], pluggable behavior and many other patterns.<br /> For example:<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> | aString vowels |<br /> aString := 'This is a string'.<br /> vowels := aString select: [:aCharacter | aCharacter isVowel].<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> In the last line, the string is sent the message select: with an argument that is a code block literal. The code block literal will be used as a predicate function that should answer true if and only if an element of the String should be included in the Collection of characters that satisfy the test represented by the code block that is the argument to the &quot;select:&quot; message.<br /> <br /> A String object responds to the &quot;select:&quot; message by iterating through its members (by sending itself the message &quot;do:&quot;), evaluating the selection block (&quot;aBlock&quot;) once with each character it contains as the argument. When evaluated (by being sent the message &quot;value: each&quot;), the selection block (referenced by the parameter &quot;aBlock&quot;, and defined by the block literal &quot;[:aCharacter | aCharacter isVowel]&quot;), answers a boolean, which is then sent &quot;ifTrue:&quot;. If the boolean is the object true, the character is added to a string to be returned.<br /> Because the &quot;select:&quot; method is defined in the abstract class Collection, it can also be used like this:<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> | rectangles aPoint collisions |<br /> rectangles := OrderedCollection<br /> with: (Rectangle left: 0 right: 10 top: 100 bottom: 200)<br /> with: (Rectangle left: 10 right: 10 top: 110 bottom: 210).<br /> aPoint := Point x: 20 y: 20.<br /> collisions := rectangles select: [:aRect | aRect containsPoint: aPoint].<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> The exception handling mechanism uses blocks as handlers (similar to CLOS-style exception handling):<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> [<br /> some operation<br /> ] on:Error do:[:ex |<br /> handler-code<br /> ex return<br /> ]<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> The exception handler's &quot;ex&quot; argument provides access to the state of the suspended operation (stack frame, line-number, receiver and arguments etc.) and is also used to control how the computation is to proceed (by sending one of &quot;ex proceed&quot;, &quot;ex reject&quot;, &quot;ex restart&quot; or &quot;ex return&quot;).<br /> <br /> ==Classes==<br /> This is a stock class definition:&lt;ref&gt;{{cite book|last1=Goldberg|first1=Adele|author-link1=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|last2=Robson|first2=David|title=Smalltalk-80 The Language|year=1989|publisher=Addison Wesley|isbn=0-201-13688-0|pages=39–53}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> Object subclass: #MessagePublisher<br /> instanceVariableNames: ''<br /> classVariableNames: ''<br /> poolDictionaries: ''<br /> category: 'Smalltalk Examples'<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> Often, most of this definition will be filled in by the environment. Notice that this is a message to the &lt;code&gt;Object&lt;/code&gt; class to create a subclass called &lt;code&gt;MessagePublisher&lt;/code&gt;. In other words: classes are [[first-class object]]s in Smalltalk which can receive messages just like any other object and can be created dynamically at execution time.<br /> <br /> ===Methods===<br /> When an object receives a message, a method matching the message name is invoked. The following code defines a method publish, and so defines what will happen when this object receives the 'publish' message.<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> publish<br /> Transcript show: 'Hello World!'<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> The following method demonstrates receiving multiple arguments and returning a value:<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> quadMultiply: i1 and: i2<br /> &quot;This method multiplies the given numbers by each other and the result by 4.&quot;<br /> | mul |<br /> mul := i1 * i2.<br /> ^mul * 4<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> The method's name is &lt;code&gt;#quadMultiply:and:&lt;/code&gt;. The return value is specified with the &lt;code&gt;^&lt;/code&gt; operator.<br /> <br /> Note that objects are responsible for determining dynamically at runtime which method to execute in response to a message—while in many languages this may be (sometimes, or even always) determined statically at compile time.<br /> <br /> ===Instantiating classes===<br /> The following code:<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> MessagePublisher new<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> creates (and returns) a new instance of the MessagePublisher class. This is typically assigned to a variable:<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> publisher := MessagePublisher new<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> However, it is also possible to send a message to a temporary, anonymous object:<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> MessagePublisher new publish<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> <br /> ==Hello World example==<br /> The [[Hello world program]] is used by virtually all texts to new programming languages as the first program learned to show the most basic syntax and environment of the language. For Smalltalk, the program is extremely simple to write. The following code, the message &quot;show:&quot; is sent to the object &quot;Transcript&quot; with the String literal 'Hello, world!' as its argument. Invocation of the &quot;show:&quot; method causes the characters of its argument (the String literal 'Hello, world!') to be displayed in the transcript (&quot;terminal&quot;) window.<br /> &lt;syntaxhighlight lang=&quot;smalltalk&quot;&gt;<br /> Transcript show: 'Hello, world!'.<br /> &lt;/syntaxhighlight&gt;<br /> Note that a Transcript window would need to be open in order to see the results of this example.<br /> <br /> ==Image-based persistence==<br /> Most popular programming systems separate static program code (in the form of class definitions, functions or procedures) from dynamic, or [[Run time (program lifecycle phase)|run time]], program state (such as objects or other forms of program data). They load program code when a program starts, and any prior program state must be recreated explicitly from configuration files or other data sources. Any settings the program (and programmer) does not explicitly save must be set up again for each restart. A traditional program also loses much useful document information each time a program saves a file, quits, and reloads. This loses details such as undo history or cursor position. Image based systems don't force losing all that just because a computer is turned off, or an OS updates.<br /> <br /> Many Smalltalk systems, however, do not differentiate between program data (objects) and code (classes). In fact, classes are objects. Thus, most Smalltalk systems store the entire program state (including both Class and non-Class objects) in an [[system image|image]] file. The image can then be loaded by the Smalltalk [[virtual machine]] to restore a Smalltalk-like system to a prior state.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|title=Image-Based Persistence|url=http://book.seaside.st/book/advanced/persistency/image-based-persistency|work=book.seaside.st|access-date=17 December 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt; This was inspired by FLEX, a language created by [[Alan Kay]] and described in his M.Sc. thesis.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite journal|last=Kay|first=Allen|title=FLEX – A flexible extendable language|journal=University of Utah MSC Thesis|year=1968|url=http://www.mprove.de/diplom/gui/kay68.html}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Smalltalk images are similar to (restartable) [[core dump]]s and can provide the same functionality as core dumps, such as delayed or remote debugging with full access to the program state at the time of error.&lt;ref&gt;{{cite web|last=Fowler|first=Martin|title=Memory Image|url=http://martinfowler.com/bliki/MemoryImage.html|work=martinfowler.com|access-date=17 December 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111007113152/http://martinfowler.com/bliki/MemoryImage.html |archive-date=2011-10-07}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Other languages that model application code as a form of data, such as [[Lisp (programming language)|Lisp]], often use image-based persistence as well (see [[EMACS]], for example). This method of persistence is powerful for rapid development because all the development information (e.g. parse trees of the program) is saved which facilitates debugging.<br /> <br /> However, it also has serious drawbacks{{citation needed|date=December 2022}} as a true persistence mechanism. For one thing, developers may often{{citation needed|date=December 2022}} want to hide implementation details and not make them available in a run time environment. For reasons of legality and maintenance, allowing anyone to modify a program at run time inevitably{{citation needed|date=December 2022}} introduces complexity and potential errors that would not be possible with a compiled system that exposes no source code in the run time environment. Also, while the persistence mechanism is easy to use, it lacks the true persistence abilities needed for most multi-user systems.{{citation needed|date=December 2022}} The most obvious is the ability to do transactions with multiple users accessing the same database in parallel.{{citation needed|date=December 2022}}<br /> <br /> ==Level of access==<br /> Everything in Smalltalk-80, unless customised to avoid the possibility, is available for modification from within a running program. This means that, for example, the [[integrated development environment|IDE]] can be changed in a running system without restarting it. In some implementations, the syntax of the language or the [[garbage collection (computer science)|garbage collection]] implementation can also be changed on the fly. Even the statement &lt;code&gt;true become: false&lt;/code&gt; is valid in Smalltalk, although executing it is not recommended except for demonstration purposes (see [[virtual machine]], [[#Image-based persistence|image-based persistence]], and [[backups]]).<br /> <br /> ==Just-in-time compilation==<br /> {{main|Just-in-time compilation}}<br /> Smalltalk programs are usually{{citation needed|date=December 2022}} compiled to [[bytecode]], which is then interpreted by a [[virtual machine]] or dynamically translated into machine-native code.<br /> <br /> ==List of implementations==<br /> <br /> === &lt;!--If you rename this subsection leave an {{anchor| OpenSmalltalk}} to it --&gt;OpenSmalltalk ===<br /> [https://github.com/OpenSmalltalk/opensmalltalk-vm/ OpenSmalltalk VM] (OS VM) is a notable{{citation needed|date=December 2022}} implementation of the Smalltalk virtual machine on which many modern Smalltalk implementations are based or derived from.&lt;ref&gt;{{Citation| work = OpenSmalltalk | title = opensmalltalk-vm|date=2020-11-03|url=https://github.com/OpenSmalltalk/opensmalltalk-vm |publisher= Git hub|access-date=2020-11-08}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;hal-01883380&quot;&gt;{{cite report |authors=Eliot Miranda, Clément Bera, Elisa Gonzalez Boix, Dan Ingalls |title=Two Decades of Smalltalk VM Development: Live VM development through Simulation Tools ; Virtual Machines and Language Implementations VMIL 2018, Boston, United States |publisher=hal.archives-ouvertes.fr |doi=10.1145/3281287.3281295 |date=2018 |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20221105011044/https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01883380/document}}&lt;/ref&gt; OS VM itself is [[Source-to-source compiler|transpiled]] from a set of Smalltalk source code files (using a subset of Smalltalk called Slang) to native [[C (programming language)|C language]] source code (by using a transpiler called VMMaker),&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web|title= Slang |url= http://wiki.squeak.org/squeak/slang |access-date=2020-11-08|website= Squeak}}&lt;/ref&gt; which is in turn compiled against specific platform and architecture of the hardware practically enabling cross-platform execution of the Smalltalk images. The source code is available on GitHub and distributed under [[MIT License]]. The known Smalltalk implementations based on the OS VM are:&lt;ref name= &quot;EliotMirand2018&quot;&gt;{{Cite web|last= Mirand|first=Eliot|last2=Bera|first2= Clément|last3=Gonzalez Boix|first3=Elisa|last4=Dan|first4= Ingalls |date=October 8, 2018|title= Two Decades of Smalltalk VM Development: Live VM development through Simulation Tool|url= https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01883380/document |url-status=live|format=PDF}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> *[[Squeak]], the original open source Smalltalk that the OpenSmalltalk VM was built for{{R|name=EliotMirand2018|page=2}}<br /> *[[Pharo]] Smalltalk, an open-source [[cross-platform]] language<br /> *[https://github.com/Cuis-Smalltalk/Cuis-Smalltalk-Dev/blob/master/README.md Cuis-Smalltalk], an open-source small, clean and Smalltalk-80 compatible fork of Squeak&lt;ref&gt;{{Citation|title=Table of Contents|date=2021-11-24|url=https://github.com/Cuis-Smalltalk/Cuis-Smalltalk-Dev|publisher=Cuis Smalltalk|access-date=2021-11-25}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> *[http://haver.klix.ch/index.html# Haver-Smalltalk] an extension of Cuis with a complete Module-System<br /> *[[Croquet Project#Virtual machine|Croquet VM]], a Squeak-related Smalltalk VM for [[Croquet Project]]<br /> <br /> === Others ===<br /> *[[Amber Smalltalk]], runs on [[JavaScript]] via transpilation<br /> *[[Dolphin Smalltalk]] from Object Arts<br /> *[[Etoys (programming language)|Etoys]], a visual programming system for learning<br /> *[[F-Script (programming language)|F-Script]], macOS-only implementation written in 2009<br /> *[[Gemstone (database)|GemStone/S]] from GemTalk Systems<br /> *[[GNU Smalltalk]], headless (lacks GUI) implementation of Smalltalk<br /> *[[Little Smalltalk]]<br /> *[[Smalltalk MT]] Smalltalk for Windows from Object Connect<br /> *[[ObjectStudio]] from [[Cincom]]<br /> *[[Pocket Smalltalk]], runs on Palm Pilot<br /> * Rosetta Smalltalk, developed by Scott Warren in 1979 and announced as a cartridge for the Exidy Sorcerer computer but never released&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite book |last=Scott Warren |url=http://archive.org/details/RosettaBrochure |title=A LANGUAGE LOST TO THE PUBLIC-- Rosetta Smalltalk Flap,1979 |date=1979}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> *[[Scratch (programming language)|Scratch]] a visual programming system (only versions before 2.0 are Smalltalk-based)<br /> *[https://github.com/smalljvm/SmallJ SmallJ], an open source Smalltalk based on Java, derived from [http://web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~budd/SmallWorld/ SmallWorld]<br /> *[https://www.exept.de/en/smalltalk-x.html Smalltalk/X], developed by Claus Gittinger<br /> *[[StepTalk]], GNUstep scripting framework uses Smalltalk language on an [[Objective-C]] runtime<br /> *[[Strongtalk]], an open-source (since 2006) Windows-only version, offers optional strong typing; initially created at [[Oracle Labs|Sun Microsystem Labs]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cite web |title=Strongtalk: A High-Performance Open Source Smalltalk With An Optional Type System|url=http://www.strongtalk.org/ |access-date=2021-11-25}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> *[https://github.com/hpi-swa/trufflesqueak/ TruffleSqueak], a Squeak/Smalltalk VM and Polyglot Programming Environment for the GraalVM (more GraalVM-based Smalltalk implementations can be found [https://www.graalvm.org/graalvm-as-a-platform/language-implementation-framework/Languages/ here])<br /> *VAST Platform (VA Smalltalk), developed by Instantiations, Inc<br /> *[[IBM VisualAge|VisualAge]] Smalltalk from IBM<br /> *[[Visual Smalltalk Enterprise]], and family, including Smalltalk/V<br /> *[[VisualWorks]] from [[Cincom]]<br /> *[https://github.com/dvmason/Zag-Smalltalk Zag], Smalltalk VM written in [[Zig (programming language)|Zig]] with methods stored as type-annotated [[Abstract syntax tree|ASTs]]<br /> <br /> ==== JavaScript VM ====<br /> *[https://pharojs.org PharoJS] an open-source [[transpiler]] from Smalltalk to Javascript, extending the [[Pharo]] environment<br /> *[https://squeak.js.org SqueakJS] an OpenSmalltalk-compatible VM for the web, also runs older Squeak apps like [[Etoys (programming language)|Etoys]] or [[Scratch (programming language)|Scratch]]<br /> <br /> ==See also==<br /> * [[Objective-C]]<br /> * [[GLASS (software bundle)]]<br /> * [[Distributed Data Management Architecture]]<br /> <br /> == References ==<br /> {{Reflist|30em}}<br /> <br /> ==Further reading==<br /> *{{cite book|last=Goldberg|first=Adele|author-link=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|title=Smalltalk-80: The Interactive Programming Environment|date=December 1983|publisher=Addison-Wesley|isbn=0-201-11372-4}}<br /> *{{cite book|editor1-last=Goldberg|editor1-first=Adele|editor1-link=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|editor2-last=Kay|editor2-first=Alan|editor2-link=Alan Kay|title=Smalltalk-72 Instruction Manual|url=http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/xerox/parc/techReports/Smalltalk-72_Instruction_Manual_Mar76.pdf|access-date=2011-11-11|date=March 1976|publisher=[[Xerox]] [[Palo Alto Research Center]]|location=Palo Alto, California}}<br /> *{{cite book|last1=Goldberg|first1=Adele|author-link1=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|last2=Robson|first2=David|title=Smalltalk-80: The Language and its Implementation|url=https://archive.org/details/smalltalk80langu00gold|date=May 1983|publisher=Addison-Wesley|isbn=0-201-11371-6|url-access=registration}}<br /> *{{cite book|title=Smalltalk 80: The Language|last1=Goldberg|first1=Adele|author-link1=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|last2=Robson|first2=David|date=11 January 1989|publisher=Addison-Wesley|isbn=0-201-13688-0}}<br /> *{{cite journal|last=Kay|first=Alan C.|author-link=Alan Kay|date=March 1993|title=The Early History of Smalltalk|journal=ACM SIGPLAN Notices|publisher=[[Association for Computing Machinery|ACM]]|volume=28|issue=3|pages=69–95|url=http://www.metaobject.com/papers/Smallhistory.pdf|doi=10.1145/155360.155364}}<br /> *{{cite book|editor-last=Krasner|editor-first=Glen|title=Smalltalk-80: Bits of History, Words of Advice|url=https://archive.org/details/crkevnprvokatol00prazgoog|date=August 1983|publisher=Addison-Wesley|isbn=0-201-11669-3}}<br /> *{{cite book|last1=Nierstrasz|first1=Oscar|last2=Ducasse|first2=Stéphane|last3=Pollet|first3=Damien|last4=Black|first4=Andrew P.|title=Squeak by Example|date=2009-10-07|publisher=Square Bracket Associates|location=Kehrsatz, Switzerland|isbn=978-3-9523341-0-2|url=http://www.squeakbyexample.org}}<br /> *{{cite book|last1=Nierstrasz|first1=Oscar|last2=Ducasse|first2=Stéphane|last3=Pollet|first3=Damien|last4=Black|first4=Andrew P.|title=Pharo by Example|url=http://pharobyexample.org/|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091021035635/http://pharobyexample.org/|url-status=dead|archive-date=October 21, 2009|date=February 23, 2010|publisher=Square Bracket Publishing|location=Kehrsatz, Switzerland|isbn=978-3-9523341-4-0}}<br /> *{{cite book|last=Winston|first=Patrick Henry|title=On to Smalltalk|date=September 3, 1997|publisher=Addison Wesley|location=MIT, USA|isbn=978-0201498271|url-access=registration|url=https://archive.org/details/effectsoftempera00baeh}}<br /> *{{cite book|last=Brauer|first=Johannes|title=Programming Smalltalk – Object-Orientation from the Beginning|date=2015|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-3-658-06823-3}}<br /> *{{cite journal|date=August 1981|title=Special Issue on Smalltalk|journal=[[Byte (magazine)|Byte]]|publisher=McGraw-Hill|volume=6|issue=8|url=https://archive.org/details/byte-magazine-1981-08|access-date=2013-10-18}}<br /> **{{cite journal|date=August 1981|title=Introducing the Smalltalk-80 System|first=Adele|last=Goldberg|author-link=Adele Goldberg (computer scientist)|journal=[[Byte (magazine)|Byte]]|publisher=McGraw-Hill|volume=6|issue=8|url=https://archive.org/stream/byte-magazine-1981-08/1981_08_BYTE_06-08_Smalltalk#page/n15/mode/2up|access-date=2013-10-18}}<br /> **{{cite journal|last=Ingalls|first=Dan|author-link=Dan Ingalls|date=August 1981|title=Design Principles Behind Smalltalk|journal=[[Byte (magazine)|Byte]]|publisher=McGraw-Hill|volume=6|issue=8|url=https://archive.org/stream/byte-magazine-1981-08/1981_08_BYTE_06-08_Smalltalk#page/n299/mode/2up|access-date=2011-11-11}}<br /> **{{cite journal|last=Tesler|first=Larry|author-link=Larry Tesler|date=August 1981|title=The Smalltalk Environment|journal=[[Byte (magazine)|Byte]]|publisher=McGraw-Hill|volume=6|issue=8|url=https://archive.org/stream/byte-magazine-1981-08/1981_08_BYTE_06-08_Smalltalk#page/n103/mode/2up|access-date=2016-05-02}}<br /> <br /> ==External links==<br /> {{Wikibooks|Programming:Smalltalk}}<br /> *[http://stephane.ducasse.free.fr/FreeBooks.html Free Online Smalltalk Books]<br /> *[https://github.com/Cuis-Smalltalk/Cuis-Smalltalk-Dev Cuis Smalltalk]<br /> *[http://pharo-project.org Pharo Smalltalk]<br /> *[http://squeak.org Squeak Smalltalk]<br /> *[https://www.cincomsmalltalk.com/main/products/objectstudio/ Cincom Smalltalk ObjectStudio]<br /> *[https://www.cincomsmalltalk.com/main/products/visualworks/ Cincom Smalltalk VisualWorks]<br /> *[http://www.object-arts.com Dolphin Smalltalk]<br /> *[http://smalltalk.gnu.org GNU Smalltalk]<br /> *[http://www.exept.de/ Smalltalk/X]<br /> *[http://www.strongtalk.org/ StrongTalk]<br /> *[http://amber-lang.net Amber Smalltalk]<br /> *[http://www.redline.st/ Redline Smalltalk]<br /> *[https://github.com/astares/ScarletSmallTalk Scarlet Smalltalk]<br /> *[http://www.instantiations.com/products/vasmalltalk/ VA Smalltalk]<br /> *[https://gemtalksystems.com GemStone]<br /> *[http://seaside.gemtalksystems.com/ GLASS (GemStone, Linux, Apache, Seaside, and Smalltalk)]<br /> *[http://www.objectconnect.com/ Smalltalk MT]<br /> *[https://lively-web.org/users/bert/Smalltalk-78.html Smalltalk-78 online emulator]<br /> *[http://opensmalltalk.org/ OpenSmalltalk cross-platform virtual machine for Squeak, Pharo, Cuis, and Newspeak]<br /> *Smalltalk-80 Bluebook implementations in C++: by [https://github.com/dbanay/smalltalk dbanay] and [https://github.com/rochus-keller/Smalltalk/ rochus-keller] on GitHub<br /> <br /> {{Smalltalk programming language}}<br /> {{Programming languages}}<br /> <br /> {{Authority control}}<br /> <br /> [[Category:Programming languages]]<br /> [[Category:Class-based programming languages]]<br /> [[Category:Dynamically typed programming languages]]<br /> [[Category:Free educational software]]<br /> [[Category:Object-oriented programming languages]]<br /> [[Category:Programming languages created by women]]<br /> [[Category:Programming languages created in 1972]]<br /> [[Category:1972 software]]<br /> [[Category:Smalltalk programming language family]]<br /> [[Category:Cross-platform free software]]<br /> [[Category:Free compilers and interpreters]]</div> 2023-02-14T21:58:56Z 2023-02-14T21:58:56Z Lucamauri https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Smalltalk //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines&diff=24555361 Wikimedia CH/Software Development Guidelines <p>Lucamauri: Editors</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;templatestyles src=&quot;Template:Wikimedia CH/ResponsiveStyle.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> {{Info|This is a work in progress. It is NOT an official document. This is an early stub. Thank you for any early contribution before public consultation.}}<br /> {{Stub}}<br /> {{Under construction}}<br /> {{:Wikimedia CH/Software Development Guidelines/Header}}<br /> <br /> The '''Software Development Guidelines''' helps technical contributors to have successful software development on a Wikimedia project. It is especially important for [[Wikimedia CH]] technical contractors.<br /> <br /> == Preamble ==<br /> Wikipedia has billions of visits every month, and it is just a piece of the Wikimedia infrastructure.<br /> <br /> Your help will support Wikimedia volunteers. It can happen that the project leader is actually a volunteer. So, thank you for being even more proactive in communicating your progresses.<br /> <br /> If a difficult bug stops you, don't worry! Share your challenges in the public. It's easier to fix a problem if somebody—in a public place—tried to describe and analyze part of it.<br /> {{info<br /> |For the purpose of this document, some common words have specific meanings, as per [https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.html RFC2119]:<br /> * '''MUST''': means the definition is an absolute requirement<br /> * '''MUST NOT''': means the definition is an absolute prohibition<br /> * '''SHOULD''': means the definition can be ignored only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> * '''SHOULD NOT''': means the definition can still be enforced, but only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> }}<br /> <br /> == Onboarding ==<br /> At the beginning of your work, to contribute as a Wikimedia developer, you will need to create some new accounts.<br /> <br /> {{info<br /> |'''Disclaimer''': You are responsible for the security of your devices and the robustness of your passwords. Don't register into a service re-using passwords from other services. Note that every credential is personal. If you think your account is compromised, report to your supervisor immediately.<br /> |file=Ambox warning orange.svg<br /> }}<br /> <br /> You will need a total of two accounts to be used in four separate websites:<br /> # '''Wikimedia account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:Special:CreateAccount|''Meta-wiki'': global Wikimedia account (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This registration provides a valid identity to login in meta.wikimedia.org, mediawiki.org, wikipedia.org, phabricator.wikimedia.org and additional collaborative websites for the general community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px|link=]] [[phabricator:auth/|''Wikimedia Phabricator'': bug tracking (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Visit the page and use the button on the left to do the login (the one called &quot;Log in or Register MediaWiki&quot;)&lt;br /&gt;If you are redirected to a login page in &quot;mediawiki.org&quot;, just enter the credentials related to your [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] global Wikimedia account.<br /> # '''Developer account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Create a Wikimedia developer account|''Wikitech'': dedicated technical wiki (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This separate registration provides access to important separated services, like wikitech.wikimedia.org, gitlab.wikimedia.org and other resources for the technical community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ##[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[gitlab:users/sign_in|''Wikimedia GitLab'': collaborate on source code (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Just enter your credentials of [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] Wikitech<br /> <br /> Don't panic. It is a total of two credentials.<br /> <br /> Take your time to customize your account preferences and become more familiar with these different powerful platforms.<br /> <br /> === Team ===<br /> Once created the accounts as mentioned above, it is good practice to customize your own user pages in a way which is meaningful and helpful for others.<br /> <br /> A good public user page is short, nice, useful and updated.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> The first principle is that your public user page is ''not'' intended for self-promotional purposes, but to communicate your background, your purposes, and to declare your conflict of interests, your role, your paid assignments. The purpose of this is to help others understand where you can contribute on what area and why.<br /> <br /> Here's a handy checklist to follow when starting one's assignment or when a role changes:<br /> # [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] https://meta.wikimedia.org/<br /> #: Login. Visit your user page (usually it's mentioned on the top-right corner)<br /> ## add info about your role, in English<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''Hello! In YEAR I'm paid to work on project ABC for Wikimedia CH. My specific role is: developer''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Phabricator<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Phabricator you can find me as @supermario-wmch''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Wikitech<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Wikitech I'm this user: https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:SuperMario-WMCH''&quot;<br /> # [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Visit your user page<br /> ## add a link pointing to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> # [[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Select your profile picture &gt; ''Edit profile''.<br /> ## add a link to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> <br /> You have success if your user page in Meta-wiki helps others in finding you in all other services, and if people from somewhere-else (for example Wikitech) can easily find your Meta-wiki account.<br /> <br /> Please help your coworkers in doing the same.<br /> <br /> Bonus point: on your Meta-wiki user page you can mention each other, to help others find your coworkers and better understand your team divisions. Creating a [[Help:Template|template]] for your team would be an easy-manageable solution to keep everyone connected without the need of reviewing a lot of user pages for any change in the team.<br /> <br /> == Where do I start? ==<br /> Now that you have the necessary accounts to act, where should you start contributing?<br /> <br /> The first entry point to Wikimedia CH software should be Phabricator: this tool can be used for track projects, act on software and to foster communication among members.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> There are several projects affiliated to WMCH:<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4830/ WMCH-Infrastructure]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4782/ WMCH-Cronos]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4799/ WMCH-Minipedia]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5220/ Project Wikimini.org]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5853/ Project DicoAdo.org]<br /> <br /> By visiting the links above you can figure out what the current projects are and how the community looks like.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> Please don't start to contribute just yet, complete the reading of the remainder of this document.<br /> <br /> == Software Guidelines ==<br /> <br /> The Wikimedia technical community maintains hundreds of thousands of software projects.&lt;ref&gt;https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/repos/?sort=stars_asc&lt;/ref&gt; Your help is important to follow basic best practices.<br /> <br /> === Operating System ===<br /> [[File:Wikimedia + Debian.svg|thumb|An happy web application supports Debian GNU/Linux servers.]]<br /> Software SHOULD be designed in a way that it executes successfully on Debian GNU/Linux stable.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot;&gt;[[wikitech:Debian]]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://wiki.debian.org/DebianStable&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> The reason is, among others, Debian stable is the only operating system supported by Wikimedia Cloud Services. This is true for both OpenStack and Kubernetes.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot; /&gt;<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies you SHOULD adopt these sources and in this order of preference:<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;main&quot; or &quot;security&quot;<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;backports&quot;<br /> # Flatpak / snap<br /> # Docker<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies your SHOULD NOT use these sources:<br /> * manual download of &quot;.deb&quot; packages from the web<br /> * download of generic software from the web<br /> * execution of installation scripts like &quot;wget&quot; in pipe at sudo<br /> <br /> Things that MUST NOT be used:<br /> * adoption of the Debian apt repository &quot;non-free&quot;<br /> * download of any software that is not released under a Free/Libre and Open Source license<br /> <br /> === Supported Software ===<br /> Example of solutions that MUST NOT be used:<br /> * adoption of proprietary dependencies (both in content and in software)<br /> * adoption of proprietary user trackers (such as Google Analytics etc.) - instead you can adopt WMCH Matomo<br /> * adoption of external web resources (such as Google Font etc.) - instead you can serve them as local resources<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that SHOULD NOT be used:<br /> * adoption of unstable / nightly software as base<br /> * adoption of esoteric programming languages<br /> <br /> Since the operating system adopted in the Wikimedia movement is Debian stable, there are well-known stable versions that SHOULD be supported.<br /> <br /> Your server-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> * Docker 1.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/docker<br /> * MariaDB 10.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-server<br /> * Node.JS 12<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodejs<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/npm<br /> * PHP 7.4<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/php<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/composer<br /> * Python 2.9<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/python3<br /> * Ruby 2.7<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/ruby<br /> &lt;!--<br /> &lt;table class=&quot;wikitable&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;th&gt;Component&lt;/th&gt;<br /> &lt;th&gt;URL&lt;/th&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Docker 1.5&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/docke&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;MariaDB 10.5&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-serve&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Node.JS 12&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodej&lt;br /&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/np&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;PHP 7.4&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/ph&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Python 2.9&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/python&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Ruby 2.7&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/rub&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;/table&gt;<br /> --&gt;<br /> Your client-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> * Chromium 108<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/chromium<br /> * Firefox 91<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/firefox-esr<br /> <br /> In addition to the above software versions, please note that further software versions, officially supported at least by Wikimedia Toolforge, are listed in the following page:<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes#Container images]]<br /> <br /> If these versions are too outdated for you, as already mentioned, check the next section for some acceptable workarounds.<br /> <br /> === Editors ===<br /> In order to efficiently develop and write code, tools like the basic [[w:en:Source-code editor|code editors]] or the full-fledged [[w:en:Integrated development environment|IDEs]] are an absolute necessity. There are hundreds of tools out there, but we can suggest a couple as industry-standard suggestions:<br /> * '''Eclipse''' is a widely used IDE that can effectively assist in [[w:en:PHP Development Tools|develop PHP]] code<br /> * '''VS Codium''' is a [https://vscodium.com/ freely-licensed binary distribution] version of the most used [[w:en:Visual Studio Code|code editor]] in the world.<br /> <br /> === Software Versions Workarounds ===<br /> The indicated versions could be obsolete for your needs. In that case you can follow one of these accepted workarounds:<br /> * PHP 8+ - you may need to adopt the reliable and compatible repository https://sury.org/<br /> * Node.JS 13+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/node)<br /> * Ruby 2.8+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/ruby)<br /> <br /> These and similar workarounds allow flexibility with Debian stable compatibility, still with sources that are trusted and has security updates.<br /> <br /> == Infrastructure ==<br /> <br /> Quick summary of the main available infrastructures to be know:<br /> <br /> * [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> * [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> Wikimedia Foundation already provides a structured, modern infrastructure, without costs to the end-users, able to minimize fragmentation, costs, complexity, gatekeeping. This infrastructure also provides effective user management, so, more efficient collaboration.<br /> <br /> Here is an overview of the two separate types of access, and what they provide:<br /> <br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-turquoise&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://meta.wikimedia.org/ '''Meta-wiki'''] provides a global account to access collaborative public access tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg|18px]] [[:w:en:|Wikipedia]]<br /> :: the Free encyclopedia<br /> :[[File:Notification-icon-Wikidata-logo.svg|18px]] [[:m:wikidata|Wikidata]]<br /> :: The largest collaborative database of structured data<br /> :[[File:MediaWiki-2020-icon.svg|18px]] [[:m:mw:|MediaWiki.org]]<br /> :: website documenting MediaWiki (the software running Wikipedia)<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px]] [[phabricator:|Wikimedia Phabricator]]<br /> :: collaborative bug tracker and more<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-pink&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/ '''Wikitech'''] provides a separate account, to access restricted technical tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px]] [[m:gitlab:|Wikimedia GitLab]]<br /> :: code hosting with git<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS|Wikimedia Cloud services]]<br /> :: virtual private servers (VPS) on OpenStack (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Platform as a service&quot;&gt;PaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> :[[File:OpenStack® Logo 2016 icon square.svg|18px]] [https://horizon.wikimedia.org/ Wikimedia Horizon]<br /> :: OpenStack administration panel<br /> :[[File:Toolforge logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Portal:Toolforge|Wikimedia Toolforge]]<br /> :: shared hosting based on Kubernetes (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Infrastructure as a service&quot;&gt;IaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end row --&gt;<br /> <br /> Note that all of these services are hosted on machines physically controlled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is not normally required in any way to adopt third party services like [https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html SaaSS]. For example, when &quot;GitLab&quot; is mentioned, we normally mean https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/ and not https://gitlab.com/ etc.<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia CH Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> The infrastructure of Wikimedia CH is Switzerland-based and it's completely separated from the one of Wikimedia Foundation.<br /> <br /> === Infrastructure Comparison ===<br /> <br /> This table helps in finding the infrastructure best suited for your project. In short:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> !<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | Easy to add and remove users and set access roles<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Available to the entire Tech community<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | OpenStack and Kubernetes<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | May host data to be protected<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Supports different GNU/Linux distros than Debian<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Primary Data Center<br /> | United States<br /> | Switzerland<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Hosting ==<br /> <br /> This table summarizes suitable hosting solutions according to your need:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> ! Need<br /> ! Implemented with<br /> ! Platform to be adopted<br /> ! Platform owner<br /> |-<br /> | shared hosting<br /> | Kubernetes<br /> | [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Toolforge<br /> | rowspan=&quot;2&quot; | [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | OpenStack<br /> | [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Cloud<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | hypervisor<br /> | WMCH internal cloud<br /> | [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |}<br /> <br /> To have a more comprehensive overview, check these resources: <br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction]]<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction#Which service is right for you?]]<br /> <br /> Here some use-cases:<br /> <br /> * hosting a bot operating in read/write mode on wiki contents<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with stable versions of PHP/Python/Ruby on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with recent software versions on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Cloud VPS<br /> * hosting a tool with custom software on custom GNU/Linux:<br /> *: → WMCH internal cloud<br /> <br /> == Coding Conventions ==<br /> <br /> Any new project SHOULD mention its Coding Conventions to help newcomers in the onboarding. In this way, contributors don't need to inspect random portions of code to have a guess.<br /> <br /> For MediaWiki extensions and gadgets, the project SHOULD adopt the following Coding Conventions:<br /> <br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/PHP]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/JavaScript]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/Database]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> If your project it's based on another software that already has different Coding Conventions, your project SHOULD adopt these.<br /> <br /> A new project SHOULD adopt simple and libre tools to help newcomers in adopting the Coding Conventions successfully and without frictions. For example adopting PHP CodeSniffer etc.&lt;ref&gt;https://github.com/squizlabs/PHP_CodeSniffer&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Documentation ==<br /> <br /> People in the development team are the ultimate experts in their own creation. This is why we need your help to take care of the documentation.<br /> <br /> The purpose of documentation is not to write it but to read it.<br /> <br /> A good documentation helps in avoiding to abandon a project, or rewrite it from scratch, due to lack of shared knowledge.<br /> <br /> The documentation must be released under a free license. Suggestions:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Open Content Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> === Sysadmin Documentation ===<br /> <br /> We need your help to create a Sysadmin Documentation. This documentation will be useful to future GNU/Linux system engineers handling your service. The sysadmin documentation should be in English.<br /> <br /> The goal is understanding how to (re)create a testing and a production environment and how to update, backup and restore.<br /> <br /> Usually useful information to mention:<br /> <br /> * software dependencies (packages to be installed in a new minimal Debian GNU/Linux stable)<br /> * installation instructions (what apt command, etc.)<br /> * configuration instructions (which system configuration files should be changed, etc.)<br /> * references to other applications, repositories and documentation related to or useful for the deploy<br /> * log file paths (those relevant for investigating application issues)<br /> * Unix users in play (perhaps the app uses system users such as www-data or has custom users)<br /> * system daemons related to the application (e.g. own custom systemd units, mention other services in use such as mariadb, apache2, nginx, etc.)<br /> * listening ports (TCP/UDP) and from which app component<br /> * security instructions<br /> ** which ''not'' paths should be externally exposed (example: ./my-temp etc.)<br /> * hardening instruction<br /> ** paths that must be writable by the app (and thus assigned to a possible ''my-app'' user) during its normal operation (example: ./my-upload, ./my-tmp, etc.)<br /> ** paths that ''not'' should be writable by the app (and therefore assignable to root) (example: all executable files, ./my-conf, etc.).<br /> * update notes<br /> ** application update procedure<br /> * backup and restore procedure<br /> ** where on the filesystem are the user data to be preserved (example: ./my-upload etc.)<br /> ** which databases should be preserved<br /> ** how to enable any maintenance mode<br /> <br /> Not all of these points may be relevant. If you feel something is missing, better add it.<br /> <br /> The documentation must not contain any secret or password.<br /> <br /> The Sysadmin Documentation can be a section in the ''README'' file in the project repository.<br /> <br /> === Development Documentation ===<br /> <br /> A short documentation in English describing the structure of the project is useful to help other technical people to approach, orient and contribute to the software.<br /> <br /> Information that should be covered:<br /> <br /> * purpose of the project/challenges encountered<br /> * structure of the project (to navigate the directories)<br /> * how to test the code locally<br /> * how to configure the application (testing / production)<br /> * where to find application logs, how to examine<br /> <br /> A section called &quot;Development Documentation&quot; in your README file of your project can be a good starting point to help other developers.<br /> <br /> === User Documentation ===<br /> <br /> Any good software has good User Documentation. The User Documentation allows end-users to master the software.<br /> <br /> Tips:<br /> <br /> * start the draft in English, especially if you plan to make it multi-language in the future<br /> * it is also okay to write it just in the language of your main destination community<br /> * start the draft without paying too much attention to formatting (example: OK an Etherpad, a wiki, a README, ...)<br /> * avoid proprietary tools from the beginning (example: avoid Google Docs) <br /> <br /> Note: the user documentation is usually improved by non-technical users. So, it's probably better to adopt a wiki, than a README on git.<br /> <br /> You can omit obvious details. For example you can omit steps already covered by in-application wizards, etc.<br /> <br /> === Server Inventory ===<br /> <br /> Any server that is not inventoried sufficiently may risk elimination by the Wikimedia Foundation&lt;ref&gt;{{en}} [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS Instances#The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle]] but also from Wikimedia CH.<br /> <br /> : ''&quot;Instances will be removed for projects that have been determined inactive.&quot;''&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> * verify that adopted servers are well-known and mentioned in the documentation<br /> * check that any custom domain is mentioned as well<br /> * check if the documentation mentions the &quot;''The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle''&quot; sufficiently<br /> <br /> == Maintenance ==<br /> <br /> Until the end of their assignment your team should take care of the application maintenance. Examples:<br /> <br /> * take care of the initial setup<br /> * perform routine maintenance to keep it running<br /> * apply security updates on application dependencies<br /> * apply security operating system updates (when applicable)<br /> * verify that the [[#Backup]] procedures are working<br /> <br /> Insights:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Cloud VPS Server Admin Log]] - SAL<br /> *: the official tool for reporting what was done during one's work on a server.<br /> <br /> If the application is already in production:<br /> <br /> * schedule and communicate the intervention windows required to perform maintenance activities that may cause downtime (polite 6-hour notice)<br /> <br /> == Backup ==<br /> <br /> At the beginning of the assignment, the team sets up a simple automatic backup plan, first of all storing a copy on the same server where the application is located, to implement a first ''on-site'' backup.<br /> <br /> Purpose of on-site backup: to allow developers to restore data from a point in time before a (their?) mistake, independently and quickly.<br /> <br /> Minimum and recommended on-site backup parameters:<br /> <br /> * Data to be saved: the minimum data needed to do a project restore<br /> ** Examples you can include: databases, private application configurations, user uploads, application logs of the day, ...<br /> ** Examples you can exclude: operating system files, files already published elsewhere (git), caches, logs already old, ...<br /> * Frequency: every night<br /> * Time of day: the night between 01:00 and 04:00 in UTC+1 (Switzerland, Geneve time)<br /> * Data retention: 24 hours (one copy only, each new backup overwrites the oldest)<br /> <br /> Once implemented, the backup should be supervised at least until the end of the assignment.<br /> <br /> Tip: it it's useful, a simple on-site backup can be done thanks to a simple &lt;code&gt;crontab&lt;/code&gt; line, using simple tools like &lt;code&gt;mysqldump&lt;/code&gt; and/or &lt;code&gt;rsync&lt;/code&gt; etc.<br /> <br /> The backup directory must not be accessible to the public or to users that are not trusted.<br /> <br /> Suggested destination for your on-site backup in your VPS:<br /> <br /> /var/backups/wmch/$HOSTNAME/daily/files...<br /> <br /> Suggested permissions: &lt;code&gt;chown app:app&lt;/code&gt; with &lt;code&gt;chmod o= ...&lt;/code&gt;.<br /> <br /> An on-site backup is not sufficient. It is just the first step to quickly setup an off-site backup.<br /> <br /> Verify that both the backup procedure and its restore are well-defined in the [[#Sysadmin Documentation]].<br /> <br /> == Code of Conduct ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the following code of conducts:<br /> <br /> * [[Universal Code of Conduct]] (applying to any project)<br /> * [[mw:Code of Conduct]] (applying to Wikimedia technical spaces)<br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Respectful behavior space policy]] (applying to Wikimedia CH)<br /> <br /> In short: be nice with others.<br /> <br /> == Terms of Service ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the Wikimedia Foundation Terms of Service:<br /> <br /> * https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use<br /> <br /> == Software License ==<br /> <br /> Any new software created for Wikimedia CH and to be used in Wikimedia projects must be released with a Free/Libre and Open Source [https://opensource.org/licenses license].<br /> <br /> If you work in a company, be sure that the person in charge of your company allows you to release such software. Get it written down. Details:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Libre Software Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> == Offboarding ==<br /> <br /> Prior to the conclusion of a team member's assignment, that person follow this checklist:<br /> <br /> # update the Team Documentation to reflect the role change<br /> # communicate the accounts that need to be deactivated<br /> # communicate the list of personal information that should be removed (not guaranteed to be removed)<br /> # contribute to the relevant beautiful [[#Documentation]]<br /> <br /> == Communication ==<br /> <br /> A good Communication helps users to be aware of development directions. An optimal Communication helps the team in avoiding design mistakes.<br /> <br /> Let's start by saying that this is not that easy, since some volunteers could create a controversy if they are not involved in early phases, while some other people just want to choose to be not involved.<br /> <br /> A Communication compromise is necessary since the community is big. Some volunteers are conservative, since the Wikimedia platforms they use are almost assimilated as a working desk, and any change can waste their time and create frustration.<br /> <br /> The development team, on the other hand, should be able to have creative and positive space to deliver something new.<br /> <br /> === Communicate Early ===<br /> <br /> Don't wait the final project conclusion to communicate progresses. This is important also because many projects will be probably never declared as completed. You might be surprised how long your software might last (as example, let's mention Wikipedia).<br /> <br /> Do you have a new project challenge? do you have a new progress? do you have a new important bug? That can be a good moment to propose a date for a quick meeting to show that. It is not required to plan a one-hour presentation each day or each week. However, it would be a mistake not to dedicate five-minute to share your screen sometime.<br /> <br /> Online meetings should be open to the public, in order to allow some people at least to join and listen. For this reason, the video conferencing platform should be libre (example: Jitsi, BigBlueButton, etc.) otherwise, technical contributors may be excluded and there wouldn't be much benefit.<br /> <br /> == Contact / Questions ==<br /> <br /> If something is not clear, please share your opinion in the talk page or contact us:<br /> <br /> : https://wikimedia.ch/en/contact/<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references /&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!--<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione utente]]<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione tecnica]]<br /> --&gt;</div> 2023-02-14T21:44:56Z 2023-02-14T21:44:56Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines&diff=24484444 Wikimedia CH/Software Development Guidelines <p>Lucamauri: /* Supported Software */</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;templatestyles src=&quot;Template:Wikimedia CH/ResponsiveStyle.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> {{Info|This is a work in progress. It is NOT an official document. This is an early stub. Thank you for any early contribution before public consultation.}}<br /> {{Stub}}<br /> {{Under construction}}<br /> <br /> The '''Software Development Guidelines''' helps technical contributors to have successful software development on a Wikimedia project. It is especially important for [[Wikimedia CH]] technical contractors.<br /> <br /> == Preamble ==<br /> Wikipedia has billions of visits every month, and it is just a piece of the Wikimedia infrastructure.<br /> <br /> Your help will support Wikimedia volunteers. It can happen that the project leader is actually a volunteer. So, thank you for being even more proactive in communicating your progresses.<br /> <br /> If a difficult bug stops you, don't worry! Share your challenges in the public. It's easier to fix a problem if somebody—in a public place—tried to describe and analyze part of it.<br /> {{info<br /> |For the purpose of this document, some common words have specific meanings, as per [https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.html RFC2119]:<br /> * '''MUST''': means the definition is an absolute requirement<br /> * '''MUST NOT''': means the definition is an absolute prohibition<br /> * '''SHOULD''': means the definition can be ignored only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> * '''SHOULD NOT''': means the definition can still be enforced, but only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> }}<br /> <br /> == Onboarding ==<br /> At the beginning of your work, to contribute as a Wikimedia developer, you will need to create some new accounts.<br /> <br /> {{info<br /> |'''Disclaimer''': You are responsible for the security of your devices and the robustness of your passwords. Don't register into a service re-using passwords from other services. Note that every credential is personal. If you think your account is compromised, report to your supervisor immediately.<br /> |file=Ambox warning orange.svg<br /> }}<br /> <br /> You will need a total of two accounts to be used in four separate websites:<br /> # '''Wikimedia account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:Special:CreateAccount|''Meta-wiki'': global Wikimedia account (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This registration provides a valid identity to login in meta.wikimedia.org, mediawiki.org, wikipedia.org, phabricator.wikimedia.org and additional collaborative websites for the general community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px|link=]] [[phabricator:auth/|''Wikimedia Phabricator'': bug tracking (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Visit the page and use the button on the left to do the login (the one called &quot;Log in or Register MediaWiki&quot;)&lt;br /&gt;If you are redirected to a login page in &quot;mediawiki.org&quot;, just enter the credentials related to your [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] global Wikimedia account.<br /> # '''Developer account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Create a Wikimedia developer account|''Wikitech'': dedicated technical wiki (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This separate registration provides access to important separated services, like wikitech.wikimedia.org, gitlab.wikimedia.org and other resources for the technical community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ##[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[gitlab:users/sign_in|''Wikimedia GitLab'': collaborate on source code (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Just enter your credentials of [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] Wikitech<br /> <br /> Don't panic. It is a total of two credentials.<br /> <br /> Take your time to customize your account preferences and become more familiar with these different powerful platforms.<br /> <br /> === Team ===<br /> Once created the accounts as mentioned above, it is good practice to customize your own user pages in a way which is meaningful and helpful for others.<br /> <br /> A good public user page is short, nice, useful and updated.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> The first principle is that your public user page is ''not'' intended for self-promotional purposes, but to communicate your background, your purposes, and to declare your conflict of interests, your role, your paid assignments. The purpose of this is to help others understand where you can contribute on what area and why.<br /> <br /> Here's a handy checklist to follow when starting one's assignment or when a role changes:<br /> # [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] https://meta.wikimedia.org/<br /> #: Login. Visit your user page (usually it's mentioned on the top-right corner)<br /> ## add info about your role, in English<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''Hello! In YEAR I'm paid to work on project ABC for Wikimedia CH. My specific role is: developer''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Phabricator<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Phabricator you can find me as @supermario-wmch''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Wikitech<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Wikitech I'm this user: https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:SuperMario-WMCH''&quot;<br /> # [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Visit your user page<br /> ## add a link pointing to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> # [[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Select your profile picture &gt; ''Edit profile''.<br /> ## add a link to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> <br /> You have success if your user page in Meta-wiki helps others in finding you in all other services, and if people from somewhere-else (for example Wikitech) can easily find your Meta-wiki account.<br /> <br /> Please help your coworkers in doing the same.<br /> <br /> Bonus point: on your Meta-wiki user page you can mention each other, to help others find your coworkers and better understand your team divisions. Creating a [[Help:Template|template]] for your team would be an easy-manageable solution to keep everyone connected without the need of reviewing a lot of user pages for any change in the team.<br /> <br /> == Where do I start? ==<br /> Now that you have the necessary accounts to act, where should you start contributing?<br /> <br /> The first entry point to Wikimedia CH software should be Phabricator: this tool can be used for track projects, act on software and to foster communication among members.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> There are several projects affiliated to WMCH:<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4830/ WMCH-Infrastructure]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4782/ WMCH-Cronos]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4799/ WMCH-Minipedia]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5220/ Project Wikimini.org]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5853/ Project DicoAdo.org]<br /> <br /> By visiting the links above you can figure out what the current projects are and how the community looks like.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> Please don't start to contribute just yet, complete the reading of the remainder of this document.<br /> <br /> == Software Guidelines ==<br /> <br /> The Wikimedia technical community maintains hundreds of thousands of software projects.&lt;ref&gt;https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/repos/?sort=stars_asc&lt;/ref&gt; Your help is important to follow basic best practices.<br /> <br /> === Operating System ===<br /> [[File:Wikimedia + Debian.svg|thumb|An happy web application supports Debian GNU/Linux servers.]]<br /> Software SHOULD be designed in a way that it executes successfully on Debian GNU/Linux stable.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot;&gt;[[wikitech:Debian]]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://wiki.debian.org/DebianStable&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> The reason is, among others, Debian stable is the only operating system supported by Wikimedia Cloud Services. This is true for both OpenStack and Kubernetes.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot; /&gt;<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies you SHOULD adopt these sources and in this order of preference:<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;main&quot; or &quot;security&quot;<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;backports&quot;<br /> # Flatpak / snap<br /> # Docker<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies your SHOULD NOT use these sources:<br /> * manual download of &quot;.deb&quot; packages from the web<br /> * download of generic software from the web<br /> * execution of installation scripts like &quot;wget&quot; in pipe at sudo<br /> <br /> Things that MUST NOT be used:<br /> * adoption of the Debian apt repository &quot;non-free&quot;<br /> * download of any software that is not released under a Free/Libre and Open Source license<br /> <br /> === Supported Software ===<br /> Example of solutions that MUST NOT be used:<br /> * adoption of proprietary dependencies (both in content and in software)<br /> * adoption of proprietary user trackers (such as Google Analytics etc.) - instead you can adopt WMCH Matomo<br /> * adoption of external web resources (such as Google Font etc.) - instead you can serve them as local resources<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that SHOULD NOT be used:<br /> * adoption of unstable / nightly software as base<br /> * adoption of esoteric programming languages<br /> <br /> Since the operating system adopted in the Wikimedia movement is Debian stable, there are well-known stable versions that SHOULD be supported.<br /> <br /> Your server-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> * Docker 1.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/docker<br /> * MariaDB 10.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-server<br /> * Node.JS 12<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodejs<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/npm<br /> * PHP 7.4<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/php<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/composer<br /> * Python 2.9<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/python3<br /> * Ruby 2.7<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/ruby<br /> &lt;!--<br /> &lt;table class=&quot;wikitable&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;th&gt;Component&lt;/th&gt;<br /> &lt;th&gt;URL&lt;/th&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Docker 1.5&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/docke&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;MariaDB 10.5&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-serve&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Node.JS 12&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodej&lt;br /&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/np&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;PHP 7.4&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/ph&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Python 2.9&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/python&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;tr&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;Ruby 2.7&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;td&gt;https://packages.debian.org/stable/rub&lt;/td&gt;<br /> &lt;/tr&gt;<br /> &lt;/table&gt;<br /> --&gt;<br /> Your client-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> * Chromium 108<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/chromium<br /> * Firefox 91<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/firefox-esr<br /> <br /> In addition to the above software versions, please note that further software versions, officially supported at least by Wikimedia Toolforge, are listed in the following page:<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes#Container images]]<br /> <br /> If these versions are too outdated for you, as already mentioned, check the next section for some acceptable workarounds.<br /> <br /> === Software Versions Workarounds ===<br /> <br /> The indicated versions could be obsolete for your needs. In that case you can follow one of these accepted workarounds:<br /> <br /> * PHP 8+ - you may need to adopt the reliable and compatible repository https://sury.org/<br /> * Node.JS 13+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/node)<br /> * Ruby 2.8+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/ruby)<br /> <br /> These and similar workarounds allow flexibility with Debian stable compatibility, still with sources that are trusted and has security updates.<br /> <br /> == Infrastructure ==<br /> <br /> Quick summary of the main available infrastructures to be know:<br /> <br /> * [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> * [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> Wikimedia Foundation already provides a structured, modern infrastructure, without costs to the end-users, able to minimize fragmentation, costs, complexity, gatekeeping. This infrastructure also provides effective user management, so, more efficient collaboration.<br /> <br /> Here is an overview of the two separate types of access, and what they provide:<br /> <br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-turquoise&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://meta.wikimedia.org/ '''Meta-wiki'''] provides a global account to access collaborative public access tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg|18px]] [[:w:en:|Wikipedia]]<br /> :: the Free encyclopedia<br /> :[[File:Notification-icon-Wikidata-logo.svg|18px]] [[:m:wikidata|Wikidata]]<br /> :: The largest collaborative database of structured data<br /> :[[File:MediaWiki-2020-icon.svg|18px]] [[:m:mw:|MediaWiki.org]]<br /> :: website documenting MediaWiki (the software running Wikipedia)<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px]] [[phabricator:|Wikimedia Phabricator]]<br /> :: collaborative bug tracker and more<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-pink&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/ '''Wikitech'''] provides a separate account, to access restricted technical tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px]] [[m:gitlab:|Wikimedia GitLab]]<br /> :: code hosting with git<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS|Wikimedia Cloud services]]<br /> :: virtual private servers (VPS) on OpenStack (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Platform as a service&quot;&gt;PaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> :[[File:OpenStack® Logo 2016 icon square.svg|18px]] [https://horizon.wikimedia.org/ Wikimedia Horizon]<br /> :: OpenStack administration panel<br /> :[[File:Toolforge logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Portal:Toolforge|Wikimedia Toolforge]]<br /> :: shared hosting based on Kubernetes (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Infrastructure as a service&quot;&gt;IaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end row --&gt;<br /> <br /> Note that all of these services are hosted on machines physically controlled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is not normally required in any way to adopt third party services like [https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html SaaSS]. For example, when &quot;GitLab&quot; is mentioned, we normally mean https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/ and not https://gitlab.com/ etc.<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia CH Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> The infrastructure of Wikimedia CH is Switzerland-based and it's completely separated from the one of Wikimedia Foundation.<br /> <br /> === Infrastructure Comparison ===<br /> <br /> This table helps in finding the infrastructure best suited for your project. In short:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> !<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | Easy to add and remove users and set access roles<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Available to the entire Tech community<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | OpenStack and Kubernetes<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | May host data to be protected<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Supports different GNU/Linux distros than Debian<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Primary Data Center<br /> | United States<br /> | Switzerland<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Hosting ==<br /> <br /> This table summarizes suitable hosting solutions according to your need:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> ! Need<br /> ! Implemented with<br /> ! Platform to be adopted<br /> ! Platform owner<br /> |-<br /> | shared hosting<br /> | Kubernetes<br /> | [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Toolforge<br /> | rowspan=&quot;2&quot; | [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | OpenStack<br /> | [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Cloud<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | hypervisor<br /> | WMCH internal cloud<br /> | [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |}<br /> <br /> To have a more comprehensive overview, check these resources: <br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction]]<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction#Which service is right for you?]]<br /> <br /> Here some use-cases:<br /> <br /> * hosting a bot operating in read/write mode on wiki contents<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with stable versions of PHP/Python/Ruby on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with recent software versions on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Cloud VPS<br /> * hosting a tool with custom software on custom GNU/Linux:<br /> *: → WMCH internal cloud<br /> <br /> == Coding Conventions ==<br /> <br /> Any new project SHOULD mention its Coding Conventions to help newcomers in the onboarding. In this way, contributors don't need to inspect random portions of code to have a guess.<br /> <br /> For MediaWiki extensions and gadgets, the project SHOULD adopt the following Coding Conventions:<br /> <br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/PHP]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/JavaScript]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/Database]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> If your project it's based on another software that already has different Coding Conventions, your project SHOULD adopt these.<br /> <br /> A new project SHOULD adopt simple and libre tools to help newcomers in adopting the Coding Conventions successfully and without frictions. For example adopting PHP CodeSniffer etc.&lt;ref&gt;https://github.com/squizlabs/PHP_CodeSniffer&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Documentation ==<br /> <br /> People in the development team are the ultimate experts in their own creation. This is why we need your help to take care of the documentation.<br /> <br /> The purpose of documentation is not to write it but to read it.<br /> <br /> A good documentation helps in avoiding to abandon a project, or rewrite it from scratch, due to lack of shared knowledge.<br /> <br /> The documentation must be released under a free license. Suggestions:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Open Content Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> === Sysadmin Documentation ===<br /> <br /> We need your help to create a Sysadmin Documentation. This documentation will be useful to future GNU/Linux system engineers handling your service. The sysadmin documentation should be in English.<br /> <br /> The goal is understanding how to (re)create a testing and a production environment and how to update, backup and restore.<br /> <br /> Usually useful information to mention:<br /> <br /> * software dependencies (packages to be installed in a new minimal Debian GNU/Linux stable)<br /> * installation instructions (what apt command, etc.)<br /> * configuration instructions (which system configuration files should be changed, etc.)<br /> * references to other applications, repositories and documentation related to or useful for the deploy<br /> * log file paths (those relevant for investigating application issues)<br /> * Unix users in play (perhaps the app uses system users such as www-data or has custom users)<br /> * system daemons related to the application (e.g. own custom systemd units, mention other services in use such as mariadb, apache2, nginx, etc.)<br /> * listening ports (TCP/UDP) and from which app component<br /> * security instructions<br /> ** which ''not'' paths should be externally exposed (example: ./my-temp etc.)<br /> * hardening instruction<br /> ** paths that must be writable by the app (and thus assigned to a possible ''my-app'' user) during its normal operation (example: ./my-upload, ./my-tmp, etc.)<br /> ** paths that ''not'' should be writable by the app (and therefore assignable to root) (example: all executable files, ./my-conf, etc.).<br /> * update notes<br /> ** application update procedure<br /> * backup and restore procedure<br /> ** where on the filesystem are the user data to be preserved (example: ./my-upload etc.)<br /> ** which databases should be preserved<br /> ** how to enable any maintenance mode<br /> <br /> Not all of these points may be relevant. If you feel something is missing, better add it.<br /> <br /> The documentation must not contain any secret or password.<br /> <br /> The Sysadmin Documentation can be a section in the ''README'' file in the project repository.<br /> <br /> === Development Documentation ===<br /> <br /> A short documentation in English describing the structure of the project is useful to help other technical people to approach, orient and contribute to the software.<br /> <br /> Information that should be covered:<br /> <br /> * purpose of the project/challenges encountered<br /> * structure of the project (to navigate the directories)<br /> * how to test the code locally<br /> * how to configure the application (testing / production)<br /> * where to find application logs, how to examine<br /> <br /> A section called &quot;Development Documentation&quot; in your README file of your project can be a good starting point to help other developers.<br /> <br /> === User Documentation ===<br /> <br /> Any good software has good User Documentation. The User Documentation allows end-users to master the software.<br /> <br /> Tips:<br /> <br /> * start the draft in English, especially if you plan to make it multi-language in the future<br /> * it is also okay to write it just in the language of your main destination community<br /> * start the draft without paying too much attention to formatting (example: OK an Etherpad, a wiki, a README, ...)<br /> * avoid proprietary tools from the beginning (example: avoid Google Docs) <br /> <br /> Note: the user documentation is usually improved by non-technical users. So, it's probably better to adopt a wiki, than a README on git.<br /> <br /> You can omit obvious details. For example you can omit steps already covered by in-application wizards, etc.<br /> <br /> === Server Inventory ===<br /> <br /> Any server that is not inventoried sufficiently may risk elimination by the Wikimedia Foundation&lt;ref&gt;{{en}} [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS Instances#The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle]] but also from Wikimedia CH.<br /> <br /> : ''&quot;Instances will be removed for projects that have been determined inactive.&quot;''&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> * verify that adopted servers are well-known and mentioned in the documentation<br /> * check that any custom domain is mentioned as well<br /> * check if the documentation mentions the &quot;''The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle''&quot; sufficiently<br /> <br /> == Maintenance ==<br /> <br /> Until the end of their assignment your team should take care of the application maintenance. Examples:<br /> <br /> * take care of the initial setup<br /> * perform routine maintenance to keep it running<br /> * apply security updates on application dependencies<br /> * apply security operating system updates (when applicable)<br /> * verify that the [[#Backup]] procedures are working<br /> <br /> Insights:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Cloud VPS Server Admin Log]] - SAL<br /> *: the official tool for reporting what was done during one's work on a server.<br /> <br /> If the application is already in production:<br /> <br /> * schedule and communicate the intervention windows required to perform maintenance activities that may cause downtime (polite 6-hour notice)<br /> <br /> == Backup ==<br /> <br /> At the beginning of the assignment, the team sets up a simple automatic backup plan, first of all storing a copy on the same server where the application is located, to implement a first ''on-site'' backup.<br /> <br /> Purpose of on-site backup: to allow developers to restore data from a point in time before a (their?) mistake, independently and quickly.<br /> <br /> Minimum and recommended on-site backup parameters:<br /> <br /> * Data to be saved: the minimum data needed to do a project restore<br /> ** Examples you can include: databases, private application configurations, user uploads, application logs of the day, ...<br /> ** Examples you can exclude: operating system files, files already published elsewhere (git), caches, logs already old, ...<br /> * Frequency: every night<br /> * Time of day: the night between 01:00 and 04:00 in UTC+1 (Switzerland, Geneve time)<br /> * Data retention: 24 hours (one copy only, each new backup overwrites the oldest)<br /> <br /> Once implemented, the backup should be supervised at least until the end of the assignment.<br /> <br /> Tip: it it's useful, a simple on-site backup can be done thanks to a simple &lt;code&gt;crontab&lt;/code&gt; line, using simple tools like &lt;code&gt;mysqldump&lt;/code&gt; and/or &lt;code&gt;rsync&lt;/code&gt; etc.<br /> <br /> The backup directory must not be accessible to the public or to users that are not trusted.<br /> <br /> Suggested destination for your on-site backup in your VPS:<br /> <br /> /var/backups/wmch/$HOSTNAME/daily/files...<br /> <br /> Suggested permissions: &lt;code&gt;chown app:app&lt;/code&gt; with &lt;code&gt;chmod o= ...&lt;/code&gt;.<br /> <br /> An on-site backup is not sufficient. It is just the first step to quickly setup an off-site backup.<br /> <br /> Verify that both the backup procedure and its restore are well-defined in the [[#Sysadmin Documentation]].<br /> <br /> == Code of Conduct ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the following code of conducts:<br /> <br /> * [[Universal Code of Conduct]] (applying to any project)<br /> * [[mw:Code of Conduct]] (applying to Wikimedia technical spaces)<br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Respectful behavior space policy]] (applying to Wikimedia CH)<br /> <br /> In short: be nice with others.<br /> <br /> == Terms of Service ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the Wikimedia Foundation Terms of Service:<br /> <br /> * https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use<br /> <br /> == Software License ==<br /> <br /> Any new software created for Wikimedia CH and to be used in Wikimedia projects must be released with a Free/Libre and Open Source [https://opensource.org/licenses license].<br /> <br /> If you work in a company, be sure that the person in charge of your company allows you to release such software. Get it written down. Details:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Libre Software Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> == Offboarding ==<br /> <br /> Prior to the conclusion of a team member's assignment, that person follow this checklist:<br /> <br /> # update the Team Documentation to reflect the role change<br /> # communicate the accounts that need to be deactivated<br /> # communicate the list of personal information that should be removed (not guaranteed to be removed)<br /> # contribute to the relevant beautiful [[#Documentation]]<br /> <br /> == Communication ==<br /> <br /> A good Communication helps users to be aware of development directions. An optimal Communication helps the team in avoiding design mistakes.<br /> <br /> Let's start by saying that this is not that easy, since some volunteers could create a controversy if they are not involved in early phases, while some other people just want to choose to be not involved.<br /> <br /> A Communication compromise is necessary since the community is big. Some volunteers are conservative, since the Wikimedia platforms they use are almost assimilated as a working desk, and any change can waste their time and create frustration.<br /> <br /> The development team, on the other hand, should be able to have creative and positive space to deliver something new.<br /> <br /> === Communicate Early ===<br /> <br /> Don't wait the final project conclusion to communicate progresses. This is important also because many projects will be probably never declared as completed. You might be surprised how long your software might last (as example, let's mention Wikipedia).<br /> <br /> Do you have a new project challenge? do you have a new progress? do you have a new important bug? That can be a good moment to propose a date for a quick meeting to show that. It is not required to plan a one-hour presentation each day or each week. However, it would be a mistake not to dedicate five-minute to share your screen sometime.<br /> <br /> Online meetings should be open to the public, in order to allow some people at least to join and listen. For this reason, the video conferencing platform should be libre (example: Jitsi, BigBlueButton, etc.) otherwise, technical contributors may be excluded and there wouldn't be much benefit.<br /> <br /> == Contact / Questions ==<br /> <br /> If something is not clear, please share your opinion in the talk page or contact us:<br /> <br /> : https://wikimedia.ch/en/contact/<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references /&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!--<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione utente]]<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione tecnica]]<br /> --&gt;</div> 2023-02-03T21:57:03Z 2023-02-03T21:57:03Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines&diff=24484381 Wikimedia CH/Software Development Guidelines <p>Lucamauri: /* Operating System */</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;templatestyles src=&quot;Template:Wikimedia CH/ResponsiveStyle.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> {{Info|This is a work in progress. It is NOT an official document. This is an early stub. Thank you for any early contribution before public consultation.}}<br /> {{Stub}}<br /> {{Under construction}}<br /> <br /> The '''Software Development Guidelines''' helps technical contributors to have successful software development on a Wikimedia project. It is especially important for [[Wikimedia CH]] technical contractors.<br /> <br /> == Preamble ==<br /> Wikipedia has billions of visits every month, and it is just a piece of the Wikimedia infrastructure.<br /> <br /> Your help will support Wikimedia volunteers. It can happen that the project leader is actually a volunteer. So, thank you for being even more proactive in communicating your progresses.<br /> <br /> If a difficult bug stops you, don't worry! Share your challenges in the public. It's easier to fix a problem if somebody—in a public place—tried to describe and analyze part of it.<br /> {{info<br /> |For the purpose of this document, some common words have specific meanings, as per [https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.html RFC2119]:<br /> * '''MUST''': means the definition is an absolute requirement<br /> * '''MUST NOT''': means the definition is an absolute prohibition<br /> * '''SHOULD''': means the definition can be ignored only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> * '''SHOULD NOT''': means the definition can still be enforced, but only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> }}<br /> <br /> == Onboarding ==<br /> At the beginning of your work, to contribute as a Wikimedia developer, you will need to create some new accounts.<br /> <br /> {{info<br /> |'''Disclaimer''': You are responsible for the security of your devices and the robustness of your passwords. Don't register into a service re-using passwords from other services. Note that every credential is personal. If you think your account is compromised, report to your supervisor immediately.<br /> |file=Ambox warning orange.svg<br /> }}<br /> <br /> You will need a total of two accounts to be used in four separate websites:<br /> # '''Wikimedia account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:Special:CreateAccount|''Meta-wiki'': global Wikimedia account (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This registration provides a valid identity to login in meta.wikimedia.org, mediawiki.org, wikipedia.org, phabricator.wikimedia.org and additional collaborative websites for the general community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px|link=]] [[phabricator:auth/|''Wikimedia Phabricator'': bug tracking (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Visit the page and use the button on the left to do the login (the one called &quot;Log in or Register MediaWiki&quot;)&lt;br /&gt;If you are redirected to a login page in &quot;mediawiki.org&quot;, just enter the credentials related to your [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] global Wikimedia account.<br /> # '''Developer account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Create a Wikimedia developer account|''Wikitech'': dedicated technical wiki (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This separate registration provides access to important separated services, like wikitech.wikimedia.org, gitlab.wikimedia.org and other resources for the technical community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ##[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[gitlab:users/sign_in|''Wikimedia GitLab'': collaborate on source code (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Just enter your credentials of [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] Wikitech<br /> <br /> Don't panic. It is a total of two credentials.<br /> <br /> Take your time to customize your account preferences and become more familiar with these different powerful platforms.<br /> <br /> === Team ===<br /> Once created the accounts as mentioned above, it is good practice to customize your own user pages in a way which is meaningful and helpful for others.<br /> <br /> A good public user page is short, nice, useful and updated.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> The first principle is that your public user page is ''not'' intended for self-promotional purposes, but to communicate your background, your purposes, and to declare your conflict of interests, your role, your paid assignments. The purpose of this is to help others understand where you can contribute on what area and why.<br /> <br /> Here's a handy checklist to follow when starting one's assignment or when a role changes:<br /> # [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] https://meta.wikimedia.org/<br /> #: Login. Visit your user page (usually it's mentioned on the top-right corner)<br /> ## add info about your role, in English<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''Hello! In YEAR I'm paid to work on project ABC for Wikimedia CH. My specific role is: developer''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Phabricator<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Phabricator you can find me as @supermario-wmch''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Wikitech<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Wikitech I'm this user: https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:SuperMario-WMCH''&quot;<br /> # [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Visit your user page<br /> ## add a link pointing to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> # [[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Select your profile picture &gt; ''Edit profile''.<br /> ## add a link to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> <br /> You have success if your user page in Meta-wiki helps others in finding you in all other services, and if people from somewhere-else (for example Wikitech) can easily find your Meta-wiki account.<br /> <br /> Please help your coworkers in doing the same.<br /> <br /> Bonus point: on your Meta-wiki user page you can mention each other, to help others find your coworkers and better understand your team divisions. Creating a [[Help:Template|template]] for your team would be an easy-manageable solution to keep everyone connected without the need of reviewing a lot of user pages for any change in the team.<br /> <br /> == Where do I start? ==<br /> Now that you have the necessary accounts to act, where should you start contributing?<br /> <br /> The first entry point to Wikimedia CH software should be Phabricator: this tool can be used for track projects, act on software and to foster communication among members.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> There are several projects affiliated to WMCH:<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4830/ WMCH-Infrastructure]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4782/ WMCH-Cronos]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4799/ WMCH-Minipedia]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5220/ Project Wikimini.org]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5853/ Project DicoAdo.org]<br /> <br /> By visiting the links above you can figure out what the current projects are and how the community looks like.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> Please don't start to contribute just yet, complete the reading of the remainder of this document.<br /> <br /> == Software Guidelines ==<br /> <br /> The Wikimedia technical community maintains hundreds of thousands of software projects.&lt;ref&gt;https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/repos/?sort=stars_asc&lt;/ref&gt; Your help is important to follow basic best practices.<br /> <br /> === Operating System ===<br /> [[File:Wikimedia + Debian.svg|thumb|An happy web application supports Debian GNU/Linux servers.]]<br /> Software SHOULD be designed in a way that it executes successfully on Debian GNU/Linux stable.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot;&gt;[[wikitech:Debian]]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://wiki.debian.org/DebianStable&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> The reason is, among others, Debian stable is the only operating system supported by Wikimedia Cloud Services. This is true for both OpenStack and Kubernetes.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot; /&gt;<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies you SHOULD adopt these sources and in this order of preference:<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;main&quot; or &quot;security&quot;<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;backports&quot;<br /> # Flatpak / snap<br /> # Docker<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies your SHOULD NOT use these sources:<br /> * manual download of &quot;.deb&quot; packages from the web<br /> * download of generic software from the web<br /> * execution of installation scripts like &quot;wget&quot; in pipe at sudo<br /> <br /> Things that MUST NOT be used:<br /> * adoption of the Debian apt repository &quot;non-free&quot;<br /> * download of any software that is not released under a Free/Libre and Open Source license<br /> <br /> === Supported Software ===<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that MUST be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of proprietary dependencies (both in content and in software)<br /> * adoption of proprietary user trackers (such as Google Analytics etc.) - instead you can adopt WMCH Matomo<br /> * adoption of external web resources (such as Google Font etc.) - instead you can serve them as local resources<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that SHOULD be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of unstable / nightly software as base<br /> * adoption of esoteric programming languages<br /> <br /> Since the operating system adopted in the Wikimedia movement is Debian stable, there are well-known stable versions that SHOULD be supported.<br /> <br /> Your server-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Docker 1.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/docker<br /> * MariaDB 10.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-server<br /> * Node.JS 12<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodejs<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/npm<br /> * PHP 7.4<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/php<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/composer<br /> * Python 2.9<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/python3<br /> * Ruby 2.7<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/ruby<br /> <br /> Your client-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Chromium 108<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/chromium<br /> * Firefox 91<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/firefox-esr<br /> <br /> In addition of the above software versions, note that this page contains additional software versions officially supported at least by Wikimedia Toolforge:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes#Container images]]<br /> <br /> If these versions are too outdated for you, as already mentioned, check the next section for some acceptable workarounds.<br /> <br /> === Software Versions Workarounds ===<br /> <br /> The indicated versions could be obsolete for your needs. In that case you can follow one of these accepted workarounds:<br /> <br /> * PHP 8+ - you may need to adopt the reliable and compatible repository https://sury.org/<br /> * Node.JS 13+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/node)<br /> * Ruby 2.8+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/ruby)<br /> <br /> These and similar workarounds allow flexibility with Debian stable compatibility, still with sources that are trusted and has security updates.<br /> <br /> == Infrastructure ==<br /> <br /> Quick summary of the main available infrastructures to be know:<br /> <br /> * [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> * [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> Wikimedia Foundation already provides a structured, modern infrastructure, without costs to the end-users, able to minimize fragmentation, costs, complexity, gatekeeping. This infrastructure also provides effective user management, so, more efficient collaboration.<br /> <br /> Here is an overview of the two separate types of access, and what they provide:<br /> <br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-turquoise&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://meta.wikimedia.org/ '''Meta-wiki'''] provides a global account to access collaborative public access tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg|18px]] [[:w:en:|Wikipedia]]<br /> :: the Free encyclopedia<br /> :[[File:Notification-icon-Wikidata-logo.svg|18px]] [[:m:wikidata|Wikidata]]<br /> :: The largest collaborative database of structured data<br /> :[[File:MediaWiki-2020-icon.svg|18px]] [[:m:mw:|MediaWiki.org]]<br /> :: website documenting MediaWiki (the software running Wikipedia)<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px]] [[phabricator:|Wikimedia Phabricator]]<br /> :: collaborative bug tracker and more<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-pink&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/ '''Wikitech'''] provides a separate account, to access restricted technical tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px]] [[m:gitlab:|Wikimedia GitLab]]<br /> :: code hosting with git<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS|Wikimedia Cloud services]]<br /> :: virtual private servers (VPS) on OpenStack (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Platform as a service&quot;&gt;PaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> :[[File:OpenStack® Logo 2016 icon square.svg|18px]] [https://horizon.wikimedia.org/ Wikimedia Horizon]<br /> :: OpenStack administration panel<br /> :[[File:Toolforge logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Portal:Toolforge|Wikimedia Toolforge]]<br /> :: shared hosting based on Kubernetes (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Infrastructure as a service&quot;&gt;IaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end row --&gt;<br /> <br /> Note that all of these services are hosted on machines physically controlled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is not normally required in any way to adopt third party services like [https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html SaaSS]. For example, when &quot;GitLab&quot; is mentioned, we normally mean https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/ and not https://gitlab.com/ etc.<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia CH Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> The infrastructure of Wikimedia CH is Switzerland-based and it's completely separated from the one of Wikimedia Foundation.<br /> <br /> === Infrastructure Comparison ===<br /> <br /> This table helps in finding the infrastructure best suited for your project. In short:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> !<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | Easy to add and remove users and set access roles<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Available to the entire Tech community<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | OpenStack and Kubernetes<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | May host data to be protected<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Supports different GNU/Linux distros than Debian<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Primary Data Center<br /> | United States<br /> | Switzerland<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Hosting ==<br /> <br /> This table summarizes suitable hosting solutions according to your need:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> ! Need<br /> ! Implemented with<br /> ! Platform to be adopted<br /> ! Platform owner<br /> |-<br /> | shared hosting<br /> | Kubernetes<br /> | [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Toolforge<br /> | rowspan=&quot;2&quot; | [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | OpenStack<br /> | [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Cloud<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | hypervisor<br /> | WMCH internal cloud<br /> | [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |}<br /> <br /> To have a more comprehensive overview, check these resources: <br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction]]<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction#Which service is right for you?]]<br /> <br /> Here some use-cases:<br /> <br /> * hosting a bot operating in read/write mode on wiki contents<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with stable versions of PHP/Python/Ruby on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with recent software versions on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Cloud VPS<br /> * hosting a tool with custom software on custom GNU/Linux:<br /> *: → WMCH internal cloud<br /> <br /> == Coding Conventions ==<br /> <br /> Any new project SHOULD mention its Coding Conventions to help newcomers in the onboarding. In this way, contributors don't need to inspect random portions of code to have a guess.<br /> <br /> For MediaWiki extensions and gadgets, the project SHOULD adopt the following Coding Conventions:<br /> <br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/PHP]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/JavaScript]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/Database]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> If your project it's based on another software that already has different Coding Conventions, your project SHOULD adopt these.<br /> <br /> A new project SHOULD adopt simple and libre tools to help newcomers in adopting the Coding Conventions successfully and without frictions. For example adopting PHP CodeSniffer etc.&lt;ref&gt;https://github.com/squizlabs/PHP_CodeSniffer&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Documentation ==<br /> <br /> People in the development team are the ultimate experts in their own creation. This is why we need your help to take care of the documentation.<br /> <br /> The purpose of documentation is not to write it but to read it.<br /> <br /> A good documentation helps in avoiding to abandon a project, or rewrite it from scratch, due to lack of shared knowledge.<br /> <br /> The documentation must be released under a free license. Suggestions:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Open Content Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> === Sysadmin Documentation ===<br /> <br /> We need your help to create a Sysadmin Documentation. This documentation will be useful to future GNU/Linux system engineers handling your service. The sysadmin documentation should be in English.<br /> <br /> The goal is understanding how to (re)create a testing and a production environment and how to update, backup and restore.<br /> <br /> Usually useful information to mention:<br /> <br /> * software dependencies (packages to be installed in a new minimal Debian GNU/Linux stable)<br /> * installation instructions (what apt command, etc.)<br /> * configuration instructions (which system configuration files should be changed, etc.)<br /> * references to other applications, repositories and documentation related to or useful for the deploy<br /> * log file paths (those relevant for investigating application issues)<br /> * Unix users in play (perhaps the app uses system users such as www-data or has custom users)<br /> * system daemons related to the application (e.g. own custom systemd units, mention other services in use such as mariadb, apache2, nginx, etc.)<br /> * listening ports (TCP/UDP) and from which app component<br /> * security instructions<br /> ** which ''not'' paths should be externally exposed (example: ./my-temp etc.)<br /> * hardening instruction<br /> ** paths that must be writable by the app (and thus assigned to a possible ''my-app'' user) during its normal operation (example: ./my-upload, ./my-tmp, etc.)<br /> ** paths that ''not'' should be writable by the app (and therefore assignable to root) (example: all executable files, ./my-conf, etc.).<br /> * update notes<br /> ** application update procedure<br /> * backup and restore procedure<br /> ** where on the filesystem are the user data to be preserved (example: ./my-upload etc.)<br /> ** which databases should be preserved<br /> ** how to enable any maintenance mode<br /> <br /> Not all of these points may be relevant. If you feel something is missing, better add it.<br /> <br /> The documentation must not contain any secret or password.<br /> <br /> The Sysadmin Documentation can be a section in the ''README'' file in the project repository.<br /> <br /> === Development Documentation ===<br /> <br /> A short documentation in English describing the structure of the project is useful to help other technical people to approach, orient and contribute to the software.<br /> <br /> Information that should be covered:<br /> <br /> * purpose of the project/challenges encountered<br /> * structure of the project (to navigate the directories)<br /> * how to test the code locally<br /> * how to configure the application (testing / production)<br /> * where to find application logs, how to examine<br /> <br /> A section called &quot;Development Documentation&quot; in your README file of your project can be a good starting point to help other developers.<br /> <br /> === User Documentation ===<br /> <br /> Any good software has good User Documentation. The User Documentation allows end-users to master the software.<br /> <br /> Tips:<br /> <br /> * start the draft in English, especially if you plan to make it multi-language in the future<br /> * it is also okay to write it just in the language of your main destination community<br /> * start the draft without paying too much attention to formatting (example: OK an Etherpad, a wiki, a README, ...)<br /> * avoid proprietary tools from the beginning (example: avoid Google Docs) <br /> <br /> Note: the user documentation is usually improved by non-technical users. So, it's probably better to adopt a wiki, than a README on git.<br /> <br /> You can omit obvious details. For example you can omit steps already covered by in-application wizards, etc.<br /> <br /> === Server Inventory ===<br /> <br /> Any server that is not inventoried sufficiently may risk elimination by the Wikimedia Foundation&lt;ref&gt;{{en}} [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS Instances#The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle]] but also from Wikimedia CH.<br /> <br /> : ''&quot;Instances will be removed for projects that have been determined inactive.&quot;''&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> * verify that adopted servers are well-known and mentioned in the documentation<br /> * check that any custom domain is mentioned as well<br /> * check if the documentation mentions the &quot;''The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle''&quot; sufficiently<br /> <br /> == Maintenance ==<br /> <br /> Until the end of their assignment your team should take care of the application maintenance. Examples:<br /> <br /> * take care of the initial setup<br /> * perform routine maintenance to keep it running<br /> * apply security updates on application dependencies<br /> * apply security operating system updates (when applicable)<br /> * verify that the [[#Backup]] procedures are working<br /> <br /> Insights:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Cloud VPS Server Admin Log]] - SAL<br /> *: the official tool for reporting what was done during one's work on a server.<br /> <br /> If the application is already in production:<br /> <br /> * schedule and communicate the intervention windows required to perform maintenance activities that may cause downtime (polite 6-hour notice)<br /> <br /> == Backup ==<br /> <br /> At the beginning of the assignment, the team sets up a simple automatic backup plan, first of all storing a copy on the same server where the application is located, to implement a first ''on-site'' backup.<br /> <br /> Purpose of on-site backup: to allow developers to restore data from a point in time before a (their?) mistake, independently and quickly.<br /> <br /> Minimum and recommended on-site backup parameters:<br /> <br /> * Data to be saved: the minimum data needed to do a project restore<br /> ** Examples you can include: databases, private application configurations, user uploads, application logs of the day, ...<br /> ** Examples you can exclude: operating system files, files already published elsewhere (git), caches, logs already old, ...<br /> * Frequency: every night<br /> * Time of day: the night between 01:00 and 04:00 in UTC+1 (Switzerland, Geneve time)<br /> * Data retention: 24 hours (one copy only, each new backup overwrites the oldest)<br /> <br /> Once implemented, the backup should be supervised at least until the end of the assignment.<br /> <br /> Tip: it it's useful, a simple on-site backup can be done thanks to a simple &lt;code&gt;crontab&lt;/code&gt; line, using simple tools like &lt;code&gt;mysqldump&lt;/code&gt; and/or &lt;code&gt;rsync&lt;/code&gt; etc.<br /> <br /> The backup directory must not be accessible to the public or to users that are not trusted.<br /> <br /> Suggested destination for your on-site backup in your VPS:<br /> <br /> /var/backups/wmch/$HOSTNAME/daily/files...<br /> <br /> Suggested permissions: &lt;code&gt;chown app:app&lt;/code&gt; with &lt;code&gt;chmod o= ...&lt;/code&gt;.<br /> <br /> An on-site backup is not sufficient. It is just the first step to quickly setup an off-site backup.<br /> <br /> Verify that both the backup procedure and its restore are well-defined in the [[#Sysadmin Documentation]].<br /> <br /> == Code of Conduct ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the following code of conducts:<br /> <br /> * [[Universal Code of Conduct]] (applying to any project)<br /> * [[mw:Code of Conduct]] (applying to Wikimedia technical spaces)<br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Respectful behavior space policy]] (applying to Wikimedia CH)<br /> <br /> In short: be nice with others.<br /> <br /> == Terms of Service ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the Wikimedia Foundation Terms of Service:<br /> <br /> * https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use<br /> <br /> == Software License ==<br /> <br /> Any new software created for Wikimedia CH and to be used in Wikimedia projects must be released with a Free/Libre and Open Source [https://opensource.org/licenses license].<br /> <br /> If you work in a company, be sure that the person in charge of your company allows you to release such software. Get it written down. Details:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Libre Software Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> == Offboarding ==<br /> <br /> Prior to the conclusion of a team member's assignment, that person follow this checklist:<br /> <br /> # update the Team Documentation to reflect the role change<br /> # communicate the accounts that need to be deactivated<br /> # communicate the list of personal information that should be removed (not guaranteed to be removed)<br /> # contribute to the relevant beautiful [[#Documentation]]<br /> <br /> == Communication ==<br /> <br /> A good Communication helps users to be aware of development directions. An optimal Communication helps the team in avoiding design mistakes.<br /> <br /> Let's start by saying that this is not that easy, since some volunteers could create a controversy if they are not involved in early phases, while some other people just want to choose to be not involved.<br /> <br /> A Communication compromise is necessary since the community is big. Some volunteers are conservative, since the Wikimedia platforms they use are almost assimilated as a working desk, and any change can waste their time and create frustration.<br /> <br /> The development team, on the other hand, should be able to have creative and positive space to deliver something new.<br /> <br /> === Communicate Early ===<br /> <br /> Don't wait the final project conclusion to communicate progresses. This is important also because many projects will be probably never declared as completed. You might be surprised how long your software might last (as example, let's mention Wikipedia).<br /> <br /> Do you have a new project challenge? do you have a new progress? do you have a new important bug? That can be a good moment to propose a date for a quick meeting to show that. It is not required to plan a one-hour presentation each day or each week. However, it would be a mistake not to dedicate five-minute to share your screen sometime.<br /> <br /> Online meetings should be open to the public, in order to allow some people at least to join and listen. For this reason, the video conferencing platform should be libre (example: Jitsi, BigBlueButton, etc.) otherwise, technical contributors may be excluded and there wouldn't be much benefit.<br /> <br /> == Contact / Questions ==<br /> <br /> If something is not clear, please share your opinion in the talk page or contact us:<br /> <br /> : https://wikimedia.ch/en/contact/<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references /&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!--<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione utente]]<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione tecnica]]<br /> --&gt;</div> 2023-02-03T21:25:47Z 2023-02-03T21:25:47Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines&diff=24478479 Wikimedia CH/Software Development Guidelines <p>Lucamauri: /* Where do I start? */ First basic draft</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;templatestyles src=&quot;Template:Wikimedia CH/ResponsiveStyle.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> {{Info|This is a work in progress. It is NOT an official document. This is an early stub. Thank you for any early contribution before public consultation.}}<br /> {{Stub}}<br /> {{Under construction}}<br /> <br /> The '''Software Development Guidelines''' helps technical contributors to have successful software development on a Wikimedia project. It is especially important for [[Wikimedia CH]] technical contractors.<br /> <br /> == Preamble ==<br /> Wikipedia has billions of visits every month, and it is just a piece of the Wikimedia infrastructure.<br /> <br /> Your help will support Wikimedia volunteers. It can happen that the project leader is actually a volunteer. So, thank you for being even more proactive in communicating your progresses.<br /> <br /> If a difficult bug stops you, don't worry! Share your challenges in the public. It's easier to fix a problem if somebody—in a public place—tried to describe and analyze part of it.<br /> {{info<br /> |For the purpose of this document, some common words have specific meanings, as per [https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.html RFC2119]:<br /> * '''MUST''': means the definition is an absolute requirement<br /> * '''MUST NOT''': means the definition is an absolute prohibition<br /> * '''SHOULD''': means the definition can be ignored only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> * '''SHOULD NOT''': means the definition can still be enforced, but only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> }}<br /> <br /> == Onboarding ==<br /> At the beginning of your work, to contribute as a Wikimedia developer, you will need to create some new accounts.<br /> <br /> {{info<br /> |'''Disclaimer''': You are responsible for the security of your devices and the robustness of your passwords. Don't register into a service re-using passwords from other services. Note that every credential is personal. If you think your account is compromised, report to your supervisor immediately.<br /> |file=Ambox warning orange.svg<br /> }}<br /> <br /> You will need a total of two accounts to be used in four separate websites:<br /> # '''Wikimedia account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:Special:CreateAccount|''Meta-wiki'': global Wikimedia account (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This registration provides a valid identity to login in meta.wikimedia.org, mediawiki.org, wikipedia.org, phabricator.wikimedia.org and additional collaborative websites for the general community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px|link=]] [[phabricator:auth/|''Wikimedia Phabricator'': bug tracking (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Visit the page and use the button on the left to do the login (the one called &quot;Log in or Register MediaWiki&quot;)&lt;br /&gt;If you are redirected to a login page in &quot;mediawiki.org&quot;, just enter the credentials related to your [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] global Wikimedia account.<br /> # '''Developer account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Create a Wikimedia developer account|''Wikitech'': dedicated technical wiki (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This separate registration provides access to important separated services, like wikitech.wikimedia.org, gitlab.wikimedia.org and other resources for the technical community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ##[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[gitlab:users/sign_in|''Wikimedia GitLab'': collaborate on source code (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Just enter your credentials of [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] Wikitech<br /> <br /> Don't panic. It is a total of two credentials.<br /> <br /> Take your time to customize your account preferences and become more familiar with these different powerful platforms.<br /> <br /> === Team ===<br /> Once created the accounts as mentioned above, it is good practice to customize your own user pages in a way which is meaningful and helpful for others.<br /> <br /> A good public user page is short, nice, useful and updated.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> The first principle is that your public user page is ''not'' intended for self-promotional purposes, but to communicate your background, your purposes, and to declare your conflict of interests, your role, your paid assignments. The purpose of this is to help others understand where you can contribute on what area and why.<br /> <br /> Here's a handy checklist to follow when starting one's assignment or when a role changes:<br /> # [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] https://meta.wikimedia.org/<br /> #: Login. Visit your user page (usually it's mentioned on the top-right corner)<br /> ## add info about your role, in English<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''Hello! In YEAR I'm paid to work on project ABC for Wikimedia CH. My specific role is: developer''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Phabricator<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Phabricator you can find me as @supermario-wmch''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Wikitech<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Wikitech I'm this user: https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:SuperMario-WMCH''&quot;<br /> # [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Visit your user page<br /> ## add a link pointing to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> # [[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Select your profile picture &gt; ''Edit profile''.<br /> ## add a link to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> <br /> You have success if your user page in Meta-wiki helps others in finding you in all other services, and if people from somewhere-else (for example Wikitech) can easily find your Meta-wiki account.<br /> <br /> Please help your coworkers in doing the same.<br /> <br /> Bonus point: on your Meta-wiki user page you can mention each other, to help others find your coworkers and better understand your team divisions. Creating a [[Help:Template|template]] for your team would be an easy-manageable solution to keep everyone connected without the need of reviewing a lot of user pages for any change in the team.<br /> <br /> == Where do I start? ==<br /> Now that you have the necessary accounts to act, where should you start contributing?<br /> <br /> The first entry point to Wikimedia CH software should be Phabricator: this tool can be used for track projects, act on software and to foster communication among members.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> There are several projects affiliated to WMCH:<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4830/ WMCH-Infrastructure]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4782/ WMCH-Cronos]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/4799/ WMCH-Minipedia]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5220/ Project Wikimini.org]<br /> * [https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/project/profile/5853/ Project DicoAdo.org]<br /> <br /> By visiting the links above you can figure out what the current projects are and how the community looks like.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> Please don't start to contribute just yet, complete the reading of the remainder of this document.<br /> <br /> == Software Guidelines ==<br /> <br /> The Wikimedia technical community maintains hundreds of thousands of software projects.&lt;ref&gt;https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/repos/?sort=stars_asc&lt;/ref&gt; Your help is important to follow basic best practices.<br /> <br /> === Operating System ===<br /> [[File:Wikimedia + Debian.svg|thumb|An happy web application supports Debian GNU/Linux servers.]]<br /> Software SHOULD be designed in a way that it executes successfully on Debian GNU/Linux stable.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot;&gt;[[wikitech:Debian]]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://wiki.debian.org/DebianStable&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> The reason is, among others, Debian stable is the only operating system supported by Wikimedia Cloud Services. This is true for both OpenStack and Kubernetes.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot; /&gt;<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies you SHOULD adopt these sources and in this order of preference:<br /> <br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;main&quot; or &quot;security&quot;<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;backports&quot;<br /> # Flatpak / snap<br /> # Docker<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies your SHOULD avoid these sources:<br /> <br /> * manual download of &quot;.deb&quot; packages from the web<br /> * download of generic software from the web<br /> * execution of installation scripts like &quot;wget&quot; in pipe at sudo<br /> <br /> Things that MUST be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of the Debian apt repository &quot;non-free&quot;<br /> * download of any software that is not released under a Free/Libre and Open Source license<br /> <br /> === Supported Software ===<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that MUST be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of proprietary dependencies (both in content and in software)<br /> * adoption of proprietary user trackers (such as Google Analytics etc.) - instead you can adopt WMCH Matomo<br /> * adoption of external web resources (such as Google Font etc.) - instead you can serve them as local resources<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that SHOULD be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of unstable / nightly software as base<br /> * adoption of esoteric programming languages<br /> <br /> Since the operating system adopted in the Wikimedia movement is Debian stable, there are well-known stable versions that SHOULD be supported.<br /> <br /> Your server-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Docker 1.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/docker<br /> * MariaDB 10.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-server<br /> * Node.JS 12<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodejs<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/npm<br /> * PHP 7.4<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/php<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/composer<br /> * Python 2.9<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/python3<br /> * Ruby 2.7<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/ruby<br /> <br /> Your client-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Chromium 108<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/chromium<br /> * Firefox 91<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/firefox-esr<br /> <br /> In addition of the above software versions, note that this page contains additional software versions officially supported at least by Wikimedia Toolforge:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes#Container images]]<br /> <br /> If these versions are too outdated for you, as already mentioned, check the next section for some acceptable workarounds.<br /> <br /> === Software Versions Workarounds ===<br /> <br /> The indicated versions could be obsolete for your needs. In that case you can follow one of these accepted workarounds:<br /> <br /> * PHP 8+ - you may need to adopt the reliable and compatible repository https://sury.org/<br /> * Node.JS 13+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/node)<br /> * Ruby 2.8+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/ruby)<br /> <br /> These and similar workarounds allow flexibility with Debian stable compatibility, still with sources that are trusted and has security updates.<br /> <br /> == Infrastructure ==<br /> <br /> Quick summary of the main available infrastructures to be know:<br /> <br /> * [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> * [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> Wikimedia Foundation already provides a structured, modern infrastructure, without costs to the end-users, able to minimize fragmentation, costs, complexity, gatekeeping. This infrastructure also provides effective user management, so, more efficient collaboration.<br /> <br /> Here is an overview of the two separate types of access, and what they provide:<br /> <br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-turquoise&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://meta.wikimedia.org/ '''Meta-wiki'''] provides a global account to access collaborative public access tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg|18px]] [[:w:en:|Wikipedia]]<br /> :: the Free encyclopedia<br /> :[[File:Notification-icon-Wikidata-logo.svg|18px]] [[:m:wikidata|Wikidata]]<br /> :: The largest collaborative database of structured data<br /> :[[File:MediaWiki-2020-icon.svg|18px]] [[:m:mw:|MediaWiki.org]]<br /> :: website documenting MediaWiki (the software running Wikipedia)<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px]] [[phabricator:|Wikimedia Phabricator]]<br /> :: collaborative bug tracker and more<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-pink&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/ '''Wikitech'''] provides a separate account, to access restricted technical tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px]] [[m:gitlab:|Wikimedia GitLab]]<br /> :: code hosting with git<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS|Wikimedia Cloud services]]<br /> :: virtual private servers (VPS) on OpenStack (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Platform as a service&quot;&gt;PaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> :[[File:OpenStack® Logo 2016 icon square.svg|18px]] [https://horizon.wikimedia.org/ Wikimedia Horizon]<br /> :: OpenStack administration panel<br /> :[[File:Toolforge logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Portal:Toolforge|Wikimedia Toolforge]]<br /> :: shared hosting based on Kubernetes (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Infrastructure as a service&quot;&gt;IaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end row --&gt;<br /> <br /> Note that all of these services are hosted on machines physically controlled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is not normally required in any way to adopt third party services like [https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html SaaSS]. For example, when &quot;GitLab&quot; is mentioned, we normally mean https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/ and not https://gitlab.com/ etc.<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia CH Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> The infrastructure of Wikimedia CH is Switzerland-based and it's completely separated from the one of Wikimedia Foundation.<br /> <br /> === Infrastructure Comparison ===<br /> <br /> This table helps in finding the infrastructure best suited for your project. In short:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> !<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | Easy to add and remove users and set access roles<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Available to the entire Tech community<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | OpenStack and Kubernetes<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | May host data to be protected<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Supports different GNU/Linux distros than Debian<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Primary Data Center<br /> | United States<br /> | Switzerland<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Hosting ==<br /> <br /> This table summarizes suitable hosting solutions according to your need:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> ! Need<br /> ! Implemented with<br /> ! Platform to be adopted<br /> ! Platform owner<br /> |-<br /> | shared hosting<br /> | Kubernetes<br /> | [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Toolforge<br /> | rowspan=&quot;2&quot; | [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | OpenStack<br /> | [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Cloud<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | hypervisor<br /> | WMCH internal cloud<br /> | [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |}<br /> <br /> To have a more comprehensive overview, check these resources: <br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction]]<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction#Which service is right for you?]]<br /> <br /> Here some use-cases:<br /> <br /> * hosting a bot operating in read/write mode on wiki contents<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with stable versions of PHP/Python/Ruby on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with recent software versions on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Cloud VPS<br /> * hosting a tool with custom software on custom GNU/Linux:<br /> *: → WMCH internal cloud<br /> <br /> == Coding Conventions ==<br /> <br /> Any new project SHOULD mention its Coding Conventions to help newcomers in the onboarding. In this way, contributors don't need to inspect random portions of code to have a guess.<br /> <br /> For MediaWiki extensions and gadgets, the project SHOULD adopt the following Coding Conventions:<br /> <br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/PHP]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/JavaScript]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/Database]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> If your project it's based on another software that already has different Coding Conventions, your project SHOULD adopt these.<br /> <br /> A new project SHOULD adopt simple and libre tools to help newcomers in adopting the Coding Conventions successfully and without frictions. For example adopting PHP CodeSniffer etc.&lt;ref&gt;https://github.com/squizlabs/PHP_CodeSniffer&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Documentation ==<br /> <br /> People in the development team are the ultimate experts in their own creation. This is why we need your help to take care of the documentation.<br /> <br /> The purpose of documentation is not to write it but to read it.<br /> <br /> A good documentation helps in avoiding to abandon a project, or rewrite it from scratch, due to lack of shared knowledge.<br /> <br /> The documentation must be released under a free license. Suggestions:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Open Content Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> === Sysadmin Documentation ===<br /> <br /> We need your help to create a Sysadmin Documentation. This documentation will be useful to future GNU/Linux system engineers handling your service. The sysadmin documentation should be in English.<br /> <br /> The goal is understanding how to (re)create a testing and a production environment and how to update, backup and restore.<br /> <br /> Usually useful information to mention:<br /> <br /> * software dependencies (packages to be installed in a new minimal Debian GNU/Linux stable)<br /> * installation instructions (what apt command, etc.)<br /> * configuration instructions (which system configuration files should be changed, etc.)<br /> * references to other applications, repositories and documentation related to or useful for the deploy<br /> * log file paths (those relevant for investigating application issues)<br /> * Unix users in play (perhaps the app uses system users such as www-data or has custom users)<br /> * system daemons related to the application (e.g. own custom systemd units, mention other services in use such as mariadb, apache2, nginx, etc.)<br /> * listening ports (TCP/UDP) and from which app component<br /> * security instructions<br /> ** which ''not'' paths should be externally exposed (example: ./my-temp etc.)<br /> * hardening instruction<br /> ** paths that must be writable by the app (and thus assigned to a possible ''my-app'' user) during its normal operation (example: ./my-upload, ./my-tmp, etc.)<br /> ** paths that ''not'' should be writable by the app (and therefore assignable to root) (example: all executable files, ./my-conf, etc.).<br /> * update notes<br /> ** application update procedure<br /> * backup and restore procedure<br /> ** where on the filesystem are the user data to be preserved (example: ./my-upload etc.)<br /> ** which databases should be preserved<br /> ** how to enable any maintenance mode<br /> <br /> Not all of these points may be relevant. If you feel something is missing, better add it.<br /> <br /> The documentation must not contain any secret or password.<br /> <br /> The Sysadmin Documentation can be a section in the ''README'' file in the project repository.<br /> <br /> === Development Documentation ===<br /> <br /> A short documentation in English describing the structure of the project is useful to help other technical people to approach, orient and contribute to the software.<br /> <br /> Information that should be covered:<br /> <br /> * purpose of the project/challenges encountered<br /> * structure of the project (to navigate the directories)<br /> * how to test the code locally<br /> * how to configure the application (testing / production)<br /> * where to find application logs, how to examine<br /> <br /> A section called &quot;Development Documentation&quot; in your README file of your project can be a good starting point to help other developers.<br /> <br /> === User Documentation ===<br /> <br /> Any good software has good User Documentation. The User Documentation allows end-users to master the software.<br /> <br /> Tips:<br /> <br /> * start the draft in English, especially if you plan to make it multi-language in the future<br /> * it is also okay to write it just in the language of your main destination community<br /> * start the draft without paying too much attention to formatting (example: OK an Etherpad, a wiki, a README, ...)<br /> * avoid proprietary tools from the beginning (example: avoid Google Docs) <br /> <br /> Note: the user documentation is usually improved by non-technical users. So, it's probably better to adopt a wiki, than a README on git.<br /> <br /> You can omit obvious details. For example you can omit steps already covered by in-application wizards, etc.<br /> <br /> === Server Inventory ===<br /> <br /> Any server that is not inventoried sufficiently may risk elimination by the Wikimedia Foundation&lt;ref&gt;{{en}} [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS Instances#The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle]] but also from Wikimedia CH.<br /> <br /> : ''&quot;Instances will be removed for projects that have been determined inactive.&quot;''&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> * verify that adopted servers are well-known and mentioned in the documentation<br /> * check that any custom domain is mentioned as well<br /> * check if the documentation mentions the &quot;''The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle''&quot; sufficiently<br /> <br /> == Maintenance ==<br /> <br /> Until the end of their assignment your team should take care of the application maintenance. Examples:<br /> <br /> * take care of the initial setup<br /> * perform routine maintenance to keep it running<br /> * apply security updates on application dependencies<br /> * apply security operating system updates (when applicable)<br /> * verify that the [[#Backup]] procedures are working<br /> <br /> Insights:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Cloud VPS Server Admin Log]] - SAL<br /> *: the official tool for reporting what was done during one's work on a server.<br /> <br /> If the application is already in production:<br /> <br /> * schedule and communicate the intervention windows required to perform maintenance activities that may cause downtime (polite 6-hour notice)<br /> <br /> == Backup ==<br /> <br /> At the beginning of the assignment, the team sets up a simple automatic backup plan, first of all storing a copy on the same server where the application is located, to implement a first ''on-site'' backup.<br /> <br /> Purpose of on-site backup: to allow developers to restore data from a point in time before a (their?) mistake, independently and quickly.<br /> <br /> Minimum and recommended on-site backup parameters:<br /> <br /> * Data to be saved: the minimum data needed to do a project restore<br /> ** Examples you can include: databases, private application configurations, user uploads, application logs of the day, ...<br /> ** Examples you can exclude: operating system files, files already published elsewhere (git), caches, logs already old, ...<br /> * Frequency: every night<br /> * Time of day: the night between 01:00 and 04:00 in UTC+1 (Switzerland, Geneve time)<br /> * Data retention: 24 hours (one copy only, each new backup overwrites the oldest)<br /> <br /> Once implemented, the backup should be supervised at least until the end of the assignment.<br /> <br /> Tip: it it's useful, a simple on-site backup can be done thanks to a simple &lt;code&gt;crontab&lt;/code&gt; line, using simple tools like &lt;code&gt;mysqldump&lt;/code&gt; and/or &lt;code&gt;rsync&lt;/code&gt; etc.<br /> <br /> The backup directory must not be accessible to the public or to users that are not trusted.<br /> <br /> Suggested destination for your on-site backup in your VPS:<br /> <br /> /var/backups/wmch/$HOSTNAME/daily/files...<br /> <br /> Suggested permissions: &lt;code&gt;chown app:app&lt;/code&gt; with &lt;code&gt;chmod o= ...&lt;/code&gt;.<br /> <br /> An on-site backup is not sufficient. It is just the first step to quickly setup an off-site backup.<br /> <br /> Verify that both the backup procedure and its restore are well-defined in the [[#Sysadmin Documentation]].<br /> <br /> == Code of Conduct ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the following code of conducts:<br /> <br /> * [[Universal Code of Conduct]] (applying to any project)<br /> * [[mw:Code of Conduct]] (applying to Wikimedia technical spaces)<br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Respectful behavior space policy]] (applying to Wikimedia CH)<br /> <br /> In short: be nice with others.<br /> <br /> == Terms of Service ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the Wikimedia Foundation Terms of Service:<br /> <br /> * https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use<br /> <br /> == Software License ==<br /> <br /> Any new software created for Wikimedia CH and to be used in Wikimedia projects must be released with a Free/Libre and Open Source [https://opensource.org/licenses license].<br /> <br /> If you work in a company, be sure that the person in charge of your company allows you to release such software. Get it written down. Details:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Libre Software Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> == Offboarding ==<br /> <br /> Prior to the conclusion of a team member's assignment, that person follow this checklist:<br /> <br /> # update the Team Documentation to reflect the role change<br /> # communicate the accounts that need to be deactivated<br /> # communicate the list of personal information that should be removed (not guaranteed to be removed)<br /> # contribute to the relevant beautiful [[#Documentation]]<br /> <br /> == Communication ==<br /> <br /> A good Communication helps users to be aware of development directions. An optimal Communication helps the team in avoiding design mistakes.<br /> <br /> Let's start by saying that this is not that easy, since some volunteers could create a controversy if they are not involved in early phases, while some other people just want to choose to be not involved.<br /> <br /> A Communication compromise is necessary since the community is big. Some volunteers are conservative, since the Wikimedia platforms they use are almost assimilated as a working desk, and any change can waste their time and create frustration.<br /> <br /> The development team, on the other hand, should be able to have creative and positive space to deliver something new.<br /> <br /> === Communicate Early ===<br /> <br /> Don't wait the final project conclusion to communicate progresses. This is important also because many projects will be probably never declared as completed. You might be surprised how long your software might last (as example, let's mention Wikipedia).<br /> <br /> Do you have a new project challenge? do you have a new progress? do you have a new important bug? That can be a good moment to propose a date for a quick meeting to show that. It is not required to plan a one-hour presentation each day or each week. However, it would be a mistake not to dedicate five-minute to share your screen sometime.<br /> <br /> Online meetings should be open to the public, in order to allow some people at least to join and listen. For this reason, the video conferencing platform should be libre (example: Jitsi, BigBlueButton, etc.) otherwise, technical contributors may be excluded and there wouldn't be much benefit.<br /> <br /> == Contact / Questions ==<br /> <br /> If something is not clear, please share your opinion in the talk page or contact us:<br /> <br /> : https://wikimedia.ch/en/contact/<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references /&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!--<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione utente]]<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione tecnica]]<br /> --&gt;</div> 2023-02-02T22:36:03Z 2023-02-02T22:36:03Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines&diff=24478452 Wikimedia CH/Software Development Guidelines <p>Lucamauri: /* Software License */ link</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;templatestyles src=&quot;Template:Wikimedia CH/ResponsiveStyle.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> {{Info|This is a work in progress. It is NOT an official document. This is an early stub. Thank you for any early contribution before public consultation.}}<br /> {{Stub}}<br /> {{Under construction}}<br /> <br /> The '''Software Development Guidelines''' helps technical contributors to have successful software development on a Wikimedia project. It is especially important for [[Wikimedia CH]] technical contractors.<br /> <br /> == Preamble ==<br /> Wikipedia has billions of visits every month, and it is just a piece of the Wikimedia infrastructure.<br /> <br /> Your help will support Wikimedia volunteers. It can happen that the project leader is actually a volunteer. So, thank you for being even more proactive in communicating your progresses.<br /> <br /> If a difficult bug stops you, don't worry! Share your challenges in the public. It's easier to fix a problem if somebody—in a public place—tried to describe and analyze part of it.<br /> {{info<br /> |For the purpose of this document, some common words have specific meanings, as per [https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.html RFC2119]:<br /> * '''MUST''': means the definition is an absolute requirement<br /> * '''MUST NOT''': means the definition is an absolute prohibition<br /> * '''SHOULD''': means the definition can be ignored only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> * '''SHOULD NOT''': means the definition can still be enforced, but only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> }}<br /> <br /> == Onboarding ==<br /> At the beginning of your work, to contribute as a Wikimedia developer, you will need to create some new accounts.<br /> <br /> {{info<br /> |'''Disclaimer''': You are responsible for the security of your devices and the robustness of your passwords. Don't register into a service re-using passwords from other services. Note that every credential is personal. If you think your account is compromised, report to your supervisor immediately.<br /> |file=Ambox warning orange.svg<br /> }}<br /> <br /> You will need a total of two accounts to be used in four separate websites:<br /> # '''Wikimedia account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:Special:CreateAccount|''Meta-wiki'': global Wikimedia account (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This registration provides a valid identity to login in meta.wikimedia.org, mediawiki.org, wikipedia.org, phabricator.wikimedia.org and additional collaborative websites for the general community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px|link=]] [[phabricator:auth/|''Wikimedia Phabricator'': bug tracking (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Visit the page and use the button on the left to do the login (the one called &quot;Log in or Register MediaWiki&quot;)&lt;br /&gt;If you are redirected to a login page in &quot;mediawiki.org&quot;, just enter the credentials related to your [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] global Wikimedia account.<br /> # '''Developer account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Create a Wikimedia developer account|''Wikitech'': dedicated technical wiki (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This separate registration provides access to important separated services, like wikitech.wikimedia.org, gitlab.wikimedia.org and other resources for the technical community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ##[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[gitlab:users/sign_in|''Wikimedia GitLab'': collaborate on source code (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Just enter your credentials of [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] Wikitech<br /> <br /> Don't panic. It is a total of two credentials.<br /> <br /> Take your time to customize your account preferences and become more familiar with these different powerful platforms.<br /> <br /> === Team ===<br /> Once created the accounts as mentioned above, it is good practice to customize your own user pages in a way which is meaningful and helpful for others.<br /> <br /> A good public user page is short, nice, useful and updated.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> The first principle is that your public user page is ''not'' intended for self-promotional purposes, but to communicate your background, your purposes, and to declare your conflict of interests, your role, your paid assignments. The purpose of this is to help others understand where you can contribute on what area and why.<br /> <br /> Here's a handy checklist to follow when starting one's assignment or when a role changes:<br /> # [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] https://meta.wikimedia.org/<br /> #: Login. Visit your user page (usually it's mentioned on the top-right corner)<br /> ## add info about your role, in English<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''Hello! In YEAR I'm paid to work on project ABC for Wikimedia CH. My specific role is: developer''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Phabricator<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Phabricator you can find me as @supermario-wmch''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Wikitech<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Wikitech I'm this user: https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:SuperMario-WMCH''&quot;<br /> # [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Visit your user page<br /> ## add a link pointing to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> # [[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Select your profile picture &gt; ''Edit profile''.<br /> ## add a link to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> <br /> You have success if your user page in Meta-wiki helps others in finding you in all other services, and if people from somewhere-else (for example Wikitech) can easily find your Meta-wiki account.<br /> <br /> Please help your coworkers in doing the same.<br /> <br /> Bonus point: on your Meta-wiki user page you can mention each other, to help others find your coworkers and better understand your team divisions. Creating a [[Help:Template|template]] for your team would be an easy-manageable solution to keep everyone connected without the need of reviewing a lot of user pages for any change in the team.<br /> <br /> == Software Guidelines ==<br /> <br /> The Wikimedia technical community maintains hundreds of thousands of software projects.&lt;ref&gt;https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/repos/?sort=stars_asc&lt;/ref&gt; Your help is important to follow basic best practices.<br /> <br /> === Operating System ===<br /> [[File:Wikimedia + Debian.svg|thumb|An happy web application supports Debian GNU/Linux servers.]]<br /> Software SHOULD be designed in a way that it executes successfully on Debian GNU/Linux stable.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot;&gt;[[wikitech:Debian]]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://wiki.debian.org/DebianStable&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> The reason is, among others, Debian stable is the only operating system supported by Wikimedia Cloud Services. This is true for both OpenStack and Kubernetes.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot; /&gt;<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies you SHOULD adopt these sources and in this order of preference:<br /> <br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;main&quot; or &quot;security&quot;<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;backports&quot;<br /> # Flatpak / snap<br /> # Docker<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies your SHOULD avoid these sources:<br /> <br /> * manual download of &quot;.deb&quot; packages from the web<br /> * download of generic software from the web<br /> * execution of installation scripts like &quot;wget&quot; in pipe at sudo<br /> <br /> Things that MUST be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of the Debian apt repository &quot;non-free&quot;<br /> * download of any software that is not released under a Free/Libre and Open Source license<br /> <br /> === Supported Software ===<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that MUST be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of proprietary dependencies (both in content and in software)<br /> * adoption of proprietary user trackers (such as Google Analytics etc.) - instead you can adopt WMCH Matomo<br /> * adoption of external web resources (such as Google Font etc.) - instead you can serve them as local resources<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that SHOULD be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of unstable / nightly software as base<br /> * adoption of esoteric programming languages<br /> <br /> Since the operating system adopted in the Wikimedia movement is Debian stable, there are well-known stable versions that SHOULD be supported.<br /> <br /> Your server-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Docker 1.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/docker<br /> * MariaDB 10.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-server<br /> * Node.JS 12<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodejs<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/npm<br /> * PHP 7.4<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/php<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/composer<br /> * Python 2.9<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/python3<br /> * Ruby 2.7<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/ruby<br /> <br /> Your client-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Chromium 108<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/chromium<br /> * Firefox 91<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/firefox-esr<br /> <br /> In addition of the above software versions, note that this page contains additional software versions officially supported at least by Wikimedia Toolforge:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes#Container images]]<br /> <br /> If these versions are too outdated for you, as already mentioned, check the next section for some acceptable workarounds.<br /> <br /> === Software Versions Workarounds ===<br /> <br /> The indicated versions could be obsolete for your needs. In that case you can follow one of these accepted workarounds:<br /> <br /> * PHP 8+ - you may need to adopt the reliable and compatible repository https://sury.org/<br /> * Node.JS 13+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/node)<br /> * Ruby 2.8+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/ruby)<br /> <br /> These and similar workarounds allow flexibility with Debian stable compatibility, still with sources that are trusted and has security updates.<br /> <br /> == Infrastructure ==<br /> <br /> Quick summary of the main available infrastructures to be know:<br /> <br /> * [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> * [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> Wikimedia Foundation already provides a structured, modern infrastructure, without costs to the end-users, able to minimize fragmentation, costs, complexity, gatekeeping. This infrastructure also provides effective user management, so, more efficient collaboration.<br /> <br /> Here is an overview of the two separate types of access, and what they provide:<br /> <br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-turquoise&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://meta.wikimedia.org/ '''Meta-wiki'''] provides a global account to access collaborative public access tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg|18px]] [[:w:en:|Wikipedia]]<br /> :: the Free encyclopedia<br /> :[[File:Notification-icon-Wikidata-logo.svg|18px]] [[:m:wikidata|Wikidata]]<br /> :: The largest collaborative database of structured data<br /> :[[File:MediaWiki-2020-icon.svg|18px]] [[:m:mw:|MediaWiki.org]]<br /> :: website documenting MediaWiki (the software running Wikipedia)<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px]] [[phabricator:|Wikimedia Phabricator]]<br /> :: collaborative bug tracker and more<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-pink&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/ '''Wikitech'''] provides a separate account, to access restricted technical tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px]] [[m:gitlab:|Wikimedia GitLab]]<br /> :: code hosting with git<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS|Wikimedia Cloud services]]<br /> :: virtual private servers (VPS) on OpenStack (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Platform as a service&quot;&gt;PaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> :[[File:OpenStack® Logo 2016 icon square.svg|18px]] [https://horizon.wikimedia.org/ Wikimedia Horizon]<br /> :: OpenStack administration panel<br /> :[[File:Toolforge logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Portal:Toolforge|Wikimedia Toolforge]]<br /> :: shared hosting based on Kubernetes (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Infrastructure as a service&quot;&gt;IaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end row --&gt;<br /> <br /> Note that all of these services are hosted on machines physically controlled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is not normally required in any way to adopt third party services like [https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html SaaSS]. For example, when &quot;GitLab&quot; is mentioned, we normally mean https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/ and not https://gitlab.com/ etc.<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia CH Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> The infrastructure of Wikimedia CH is Switzerland-based and it's completely separated from the one of Wikimedia Foundation.<br /> <br /> === Infrastructure Comparison ===<br /> <br /> This table helps in finding the infrastructure best suited for your project. In short:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> !<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | Easy to add and remove users and set access roles<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Available to the entire Tech community<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | OpenStack and Kubernetes<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | May host data to be protected<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Supports different GNU/Linux distros than Debian<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Primary Data Center<br /> | United States<br /> | Switzerland<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Hosting ==<br /> <br /> This table summarizes suitable hosting solutions according to your need:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> ! Need<br /> ! Implemented with<br /> ! Platform to be adopted<br /> ! Platform owner<br /> |-<br /> | shared hosting<br /> | Kubernetes<br /> | [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Toolforge<br /> | rowspan=&quot;2&quot; | [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | OpenStack<br /> | [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Cloud<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | hypervisor<br /> | WMCH internal cloud<br /> | [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |}<br /> <br /> To have a more comprehensive overview, check these resources: <br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction]]<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction#Which service is right for you?]]<br /> <br /> Here some use-cases:<br /> <br /> * hosting a bot operating in read/write mode on wiki contents<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with stable versions of PHP/Python/Ruby on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with recent software versions on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Cloud VPS<br /> * hosting a tool with custom software on custom GNU/Linux:<br /> *: → WMCH internal cloud<br /> <br /> == Coding Conventions ==<br /> <br /> Any new project SHOULD mention its Coding Conventions to help newcomers in the onboarding. In this way, contributors don't need to inspect random portions of code to have a guess.<br /> <br /> For MediaWiki extensions and gadgets, the project SHOULD adopt the following Coding Conventions:<br /> <br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/PHP]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/JavaScript]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/Database]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> If your project it's based on another software that already has different Coding Conventions, your project SHOULD adopt these.<br /> <br /> A new project SHOULD adopt simple and libre tools to help newcomers in adopting the Coding Conventions successfully and without frictions. For example adopting PHP CodeSniffer etc.&lt;ref&gt;https://github.com/squizlabs/PHP_CodeSniffer&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Documentation ==<br /> <br /> People in the development team are the ultimate experts in their own creation. This is why we need your help to take care of the documentation.<br /> <br /> The purpose of documentation is not to write it but to read it.<br /> <br /> A good documentation helps in avoiding to abandon a project, or rewrite it from scratch, due to lack of shared knowledge.<br /> <br /> The documentation must be released under a free license. Suggestions:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Open Content Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> === Sysadmin Documentation ===<br /> <br /> We need your help to create a Sysadmin Documentation. This documentation will be useful to future GNU/Linux system engineers handling your service. The sysadmin documentation should be in English.<br /> <br /> The goal is understanding how to (re)create a testing and a production environment and how to update, backup and restore.<br /> <br /> Usually useful information to mention:<br /> <br /> * software dependencies (packages to be installed in a new minimal Debian GNU/Linux stable)<br /> * installation instructions (what apt command, etc.)<br /> * configuration instructions (which system configuration files should be changed, etc.)<br /> * references to other applications, repositories and documentation related to or useful for the deploy<br /> * log file paths (those relevant for investigating application issues)<br /> * Unix users in play (perhaps the app uses system users such as www-data or has custom users)<br /> * system daemons related to the application (e.g. own custom systemd units, mention other services in use such as mariadb, apache2, nginx, etc.)<br /> * listening ports (TCP/UDP) and from which app component<br /> * security instructions<br /> ** which ''not'' paths should be externally exposed (example: ./my-temp etc.)<br /> * hardening instruction<br /> ** paths that must be writable by the app (and thus assigned to a possible ''my-app'' user) during its normal operation (example: ./my-upload, ./my-tmp, etc.)<br /> ** paths that ''not'' should be writable by the app (and therefore assignable to root) (example: all executable files, ./my-conf, etc.).<br /> * update notes<br /> ** application update procedure<br /> * backup and restore procedure<br /> ** where on the filesystem are the user data to be preserved (example: ./my-upload etc.)<br /> ** which databases should be preserved<br /> ** how to enable any maintenance mode<br /> <br /> Not all of these points may be relevant. If you feel something is missing, better add it.<br /> <br /> The documentation must not contain any secret or password.<br /> <br /> The Sysadmin Documentation can be a section in the ''README'' file in the project repository.<br /> <br /> === Development Documentation ===<br /> <br /> A short documentation in English describing the structure of the project is useful to help other technical people to approach, orient and contribute to the software.<br /> <br /> Information that should be covered:<br /> <br /> * purpose of the project/challenges encountered<br /> * structure of the project (to navigate the directories)<br /> * how to test the code locally<br /> * how to configure the application (testing / production)<br /> * where to find application logs, how to examine<br /> <br /> A section called &quot;Development Documentation&quot; in your README file of your project can be a good starting point to help other developers.<br /> <br /> === User Documentation ===<br /> <br /> Any good software has good User Documentation. The User Documentation allows end-users to master the software.<br /> <br /> Tips:<br /> <br /> * start the draft in English, especially if you plan to make it multi-language in the future<br /> * it is also okay to write it just in the language of your main destination community<br /> * start the draft without paying too much attention to formatting (example: OK an Etherpad, a wiki, a README, ...)<br /> * avoid proprietary tools from the beginning (example: avoid Google Docs) <br /> <br /> Note: the user documentation is usually improved by non-technical users. So, it's probably better to adopt a wiki, than a README on git.<br /> <br /> You can omit obvious details. For example you can omit steps already covered by in-application wizards, etc.<br /> <br /> === Server Inventory ===<br /> <br /> Any server that is not inventoried sufficiently may risk elimination by the Wikimedia Foundation&lt;ref&gt;{{en}} [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS Instances#The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle]] but also from Wikimedia CH.<br /> <br /> : ''&quot;Instances will be removed for projects that have been determined inactive.&quot;''&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> * verify that adopted servers are well-known and mentioned in the documentation<br /> * check that any custom domain is mentioned as well<br /> * check if the documentation mentions the &quot;''The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle''&quot; sufficiently<br /> <br /> == Maintenance ==<br /> <br /> Until the end of their assignment your team should take care of the application maintenance. Examples:<br /> <br /> * take care of the initial setup<br /> * perform routine maintenance to keep it running<br /> * apply security updates on application dependencies<br /> * apply security operating system updates (when applicable)<br /> * verify that the [[#Backup]] procedures are working<br /> <br /> Insights:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Cloud VPS Server Admin Log]] - SAL<br /> *: the official tool for reporting what was done during one's work on a server.<br /> <br /> If the application is already in production:<br /> <br /> * schedule and communicate the intervention windows required to perform maintenance activities that may cause downtime (polite 6-hour notice)<br /> <br /> == Backup ==<br /> <br /> At the beginning of the assignment, the team sets up a simple automatic backup plan, first of all storing a copy on the same server where the application is located, to implement a first ''on-site'' backup.<br /> <br /> Purpose of on-site backup: to allow developers to restore data from a point in time before a (their?) mistake, independently and quickly.<br /> <br /> Minimum and recommended on-site backup parameters:<br /> <br /> * Data to be saved: the minimum data needed to do a project restore<br /> ** Examples you can include: databases, private application configurations, user uploads, application logs of the day, ...<br /> ** Examples you can exclude: operating system files, files already published elsewhere (git), caches, logs already old, ...<br /> * Frequency: every night<br /> * Time of day: the night between 01:00 and 04:00 in UTC+1 (Switzerland, Geneve time)<br /> * Data retention: 24 hours (one copy only, each new backup overwrites the oldest)<br /> <br /> Once implemented, the backup should be supervised at least until the end of the assignment.<br /> <br /> Tip: it it's useful, a simple on-site backup can be done thanks to a simple &lt;code&gt;crontab&lt;/code&gt; line, using simple tools like &lt;code&gt;mysqldump&lt;/code&gt; and/or &lt;code&gt;rsync&lt;/code&gt; etc.<br /> <br /> The backup directory must not be accessible to the public or to users that are not trusted.<br /> <br /> Suggested destination for your on-site backup in your VPS:<br /> <br /> /var/backups/wmch/$HOSTNAME/daily/files...<br /> <br /> Suggested permissions: &lt;code&gt;chown app:app&lt;/code&gt; with &lt;code&gt;chmod o= ...&lt;/code&gt;.<br /> <br /> An on-site backup is not sufficient. It is just the first step to quickly setup an off-site backup.<br /> <br /> Verify that both the backup procedure and its restore are well-defined in the [[#Sysadmin Documentation]].<br /> <br /> == Code of Conduct ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the following code of conducts:<br /> <br /> * [[Universal Code of Conduct]] (applying to any project)<br /> * [[mw:Code of Conduct]] (applying to Wikimedia technical spaces)<br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Respectful behavior space policy]] (applying to Wikimedia CH)<br /> <br /> In short: be nice with others.<br /> <br /> == Terms of Service ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the Wikimedia Foundation Terms of Service:<br /> <br /> * https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use<br /> <br /> == Software License ==<br /> <br /> Any new software created for Wikimedia CH and to be used in Wikimedia projects must be released with a Free/Libre and Open Source [https://opensource.org/licenses license].<br /> <br /> If you work in a company, be sure that the person in charge of your company allows you to release such software. Get it written down. Details:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Libre Software Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> == Offboarding ==<br /> <br /> Prior to the conclusion of a team member's assignment, that person follow this checklist:<br /> <br /> # update the Team Documentation to reflect the role change<br /> # communicate the accounts that need to be deactivated<br /> # communicate the list of personal information that should be removed (not guaranteed to be removed)<br /> # contribute to the relevant beautiful [[#Documentation]]<br /> <br /> == Communication ==<br /> <br /> A good Communication helps users to be aware of development directions. An optimal Communication helps the team in avoiding design mistakes.<br /> <br /> Let's start by saying that this is not that easy, since some volunteers could create a controversy if they are not involved in early phases, while some other people just want to choose to be not involved.<br /> <br /> A Communication compromise is necessary since the community is big. Some volunteers are conservative, since the Wikimedia platforms they use are almost assimilated as a working desk, and any change can waste their time and create frustration.<br /> <br /> The development team, on the other hand, should be able to have creative and positive space to deliver something new.<br /> <br /> === Communicate Early ===<br /> <br /> Don't wait the final project conclusion to communicate progresses. This is important also because many projects will be probably never declared as completed. You might be surprised how long your software might last (as example, let's mention Wikipedia).<br /> <br /> Do you have a new project challenge? do you have a new progress? do you have a new important bug? That can be a good moment to propose a date for a quick meeting to show that. It is not required to plan a one-hour presentation each day or each week. However, it would be a mistake not to dedicate five-minute to share your screen sometime.<br /> <br /> Online meetings should be open to the public, in order to allow some people at least to join and listen. For this reason, the video conferencing platform should be libre (example: Jitsi, BigBlueButton, etc.) otherwise, technical contributors may be excluded and there wouldn't be much benefit.<br /> <br /> == Contact / Questions ==<br /> <br /> If something is not clear, please share your opinion in the talk page or contact us:<br /> <br /> : https://wikimedia.ch/en/contact/<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references /&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!--<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione utente]]<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione tecnica]]<br /> --&gt;</div> 2023-02-02T22:07:44Z 2023-02-02T22:07:44Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://meta.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines&diff=24478378 Wikimedia CH/Software Development Guidelines <p>Lucamauri: /* Team */</p> <hr /> <div>&lt;templatestyles src=&quot;Template:Wikimedia CH/ResponsiveStyle.css&quot; /&gt;<br /> {{Info|This is a work in progress. It is NOT an official document. This is an early stub. Thank you for any early contribution before public consultation.}}<br /> {{Stub}}<br /> {{Under construction}}<br /> <br /> The '''Software Development Guidelines''' helps technical contributors to have successful software development on a Wikimedia project. It is especially important for [[Wikimedia CH]] technical contractors.<br /> <br /> == Preamble ==<br /> Wikipedia has billions of visits every month, and it is just a piece of the Wikimedia infrastructure.<br /> <br /> Your help will support Wikimedia volunteers. It can happen that the project leader is actually a volunteer. So, thank you for being even more proactive in communicating your progresses.<br /> <br /> If a difficult bug stops you, don't worry! Share your challenges in the public. It's easier to fix a problem if somebody—in a public place—tried to describe and analyze part of it.<br /> {{info<br /> |For the purpose of this document, some common words have specific meanings, as per [https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.html RFC2119]:<br /> * '''MUST''': means the definition is an absolute requirement<br /> * '''MUST NOT''': means the definition is an absolute prohibition<br /> * '''SHOULD''': means the definition can be ignored only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> * '''SHOULD NOT''': means the definition can still be enforced, but only under specific, well-understood, exception<br /> }}<br /> <br /> == Onboarding ==<br /> At the beginning of your work, to contribute as a Wikimedia developer, you will need to create some new accounts.<br /> <br /> {{info<br /> |'''Disclaimer''': You are responsible for the security of your devices and the robustness of your passwords. Don't register into a service re-using passwords from other services. Note that every credential is personal. If you think your account is compromised, report to your supervisor immediately.<br /> |file=Ambox warning orange.svg<br /> }}<br /> <br /> You will need a total of two accounts to be used in four separate websites:<br /> # '''Wikimedia account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:Special:CreateAccount|''Meta-wiki'': global Wikimedia account (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This registration provides a valid identity to login in meta.wikimedia.org, mediawiki.org, wikipedia.org, phabricator.wikimedia.org and additional collaborative websites for the general community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ## [[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px|link=]] [[phabricator:auth/|''Wikimedia Phabricator'': bug tracking (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Visit the page and use the button on the left to do the login (the one called &quot;Log in or Register MediaWiki&quot;)&lt;br /&gt;If you are redirected to a login page in &quot;mediawiki.org&quot;, just enter the credentials related to your [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] global Wikimedia account.<br /> # '''Developer account'''<br /> ## [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Create a Wikimedia developer account|''Wikitech'': dedicated technical wiki (account registration)]]&lt;br /&gt;&lt;small&gt;This separate registration provides access to important separated services, like wikitech.wikimedia.org, gitlab.wikimedia.org and other resources for the technical community.&lt;/small&gt;<br /> ##[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] [[gitlab:users/sign_in|''Wikimedia GitLab'': collaborate on source code (do your first login)]]&lt;br /&gt;Just enter your credentials of [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] Wikitech<br /> <br /> Don't panic. It is a total of two credentials.<br /> <br /> Take your time to customize your account preferences and become more familiar with these different powerful platforms.<br /> <br /> === Team ===<br /> Once created the accounts as mentioned above, it is good practice to customize your own user pages in a way which is meaningful and helpful for others.<br /> <br /> A good public user page is short, nice, useful and updated.&lt;br /&gt;<br /> The first principle is that your public user page is ''not'' intended for self-promotional purposes, but to communicate your background, your purposes, and to declare your conflict of interests, your role, your paid assignments. The purpose of this is to help others understand where you can contribute on what area and why.<br /> <br /> Here's a handy checklist to follow when starting one's assignment or when a role changes:<br /> # [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|18px|link=]] https://meta.wikimedia.org/<br /> #: Login. Visit your user page (usually it's mentioned on the top-right corner)<br /> ## add info about your role, in English<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''Hello! In YEAR I'm paid to work on project ABC for Wikimedia CH. My specific role is: developer''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Phabricator<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Phabricator you can find me as @supermario-wmch''&quot;<br /> ## mention your nickname of Wikitech<br /> ##: Example: &quot;''On Wikitech I'm this user: https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:SuperMario-WMCH''&quot;<br /> # [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Visit your user page<br /> ## add a link pointing to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> # [[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px|link=]] https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/<br /> ## Login. Select your profile picture &gt; ''Edit profile''.<br /> ## add a link to your Meta-wiki user page<br /> <br /> You have success if your user page in Meta-wiki helps others in finding you in all other services, and if people from somewhere-else (for example Wikitech) can easily find your Meta-wiki account.<br /> <br /> Please help your coworkers in doing the same.<br /> <br /> Bonus point: on your Meta-wiki user page you can mention each other, to help others find your coworkers and better understand your team divisions. Creating a [[Help:Template|template]] for your team would be an easy-manageable solution to keep everyone connected without the need of reviewing a lot of user pages for any change in the team.<br /> <br /> == Software Guidelines ==<br /> <br /> The Wikimedia technical community maintains hundreds of thousands of software projects.&lt;ref&gt;https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/repos/?sort=stars_asc&lt;/ref&gt; Your help is important to follow basic best practices.<br /> <br /> === Operating System ===<br /> [[File:Wikimedia + Debian.svg|thumb|An happy web application supports Debian GNU/Linux servers.]]<br /> Software SHOULD be designed in a way that it executes successfully on Debian GNU/Linux stable.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot;&gt;[[wikitech:Debian]]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://wiki.debian.org/DebianStable&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> The reason is, among others, Debian stable is the only operating system supported by Wikimedia Cloud Services. This is true for both OpenStack and Kubernetes.&lt;ref name=&quot;wikitech-debian&quot; /&gt;<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies you SHOULD adopt these sources and in this order of preference:<br /> <br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;main&quot; or &quot;security&quot;<br /> # Debian apt with repository &quot;backports&quot;<br /> # Flatpak / snap<br /> # Docker<br /> <br /> To install your dependencies your SHOULD avoid these sources:<br /> <br /> * manual download of &quot;.deb&quot; packages from the web<br /> * download of generic software from the web<br /> * execution of installation scripts like &quot;wget&quot; in pipe at sudo<br /> <br /> Things that MUST be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of the Debian apt repository &quot;non-free&quot;<br /> * download of any software that is not released under a Free/Libre and Open Source license<br /> <br /> === Supported Software ===<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that MUST be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of proprietary dependencies (both in content and in software)<br /> * adoption of proprietary user trackers (such as Google Analytics etc.) - instead you can adopt WMCH Matomo<br /> * adoption of external web resources (such as Google Font etc.) - instead you can serve them as local resources<br /> <br /> Example of solutions that SHOULD be avoided:<br /> <br /> * adoption of unstable / nightly software as base<br /> * adoption of esoteric programming languages<br /> <br /> Since the operating system adopted in the Wikimedia movement is Debian stable, there are well-known stable versions that SHOULD be supported.<br /> <br /> Your server-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Docker 1.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/docker<br /> * MariaDB 10.5<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/mariadb-server<br /> * Node.JS 12<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/nodejs<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/npm<br /> * PHP 7.4<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/php<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/composer<br /> * Python 2.9<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/python3<br /> * Ruby 2.7<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/stable/ruby<br /> <br /> Your client-side software SHOULD NOT be incompatible with these versions:<br /> <br /> * Chromium 108<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/chromium<br /> * Firefox 91<br /> *: https://packages.debian.org/bullseye/firefox-esr<br /> <br /> In addition of the above software versions, note that this page contains additional software versions officially supported at least by Wikimedia Toolforge:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Toolforge/Kubernetes#Container images]]<br /> <br /> If these versions are too outdated for you, as already mentioned, check the next section for some acceptable workarounds.<br /> <br /> === Software Versions Workarounds ===<br /> <br /> The indicated versions could be obsolete for your needs. In that case you can follow one of these accepted workarounds:<br /> <br /> * PHP 8+ - you may need to adopt the reliable and compatible repository https://sury.org/<br /> * Node.JS 13+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/node)<br /> * Ruby 2.8+ - you may need to adopt the official Docker image (https://hub.docker.com/_/ruby)<br /> <br /> These and similar workarounds allow flexibility with Debian stable compatibility, still with sources that are trusted and has security updates.<br /> <br /> == Infrastructure ==<br /> <br /> Quick summary of the main available infrastructures to be know:<br /> <br /> * [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> * [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> Wikimedia Foundation already provides a structured, modern infrastructure, without costs to the end-users, able to minimize fragmentation, costs, complexity, gatekeeping. This infrastructure also provides effective user management, so, more efficient collaboration.<br /> <br /> Here is an overview of the two separate types of access, and what they provide:<br /> <br /> &lt;div class=&quot;row&quot;&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-turquoise&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikimedia Community Logo optimized.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://meta.wikimedia.org/ '''Meta-wiki'''] provides a global account to access collaborative public access tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg|18px]] [[:w:en:|Wikipedia]]<br /> :: the Free encyclopedia<br /> :[[File:Notification-icon-Wikidata-logo.svg|18px]] [[:m:wikidata|Wikidata]]<br /> :: The largest collaborative database of structured data<br /> :[[File:MediaWiki-2020-icon.svg|18px]] [[:m:mw:|MediaWiki.org]]<br /> :: website documenting MediaWiki (the software running Wikipedia)<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Phabricator logo inv.svg|18px]] [[phabricator:|Wikimedia Phabricator]]<br /> :: collaborative bug tracker and more<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;col-3 color-light-pink&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Wikitech-2020-icon.svg|100px]]<br /> <br /> [https://wikitech.wikimedia.org/ '''Wikitech'''] provides a separate account, to access restricted technical tools, including:<br /> <br /> :[[File:GitLab icon.svg|18px]] [[m:gitlab:|Wikimedia GitLab]]<br /> :: code hosting with git<br /> :[[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS|Wikimedia Cloud services]]<br /> :: virtual private servers (VPS) on OpenStack (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Platform as a service&quot;&gt;PaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> :[[File:OpenStack® Logo 2016 icon square.svg|18px]] [https://horizon.wikimedia.org/ Wikimedia Horizon]<br /> :: OpenStack administration panel<br /> :[[File:Toolforge logo.svg|18px]] [[m:wikitech:Portal:Toolforge|Wikimedia Toolforge]]<br /> :: shared hosting based on Kubernetes (&lt;abbr title=&quot;Infrastructure as a service&quot;&gt;IaaS&lt;/abbr&gt;)<br /> : and more<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end column --&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;&lt;!-- end row --&gt;<br /> <br /> Note that all of these services are hosted on machines physically controlled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is not normally required in any way to adopt third party services like [https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/who-does-that-server-really-serve.html SaaSS]. For example, when &quot;GitLab&quot; is mentioned, we normally mean https://gitlab.wikimedia.org/ and not https://gitlab.com/ etc.<br /> <br /> === Wikimedia CH Infrastructure ===<br /> <br /> The infrastructure of Wikimedia CH is Switzerland-based and it's completely separated from the one of Wikimedia Foundation.<br /> <br /> === Infrastructure Comparison ===<br /> <br /> This table helps in finding the infrastructure best suited for your project. In short:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> !<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> ! [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | Easy to add and remove users and set access roles<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Available to the entire Tech community<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | OpenStack and Kubernetes<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> |-<br /> | May host data to be protected<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Supports different GNU/Linux distros than Debian<br /> | {{Nocell}}<br /> | {{Yescell}}<br /> |-<br /> | Primary Data Center<br /> | United States<br /> | Switzerland<br /> |}<br /> <br /> == Hosting ==<br /> <br /> This table summarizes suitable hosting solutions according to your need:<br /> <br /> {| class=&quot;wikitable&quot;<br /> ! Need<br /> ! Implemented with<br /> ! Platform to be adopted<br /> ! Platform owner<br /> |-<br /> | shared hosting<br /> | Kubernetes<br /> | [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Toolforge<br /> | rowspan=&quot;2&quot; | [[#Wikimedia Foundation Infrastructure]]<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | OpenStack<br /> | [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Wikimedia Cloud<br /> |-<br /> | VPS<br /> | hypervisor<br /> | WMCH internal cloud<br /> | [[#Wikimedia CH Infrastructure]]<br /> |}<br /> <br /> To have a more comprehensive overview, check these resources: <br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction]]<br /> * [[wikitech:Help:Cloud Services introduction#Which service is right for you?]]<br /> <br /> Here some use-cases:<br /> <br /> * hosting a bot operating in read/write mode on wiki contents<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with stable versions of PHP/Python/Ruby on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Toolforge logo.svg|16px]] Toolforge<br /> * hosting a web tool useful for Wikimedia purposes with recent software versions on Debian:<br /> *: → [[File:Wikimedia Cloud Services logo.svg|16px]] Cloud VPS<br /> * hosting a tool with custom software on custom GNU/Linux:<br /> *: → WMCH internal cloud<br /> <br /> == Coding Conventions ==<br /> <br /> Any new project SHOULD mention its Coding Conventions to help newcomers in the onboarding. In this way, contributors don't need to inspect random portions of code to have a guess.<br /> <br /> For MediaWiki extensions and gadgets, the project SHOULD adopt the following Coding Conventions:<br /> <br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/PHP]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/JavaScript]]<br /> * [[mw:Manual:Coding conventions/Database]]<br /> * ...<br /> <br /> If your project it's based on another software that already has different Coding Conventions, your project SHOULD adopt these.<br /> <br /> A new project SHOULD adopt simple and libre tools to help newcomers in adopting the Coding Conventions successfully and without frictions. For example adopting PHP CodeSniffer etc.&lt;ref&gt;https://github.com/squizlabs/PHP_CodeSniffer&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Documentation ==<br /> <br /> People in the development team are the ultimate experts in their own creation. This is why we need your help to take care of the documentation.<br /> <br /> The purpose of documentation is not to write it but to read it.<br /> <br /> A good documentation helps in avoiding to abandon a project, or rewrite it from scratch, due to lack of shared knowledge.<br /> <br /> The documentation must be released under a free license. Suggestions:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Open Content Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> === Sysadmin Documentation ===<br /> <br /> We need your help to create a Sysadmin Documentation. This documentation will be useful to future GNU/Linux system engineers handling your service. The sysadmin documentation should be in English.<br /> <br /> The goal is understanding how to (re)create a testing and a production environment and how to update, backup and restore.<br /> <br /> Usually useful information to mention:<br /> <br /> * software dependencies (packages to be installed in a new minimal Debian GNU/Linux stable)<br /> * installation instructions (what apt command, etc.)<br /> * configuration instructions (which system configuration files should be changed, etc.)<br /> * references to other applications, repositories and documentation related to or useful for the deploy<br /> * log file paths (those relevant for investigating application issues)<br /> * Unix users in play (perhaps the app uses system users such as www-data or has custom users)<br /> * system daemons related to the application (e.g. own custom systemd units, mention other services in use such as mariadb, apache2, nginx, etc.)<br /> * listening ports (TCP/UDP) and from which app component<br /> * security instructions<br /> ** which ''not'' paths should be externally exposed (example: ./my-temp etc.)<br /> * hardening instruction<br /> ** paths that must be writable by the app (and thus assigned to a possible ''my-app'' user) during its normal operation (example: ./my-upload, ./my-tmp, etc.)<br /> ** paths that ''not'' should be writable by the app (and therefore assignable to root) (example: all executable files, ./my-conf, etc.).<br /> * update notes<br /> ** application update procedure<br /> * backup and restore procedure<br /> ** where on the filesystem are the user data to be preserved (example: ./my-upload etc.)<br /> ** which databases should be preserved<br /> ** how to enable any maintenance mode<br /> <br /> Not all of these points may be relevant. If you feel something is missing, better add it.<br /> <br /> The documentation must not contain any secret or password.<br /> <br /> The Sysadmin Documentation can be a section in the ''README'' file in the project repository.<br /> <br /> === Development Documentation ===<br /> <br /> A short documentation in English describing the structure of the project is useful to help other technical people to approach, orient and contribute to the software.<br /> <br /> Information that should be covered:<br /> <br /> * purpose of the project/challenges encountered<br /> * structure of the project (to navigate the directories)<br /> * how to test the code locally<br /> * how to configure the application (testing / production)<br /> * where to find application logs, how to examine<br /> <br /> A section called &quot;Development Documentation&quot; in your README file of your project can be a good starting point to help other developers.<br /> <br /> === User Documentation ===<br /> <br /> Any good software has good User Documentation. The User Documentation allows end-users to master the software.<br /> <br /> Tips:<br /> <br /> * start the draft in English, especially if you plan to make it multi-language in the future<br /> * it is also okay to write it just in the language of your main destination community<br /> * start the draft without paying too much attention to formatting (example: OK an Etherpad, a wiki, a README, ...)<br /> * avoid proprietary tools from the beginning (example: avoid Google Docs) <br /> <br /> Note: the user documentation is usually improved by non-technical users. So, it's probably better to adopt a wiki, than a README on git.<br /> <br /> You can omit obvious details. For example you can omit steps already covered by in-application wizards, etc.<br /> <br /> === Server Inventory ===<br /> <br /> Any server that is not inventoried sufficiently may risk elimination by the Wikimedia Foundation&lt;ref&gt;{{en}} [[m:wikitech:Help:Cloud VPS Instances#The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle]] but also from Wikimedia CH.<br /> <br /> : ''&quot;Instances will be removed for projects that have been determined inactive.&quot;''&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> * verify that adopted servers are well-known and mentioned in the documentation<br /> * check that any custom domain is mentioned as well<br /> * check if the documentation mentions the &quot;''The Cloud VPS Instance lifecycle''&quot; sufficiently<br /> <br /> == Maintenance ==<br /> <br /> Until the end of their assignment your team should take care of the application maintenance. Examples:<br /> <br /> * take care of the initial setup<br /> * perform routine maintenance to keep it running<br /> * apply security updates on application dependencies<br /> * apply security operating system updates (when applicable)<br /> * verify that the [[#Backup]] procedures are working<br /> <br /> Insights:<br /> <br /> * [[wikitech:Cloud VPS Server Admin Log]] - SAL<br /> *: the official tool for reporting what was done during one's work on a server.<br /> <br /> If the application is already in production:<br /> <br /> * schedule and communicate the intervention windows required to perform maintenance activities that may cause downtime (polite 6-hour notice)<br /> <br /> == Backup ==<br /> <br /> At the beginning of the assignment, the team sets up a simple automatic backup plan, first of all storing a copy on the same server where the application is located, to implement a first ''on-site'' backup.<br /> <br /> Purpose of on-site backup: to allow developers to restore data from a point in time before a (their?) mistake, independently and quickly.<br /> <br /> Minimum and recommended on-site backup parameters:<br /> <br /> * Data to be saved: the minimum data needed to do a project restore<br /> ** Examples you can include: databases, private application configurations, user uploads, application logs of the day, ...<br /> ** Examples you can exclude: operating system files, files already published elsewhere (git), caches, logs already old, ...<br /> * Frequency: every night<br /> * Time of day: the night between 01:00 and 04:00 in UTC+1 (Switzerland, Geneve time)<br /> * Data retention: 24 hours (one copy only, each new backup overwrites the oldest)<br /> <br /> Once implemented, the backup should be supervised at least until the end of the assignment.<br /> <br /> Tip: it it's useful, a simple on-site backup can be done thanks to a simple &lt;code&gt;crontab&lt;/code&gt; line, using simple tools like &lt;code&gt;mysqldump&lt;/code&gt; and/or &lt;code&gt;rsync&lt;/code&gt; etc.<br /> <br /> The backup directory must not be accessible to the public or to users that are not trusted.<br /> <br /> Suggested destination for your on-site backup in your VPS:<br /> <br /> /var/backups/wmch/$HOSTNAME/daily/files...<br /> <br /> Suggested permissions: &lt;code&gt;chown app:app&lt;/code&gt; with &lt;code&gt;chmod o= ...&lt;/code&gt;.<br /> <br /> An on-site backup is not sufficient. It is just the first step to quickly setup an off-site backup.<br /> <br /> Verify that both the backup procedure and its restore are well-defined in the [[#Sysadmin Documentation]].<br /> <br /> == Code of Conduct ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the following code of conducts:<br /> <br /> * [[Universal Code of Conduct]] (applying to any project)<br /> * [[mw:Code of Conduct]] (applying to Wikimedia technical spaces)<br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Respectful behavior space policy]] (applying to Wikimedia CH)<br /> <br /> In short: be nice with others.<br /> <br /> == Terms of Service ==<br /> <br /> You (and your team) accept the Wikimedia Foundation Terms of Service:<br /> <br /> * https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use<br /> <br /> == Software License ==<br /> <br /> Any new software created for Wikimedia CH and to be used in Wikimedia projects must be released with a Free/Libre and Open Source license.<br /> <br /> If you work in a company, be sure that the person in charge of your company allows you to release such software. Get it written down. Details:<br /> <br /> * [[Wikimedia CH/Libre Software Release Guidelines]]<br /> <br /> == Offboarding ==<br /> <br /> Prior to the conclusion of a team member's assignment, that person follow this checklist:<br /> <br /> # update the Team Documentation to reflect the role change<br /> # communicate the accounts that need to be deactivated<br /> # communicate the list of personal information that should be removed (not guaranteed to be removed)<br /> # contribute to the relevant beautiful [[#Documentation]]<br /> <br /> == Communication ==<br /> <br /> A good Communication helps users to be aware of development directions. An optimal Communication helps the team in avoiding design mistakes.<br /> <br /> Let's start by saying that this is not that easy, since some volunteers could create a controversy if they are not involved in early phases, while some other people just want to choose to be not involved.<br /> <br /> A Communication compromise is necessary since the community is big. Some volunteers are conservative, since the Wikimedia platforms they use are almost assimilated as a working desk, and any change can waste their time and create frustration.<br /> <br /> The development team, on the other hand, should be able to have creative and positive space to deliver something new.<br /> <br /> === Communicate Early ===<br /> <br /> Don't wait the final project conclusion to communicate progresses. This is important also because many projects will be probably never declared as completed. You might be surprised how long your software might last (as example, let's mention Wikipedia).<br /> <br /> Do you have a new project challenge? do you have a new progress? do you have a new important bug? That can be a good moment to propose a date for a quick meeting to show that. It is not required to plan a one-hour presentation each day or each week. However, it would be a mistake not to dedicate five-minute to share your screen sometime.<br /> <br /> Online meetings should be open to the public, in order to allow some people at least to join and listen. For this reason, the video conferencing platform should be libre (example: Jitsi, BigBlueButton, etc.) otherwise, technical contributors may be excluded and there wouldn't be much benefit.<br /> <br /> == Contact / Questions ==<br /> <br /> If something is not clear, please share your opinion in the talk page or contact us:<br /> <br /> : https://wikimedia.ch/en/contact/<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references /&gt;<br /> <br /> &lt;!--<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione utente]]<br /> [[Categoria:Documentazione tecnica]]<br /> --&gt;</div> 2023-02-02T21:21:28Z 2023-02-02T21:21:28Z Lucamauri https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Talk:Wikimedia_CH/Software_Development_Guidelines //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/community.ico #e6e6e6 https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Starbase_(Star_Trek)&diff=1131529466 Starbase (Star Trek) <p>Lucamauri: Section referenced to the previous link does not exist. A similar one points to the new page I linked here direclty</p> <hr /> <div>#REDIRECT [[Space stations and habitats in fiction]]</div> 2023-01-04T15:05:55Z 2023-01-04T15:05:55Z Lucamauri https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Starbase_(Star_Trek) //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II&diff=131016703 Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II <p>Lucamauri: /* Versioni */ Elenchi puntati di secondo livello resi omogenei</p> <hr /> <div>{{nd||F35 (disambigua)|F35}}<br /> {{aeromobile<br /> |Aeromobile = aereo_militare<br /> |Nome = Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II<br /> |Immagine = U.S. Air Force pilot navigates an F-35A Lightning II aircraft assigned to the 58th Fighter Squadron, 33rd Fighter Wing into position to refuel with a KC-135 Stratotanker assigned to the 336th Air Refueling 130516-F-XL333-390.jpg<br /> |Didascalia = Un ''F-35A Lightning II'', in forza al ''58th Fighter Squadron'' dell'[[USAF]], impegnato in operazioni di [[rifornimento in volo]]<br /> &lt;!-- Descrizione --&gt;|Tipo = [[Caccia multiruolo]] [[velivolo stealth|stealth]]<br /> |Equipaggio = 1 [[aviatore|pilota]]<br /> |Progettista = <br /> |Costruttore = {{Bandiera|USA}} [[Lockheed Martin]]<br /> {{Bandiera|GBR}} [[BAE Systems]] Tier I&lt;br /&gt;<br /> {{Bandiera|ITA}} [[Leonardo (azienda)|Leonardo]] (dal 2017, in precedenza Finmeccanica) Tier II &amp; FACO<br /> |Data_ordine = <br /> |Data_accettazione = 10 maggio [[2011]]&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.armedforces-int.com/news/royal-navy-commissions-latest-type-45-destroyer.html|titolo=Royal Navy Commissions Latest Destroyer: Armed Forces Int. News&lt;!-- Titolo generato automaticamente --&gt;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110512011252/http://www.armedforces-int.com/news/royal-navy-commissions-latest-type-45-destroyer.html }}.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |Data_entrata_in_servizio = Luglio [[2015]] con i [[USMC|Marines]]; 2017 con l'[[Aeronautica Militare Italiana|AMI]]<br /> |Data_ritiro_dal_servizio = <br /> |Utilizzatore_principale = {{Bandiera|USA}} [[US Air Force]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|USA}} [[United States Navy|US Navy]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|USA}} [[USMC|US Marine Corps]]<br /> |Altri_utilizzatori = {{Bandiera|GBR}} [[Royal Air Force|RAF]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|ITA}} [[Aeronautica Militare Italiana|Aeronautica Militare]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|ITA}} [[Marina Militare Italiana|Marina Militare]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|NLD}} [[Koninklijke Luchtmacht|KLU]]&lt;br /&gt;[[#Utilizzatori|altri]]<br /> |Esemplari = 700 (settembre 2021)&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://defence-blog.com/lockheed-martin-delivers-the-700th-f-35-stealth-fighter-jet/|titolo=&quot;LOCKHEED MARTIN DELIVERS THE 700th F-35 STEALTH FIGHTER JET&quot;}}, su defence-blog.com, 27 settembre 2021, URL consultato il 2 ottobre 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aresdifesa.it/2020/03/04/lockheed-martin-consegna-il-500-f35-tagliato-il-tragurado-delle-250000-ore-di-volo//|titolo=&quot;LOCKHEED MARTIN CONSEGNA IL 500° F-35&quot;}}, su aresdifesa.it, 4 marzo 2020, URL consultato il 4 marzo 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/400th-f-35-delivered-as-fleet-passes-200000-flight-hours/?no_cache=1/|titolo=&quot;400th F-35 DELIVERED AS FLEET PASSES 200,000 FLIGHT HOURS&quot;}}, su ukdefencejournal.org.uk, 4 giugno 2019, URL consultato il 9 giugno 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Sono 300 gli F-35 Lightning II prodotti&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 381 - 07/[[2018]] pag. 24&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Consegnato il 300° F-35&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 7 - 07/[[2018]] pag. 16&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.janes.com/article/80927/300-up-for-the-f-35-es18d3/|titolo=&quot;300 UP FOR THE F-35 - ES18D3&quot;}}, su janes.com, 13 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 13 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://a855196877272cb14560-2a4fa819a63ddcc0c289f9457bc3ebab.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/13567/f-35_fast_facts_mar_2017-revised.pdf|titolo=F-35 Lightning II Program Status and Fast Facts|sito=Lockheed Martin F-35 Communications Team|accesso=16 aprile 2017|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170417072555/https://a855196877272cb14560-2a4fa819a63ddcc0c289f9457bc3ebab.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/13567/f-35_fast_facts_mar_2017-revised.pdf}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://a855196877272cb14560-2a4fa819a63ddcc0c289f9457bc3ebab.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/17541/f35_weekly_update_4_6_17.pdf |titolo=General Manager Weekly Update April 3, 2017|sito=Jeff Babione |accesso=16 aprile 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |Costo_unitario = {{TA|[[dollaro statunitense|US$]] 82,4 milioni F35A}}<br /> <br /> {{TA|[[dollaro statunitense|US$]] 108 milioni F35B}}<br /> <br /> {{TA|[[dollaro statunitense|US$]] 103,1 milioni F35C }}<br /> <br /> [Lotto 12]<br /> [https://www.f35.com/news/detail/pentagon-and-lockheed-martin-reach-agreement-reducing-f-35a-cost-by-12.8-pe],<br /> |Sviluppato_dal = [[Lockheed Martin X-35]]<br /> |Altre_varianti = F-35B ([[STOVL]])&lt;br /&gt;F-35C ([[CATOBAR]])<br /> &lt;!-- Dimensioni e pesi --&gt;|Lunghezza = {{M|15,67|ul=m}} ({{M|51,4|ul=ft}})<br /> |Apertura_alare = 10,70&amp;nbsp;m (35&amp;nbsp;ft)<br /> |Larghezza = <br /> |Diametro_fusoliera = <br /> |Freccia_alare = <br /> |Altezza = 4,33&amp;nbsp;m (14,2&amp;nbsp;ft)<br /> |Superficie_alare = {{M|42,7|ul=m2}} (460&amp;nbsp;[[Piede quadro|ft²]])<br /> |Carico_alare = <br /> |Efficienza = <br /> |Allungamento_alare = <br /> |Peso_a_vuoto = {{formatnum:13000}}&amp;nbsp;kg<br /> |Peso_carico = {{formatnum:22470}}&amp;nbsp;kg<br /> |Peso_max_al_decollo = {{formatnum:31800}}&amp;nbsp;kg<br /> |Passeggeri = <br /> |Capacità = <br /> |Capacità_combustibile = {{formatnum:8382}}&amp;nbsp;kg ({{formatnum:18480}}&amp;nbsp;lb)<br /> &lt;!-- Propulsione --&gt;|Motore = 1 [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135|Pratt &amp; Whitney F135-PW-100]] con [[postbruciatore]]<br /> |Potenza = <br /> |Spinta = 191&amp;nbsp;[[newton (unità di misura)|kN]] (con [[postbruciatore]])<br /> &lt;!-- Prestazioni --&gt;|Velocità_max = 1.6 [[Numero di Mach|Mach]] {{formatnum:1962}}&amp;nbsp;[[Chilometro 3210orario|km/h]]<br /> |VNE = <br /> |Velocità_crociera = <br /> |Velocità_salita = <br /> |Decollo = <br /> |Atterraggio = <br /> |Autonomia = {{M|2 220|ul=km}}<br /> |Raggio_azione = {{formatnum:1080}}&amp;nbsp;km<br /> |Tangenza = {{formatnum:18288}}&amp;nbsp;[[metro|m]]<br /> &lt;!-- Armamento --&gt;|Mitragliatrici = <br /> |Cannoni = 1 [[GAU-12 Equalizer|GAU-12]] nella versione A, 1 GAU-22A in Gunpod per le versioni B e C<br /> |Bombe = '''caduta libera''':&lt;br /&gt;[[Mk 83]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Mk 82]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Mk 84]]&lt;br /&gt;<br /> '''a grappolo''':&lt;br /&gt;[[CBU-100|Mk.20 Rockeye II]]&lt;br /&gt;'''a guida laser''':&lt;br /&gt;serie [[Paveway]]&lt;br /&gt;'''a guida GPS''':&lt;br /&gt;[[GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb]]&lt;br /&gt;[[JDAM]]&lt;br /&gt;'''nucleari''':&lt;br /&gt;[[B61]]<br /> |Missili = '''aria-aria''':&lt;br /&gt;[[AIM-120 AMRAAM]]&lt;br /&gt;[[AIM-132 ASRAAM]]&lt;br /&gt;[[AIM-9 Sidewinder|AIM-9X Sidewinder]]&lt;br /&gt;[[IRIS-T]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Meteor (missile)|MBDA Meteor]]&lt;br /&gt;<br /> '''aria-superficie''':&lt;br /&gt;[[AGM-154 JSOW]]&lt;br /&gt;[[AGM-158 JASSM]]&lt;br /&gt;[[SCALP|Storm Shadow]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Brimstone (missile)|Brimstone]]&lt;br /&gt;'''anti-nave''':&lt;br /&gt;[[Joint Strike Missile]]<br /> |Piloni = 6 subalari&lt;br /&gt;4 nelle stive<br /> &lt;!-- Impieghi sperimentali e di ricerca --&gt;|Impieghi_sperimentali = &lt;!-- Record e primati --&gt;<br /> |Record = <br /> |Altro_campo = <br /> |Altro = <br /> |Note = I dati riportati sono riferiti alla versione ''F-35A''<br /> |Ref = ''Lockheed Martin''&lt;ref name=LM_F-35A_page&gt;{{Cita web|url= http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/f35/f-35A-ctol-variant.html|titolo= F-35A Conventional Takeoff and Landing Variant|accesso= 13 luglio 2012|cognome= [[Lockheed Martin]]|data= undated|urlarchivio= https://web.archive.org/web/20110317113904/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/f35/f-35A-ctol-variant.html|urlmorto= sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35b-stovl-variant.html|titolo=&quot;F-35B Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing Variant.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130703182742/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35b-stovl-variant.html|accesso=13 luglio 2012 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35c-carrier-variant.htmll|titolo=&quot;F-35C Carrier Variant.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140112141536/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35c-carrier-variant.htmll|accesso=13 luglio 2012 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;br /&gt;''F-35 Program brief''&lt;ref name=LM_F-35A_page/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;F-35_prog_brief_Sept2006&quot;&gt;per un carico complessivo di armamenti pari a {{TA|18 000 lb (8 100 kg)}}.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;br /&gt;''F-35 JSF Statistics''&lt;ref name=&quot;F-35_Stats&quot;&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/mediakits/7764.zip|titolo=&quot;F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Media Kit Statistics.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190626203103/http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/mediakits/7764.zip|data=agosto 2004 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;br /&gt;''F-35 Program Status''&lt;ref name=LM_F-35_Status_Fast_Facts&gt;{{cita web|url=http://f-35.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/F-35-Fast-Facts-March-13-2012.pdf|titolo=&quot;F-35 Lightning II Program Status and Fast Facts.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130524200620/http://f-35.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/F-35-Fast-Facts-March-13-2012.pdf |data=13 marzo 2012|accesso=22 maggio 2012}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |Data_primo_volo = 15 [[dicembre]] [[2006]]<br /> |Tavole_prospettiche = F-35A three-view.PNG<br /> }}<br /> <br /> Il '''[[Lockheed Martin]] F-35 Lightning II''', o '''Joint Strike Fighter-F35''', è un [[caccia multiruolo]] monoposto di 5ª generazione, a singolo [[motore|propulsore]], con [[ala trapezoidale]] e [[velivolo stealth|caratteristiche stealth]]. Le sue capacità multiruolo lo rendono utilizzabile per compiti di [[supporto aereo ravvicinato]], [[bombardamento tattico]] e missioni di [[supremazia aerea]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/capabilities|titolo=F-35 Capabilities}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> L'aereo viene anche definito in ambito militare come omni-ruolo data la capacità di svolgere contemporaneamente, senza tornare alle base per modificare il suo assetto, differenti attività operative.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.aeronautica.difesa.it/comunicazione/notizie/Pagine/TLPAmendola2018.aspx|titolo=TLP Amendola, Gen. Rosso: conseguita Initial Operational Capability F-35|accesso=31 ottobre 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/evidenza/interviste/rivoluzione-f35|titolo=Rivoluzione F35|sito=Difesa Online|data=1º ottobre 2018|accesso=31 ottobre 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Battendo il [[Boeing X-32]], è diventato il vincitore della gara per il programma '''JSF (Joint Strike Fighter)''' per la ricerca di un aereo che potesse sostituire diversi modelli dell'[[United States Air Force|USAF]], dell'[[United States Navy|US Navy]] e dei [[United States Marine Corps|USMC (Marines)]]. Inizialmente era previsto che circa l'80% delle parti fosse in comune fra le diverse versioni, ma poi, con l'evolversi del progetto, non si è potuto raggiungere più del 25/27%, sebbene l'[[avionica|elettronica di bordo]] e una parte del [[software]] saranno molto simili tra loro.<br /> <br /> Esistono tre versioni dell'F-35: una variante a [[decollo]] e [[atterraggio]] convenzionale (F-35A - [[CTOL|Conventional Take Off and Landing]]), una variante a decollo corto e atterraggio verticale, per poter operare da [[portaerei]] di dimensioni ridotte come la portaerei italiana [[Cavour (C 550)|Cavour]] (F-35B [[STOVL|Short Take Off And Vertical Landing]]), e una variante per l'uso su portaerei convenzionali dotate di catapulte (F-35C - [[CATOBAR|Catapult Assisted Take Off But Arrested Recovery]])&lt;ref name=&quot;glob_sec_F-35&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-35-int.htm|titolo=F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Lightning II – International Partners|autore=GlobalSecurity.org}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> == Storia del progetto ==<br /> L'F-35 è il risultato del programma Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), la sintesi di svariati progetti di aerei da combattimento andanti dal 1980 al 1990. Uno degli antenati del progetto fu il programma Advanced Short Take-Off/Vertical Landing (ASTOVL, in italiano: Decollo avanzato su pista corta con atterraggio verticale) promosso dalla [[Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency|DARPA]], il quale decorse dal 1983 fino al 1984. L'ASTOVL mirava a sviluppare un rimpiazzo per gli [[British Aerospace Harrier II|Harrier]] dell'USMC (United States Marine Corps) e della [[Royal Navy]] inglese. Sotto uno dei progetti segreti dell'ASTOVL, il Supersonic STOVL Fighter (SSF, in italiano: Caccia Supersonico STOVL), la [[Lockheed]] [[Skunk Works]] promosse la ricerca per un velivolo d'attacco stealth, supersonico e STOVL, mirato sia all'aeronautica statunitense (USAF) che all'USMC. Una componente tecnologica chiave presa in considerazione fu il sistema della ventola di sollevamento ad albero condotto (SDLF, shaft-driven lift fan). Il prototipo della Lockheed era un aereo a un solo motore dotato di alette canard a forma di delta di circa 11,000&amp;nbsp;kg scarico. Nel 1993 l'ASTOVL fu ribattezzato Common Affordable Lightweight Fighter (CALF, in italiano: Caccia Leggero Comune Economico) e portò a bordo la Lockheed, la [[McDonnell Douglas|McConnell Douglas]] e la [[Boeing]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.codeonemagazine.com/images/C1_V09N3_SM_1271449318_9088.pdf|titolo=Code One Magazine. Lockheed.}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;web.archive.org&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_prejast.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; Pre-JAST|data=6 dicembre 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=6 dicembre 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20191206155846/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_prejast.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Nel 1993, soggiunse il progetto Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST, in italiano: Programma Congiunto Tecnologia Avanzata di Assalto) in seguito all'annullamento dei programmi Advanced Fighter-Attack (A/F-X, in italiano: Aereo d'Assalto d'Avanguardia) MRF (Multi-Role Fighter, in italiano: Caccia Multi-Ruolo) dell'USAF e della marina statunitense. L'MRF, un progetto per un rimpiazzo a buon mercato dell'[[General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon|F-16]] venne ridimensionato e rinviato a causa del cambiamento nell'assetto difensivo in seguito alla Guerra Fredda, con una diminuzione nell'impiego della flottiglia di F-16 con conseguente allungamento della sua vita utile, accompagnato ad un aumento della pressione fiscale sul progetto [[Lockheed Martin-Boeing F-22 Raptor|F-22]]. L'A/F-X, inizialmente conosciuto come Advanced-Attack (A-X), nacque nel 1991 come successore del progetto Advanced Tactical Aircraft (ATA, in italiano: Aereo Tattico d'Avanguardia) della USN (United States Navy) per sostituire l'[[Grumman A-6 Intruder|A-6]]. Il risultante [[McDonnell Douglas-General Dynamics A-12 Avenger II|A-12 Avenger II]] venne dismesso nel 1991 a causa di problemi tecnici e sforamenti dei fondi allocati. Nello stesso anno, la fine del piano Naval Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF, in italiano: Caccia Tattico Avanzato Navale), un derivato del progetto [[Advanced Tactical Fighter]] (ATF) atto a sostituire l'[[Grumman F-14 Tomcat|F-14]], condusse ad un aumento delle abilità del caccia A-X, successivamente rinominato A/F-X. Trovandosi alle prese con una pressione fiscale molto alta, la Bottom-Up Review (BUR) del [[Dipartimento della difesa degli Stati Uniti d'America|Dipartimento della Difesa]] nel 1993 annunciò la soppressione dei progetti MRF e A/F-X, e le conoscenze applicabili vennero trasferite al progetto JAST.&lt;ref name=&quot;web.archive.org&quot;/&gt; Il JAST non doveva sviluppare un nuovo aereo, quanto nuovi requisiti, tecnologie ormai mature e dimostrare nuove idee per il combattimento di precisione avanzato.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceA&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jast.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; JAST|sito=web.archive.org|data=15 luglio 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=15 luglio 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190715052740/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jast.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Man mano che il JAST faceva progressi, nel 1996 emerse il bisogno per un aereo dimostrativo, il che avrebbe coinciso con la fase di dimostrazione aerea su larga scala dell'ASTOVL/CALF. Poiché il progetto sembrava essere in linea con gli obiettivi del JAST, i due programmi vennero eventualmente fusi nel 1994 sotto il nome del JAST, e il progetto ora era in servizio dell'USAF, USMC, e USN.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceA&quot;/&gt; Da JAST si passò a Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) nel 1995, con le proposte STOVL avanzate dalla McDonnell Douglas, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin&lt;ref&gt;La Lockheed acquisì la divisione caccia della General Dynamics situata a Fort Worth nel 1993, e si unì con Martin Marietta nel 1995 per creare la Lockheed Martin.&lt;/ref&gt; e Boeing. Si preumeva che, ad un certo punto, il JSF avrebbe rimpiazzato un gran numero di aerei multi-ruolo e d'attacco al suolo nelle mani degli Stati Uniti e dei suoi alleati, includendo l'Harrier, l'F-16, l'[[McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet|F/A-18]], l'[[Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II|A-10]] e l'[[Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk|F-117]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1995/1995%20-%200833.html|titolo=1995 {{!}} 0833 {{!}} Flight Archive|sito=web.archive.org|data=17 luglio 2015|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=17 luglio 2015|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150717172813/http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1995/1995%20-%200833.html|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> La partecipazione internazionale fu un aspetto chiave del JSF, partendo dall'adesione del Regno Unito nel progetto ASTOVL. Molti partner internazionali che avevano bisogno di rimodernizzare le loro aeronautiche erano perciò interessati nel JSF. Nel 1995 il Regno Unito entrò nel JAST/JSF come membro fondatore e divenne dunque l'unico partner Tier 1 del progetto.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.org.uk/|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) UK Industry Team - Home Page|sito=web.archive.org|data=27 aprile 2006|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=21 maggio 2001|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20010521143853/http://www.jsf.org.uk/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; L'Italia, i Paesi Bassi, la Danimarca, la Norvegia, il Canada, l'Australia, e la Turchia affermarono la loro presenza durante la Fase Dimostrativa del Progetto (CDP, Concept Demonstration Phase), con Italia e Danimarca diventando partner Tier 2, mentre il resto divenne Tier 3. Successivamente, l'aereo venne creato in cooperazione con partner internazionali aperti all'esportazione.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;US, UK sign JAST agreement&quot;. ''Aerospace Daily''. New York: McGraw-Hill. 25 November 1995. p. 451.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> === Concorrenza al JSF ===<br /> Boeing e Lockheed Martin vennero scelti all'inizio del 1997 per il CDP, con i loro [[Boeing X-32|X-32]] e [[Lockheed Martin X-35|X-35]]; la squadra McDonnell Douglas venne eliminata, e la Northrop Grumann e la [[British Aerospace]] entrarono a far parte del team Lockheed Martin. Ciascuna azienda avrebbe prodotto due velivoli aerei prototipo per comprovare decollo e atterraggio convenzionali (CTOL, Conventional Takeoff and Landing), decollo e atterraggio da portaerei (CV in inglese), e la funzionalità STOVL.&lt;ref&gt;In qualità di aerei dimostratori per la riduzione rischi, essi non avevano bisogno di una struttura interna o della maggior parte dei sottosistemi d'attacco dell'aereo finale.&lt;/ref&gt; Il design della Lockheed Martin si fece forte del lavoro svolto sull'SDLF sotto il programma ASTOVL/CALF. La caratteristica chiave dell'X-35 che permetteva l'operatività STOVL era il sistema SDLF, che consiste nella presenza della ventola di sollevamento nella parte centrale della fusoliera, la quale poteva essere attivata mediante un innesto che connette il semiasse alla turbina, aumentando di fatto la spinta ottenuta dall'ugello di scarico girevole. La ricerca sugli aerei precedenti, che incorporava sistemi simili, come il [[Convair Model 200]]&lt;ref&gt;L'ugello direzionale dell'F-35 venne testato per la prima volta sul Convair Model 200.&lt;/ref&gt;, il [[Rockwell XFV-12|Rockwell SFV-12]] e lo [[Yakovlev Yak-141|Yakolev Yak-141]], venne presa in considerazione.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.govexec.com/defense/defense-beat/2002/01/the-engine-that-could/10890/|titolo=The engine that could - Defense Beat - Defense - GovExec.com|sito=web.archive.org|data=19 ottobre 2013|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=19 ottobre 2013|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20131019160442/http://www.govexec.com/defense/defense-beat/2002/01/the-engine-that-could/10890/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5209428.html|titolo=&quot;Propulsion system for a vertical and short takeoff and landing aircraft, United States Patent 5209428&quot;|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=25 febbraio 2012|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20120225075708/http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5209428.html|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita libro|nome=Bill|cognome=Library Genesis|nome2=Yefim|cognome2=Gordon|titolo=Yakovlev aircraft since 1924|url=http://archive.org/details/yakovlevaircraft00guns|accesso=29 agosto 2022|data=1997|editore=London : Putnam Aeronautical Books|ISBN=978-0-85177-872-3}}&lt;/ref&gt; Per contro, l'X-32 della Boeing utilizzava un sistema diretto di sollevamento al quale la turboventola sarebbe stata poi riconfigurata nella modalità STOVL.<br /> <br /> La strategia di comunanza della Lockheed Martin era quella di rimpiazzare l'SDLF della versione STOVL con un serbatoio, e l'ugello di scarico girevole presente a poppa con un ugello a spinta vettoriale bi-dimensionale per la versione CTOL.&lt;ref&gt;L'ugello a spinta vettoriale venne eventualmente rimpiazzato da un ugello asimmetrico a bassa visibilità per ridurre il peso.&lt;/ref&gt; Ciò avrebbe permesso configurazioni aerodinamiche identiche per le versioni STOVL e CTOL, mentre la variante CV aveva un'ala più grande per diminuire la velocità d'atterraggio per il carrier recovery.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;&gt;{{Cita libro|nome=Arthur E.|cognome=Sheridan|nome2=Robert|cognome2=Burnes|titolo=F-35 Program History: From JAST to IOC|url=https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/5.9781624105678.0001.0076|accesso=29 agosto 2022|editore=American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.|pp=1–76|ISBN=978-1-62410-566-1|doi=10.2514/5.9781624105678.0001.0076}}&lt;/ref&gt; A causa delle caratteristiche aerodinamiche e dei requisiti di carrier recovery dovuti all'unione con il JAST, il design venne modificato per includere un timone convenzionale al contrario del design a forma di delta delle alette canard, originarie del progetto ASTOVL/CALF; è degno di nota che dalla configurazione con un timone convenzionale deriva un rischio decisamente inferiore per il carrier recovery rispetto alla configurazione delle alette canard dei modelli ASTOVL/CALF. Ciò permise un'ulteriore comunanza fra le tre varianti, obiettivo di grande importanza nella fase di design.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;/&gt; I prototipi della Lockheed Martin furono dunque l'X-35A per dimostrare le capacità CTOL, per poi essere convertito alla versione X-35B per lo STOVL e all'X-35C per dimostrare la compatibilità con il CV.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|nome=Paul M.|cognome=Bevilaqua|data=2005|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter Dual-Cycle Propulsion System|rivista=Journal of Propulsion and Power|volume=21|numero=5|pp=778–783|accesso=29 agosto 2022|doi=10.2514/1.15228|url=https://doi.org/10.2514/1.15228}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> [[File:X-35 in volo.jpg|sinistra|miniatura|X-35B nel 2001]]<br /> Il primo X-35A volò il 24 ottobre 2000 e portò a termine voli di prova dimostrando le sue caratteristiche di volo subsoniche e supersoniche, maneggevolezza, portata, e prestazione di manovra.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceB&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jsf.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; JSF|sito=web.archive.org|data=15 luglio 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=15 luglio 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190715053937/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jsf.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Dopo 28 voli, il velivolo fu poi convertito nella variante X-35B per testare lo STOVL, includendo modifiche chiave come l'aggiunta del SDLF, il 3BSM (three-bearing swivel module, in italiano: Modulo di Rotazione Tri-direzionale) e condotti di controllo del rollio. L'X35-B dimostrò con successo il sistema SDLF attraverso l'esecuzione di una sospensione stabile in aria, di un atterraggio verticale e di un decollo corto in meno di 150 metri.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/xplanes/|titolo=NOVA {{!}} Battle of the X-Planes {{!}} PBS|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; L'X-35C volò per la prima volta nel 16 dicembre del 2000 ed eseguì dei test di atterraggio su portaerei.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceB&quot;/&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 26 ottobre del 2001, la Lockheed Martin venne scelta come vincitrice e ottenne il contratto System Development and Demonstration (SDD, in italiano: Sviluppo e Dimostrazione Sistema); alla [[Pratt &amp; Whitney]] venne poi assegnato un appalto in separata sede per lo sviluppo del motore dell'F135 per il JSF.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_f35.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; F-35 Acquisition|sito=web.archive.org|data=6 luglio 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=6 luglio 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190706050004/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_f35.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; La denominazione F-35, la quale non è in linea con la numerazione standard del Dipartimento della Difesa, venne presumibilmente scelta sul luogo dal responsabile del programma, il Generale Maggiore Mike Hough; questa fu una sorpresa anche per la Lockheed Martin, che immaginava invece la designazione &quot;F-24&quot; per il JSF.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.designation-systems.net/usmilav/nonstandard-mds.html#_MDS_F35|titolo=Non-Standard DOD Aircraft Designations|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> === Design e produzione ===<br /> Man mano che il programma JSF progrediva nella fase SDD, il design del modello dimostratore X-35 venne modificato per creare l'F-35. La fusoliera frontale venne allungata di 13 centimetri per fare spazio all'avionica di missione, mentre gli stabilizzatori orizzontali vennero spostati di 5.1 centimetri a poppa per mantenere equilibrio e controllo. La parte della fusoliera si riempì con l'innalzamento di 2.5 centimetri della superficie superiore lungo la linea centrale, al fine di far spazio al vano armamenti. In seguito alla denominazione dei prototipi X-35, le tre varianti furono battezzate F-35A (CTOL), F-35B (STOVL), e F-35C (CV). L'appaltatore primario, la Lockheed Martin, conduce l'integrazione dei sistemi complessiva, assemblaggio e verifica finale (FACO, Final Assembly and Checkout), mentre la Northrop Grumman e la [[BAE Systems]] forniscono componenti per i sistemi di missione e per la cellula.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.codeonemagazine.com/f35_article.html?item_id=28|titolo=X to F: F-35 Lightning II And Its X-35 Predecessors {{!}} Code One Magazine|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;Keijsper 2007, pp. 122, 124.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> L'aggiunta dei sistemi comportò un aumento del peso. L'F-35B fu il più colpito fra tutti, in primo luogo grazie ad una decisione presa nel 2003, che stabiliva l'ingrandimento del vano armamenti per aumentare la somiglianza fra modelli. L'incremento totale del peso avrebbe toccato i 1000&amp;nbsp;kg, più dell'8%, comportando dunque il mancato raggiungimento delle soglie di prestazione della funzionalità STOVL.&lt;ref&gt;Keijsper 2007, p. 119.&lt;/ref&gt; A dicembre del 2003, lo STOVL Weight Attack Team (SWAT, in italiano: Squadra Riduzione Peso STOVL) venne creato per ridurre l'aumento di peso, e tra le modifiche effettuate si annoverano: più spinta ai motori, assottigliamento delle componenti della cellula, vano armamenti e stabilizzatori verticali più piccoli, meno spinta ai condotti di rollio, re-design della giuntura alare, modifica alle parti elettroniche e della cellula subito a poppa dell'abitacolo.&lt;ref&gt;Fulghum, David A.; Wall, Robert (19 September 2004). &quot;USAF Plans for Fighters Change&quot;. ''Aviation Week &amp; Space Technology''.&lt;/ref&gt; Molti dei cambiamenti derivati dallo SWAT vennero applicati a tutte e tre le varianti, e per settembre del 2004, questi sforzi lavorativi avevano ridotto il peso dell' F-35B di oltre 1400&amp;nbsp;kg, mentre l'F-35A e l'F-35C persero rispettivamente 1100 e 860&amp;nbsp;kg.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;Keijsper 2007, p. 124.&lt;/ref&gt; Questo lavoro arrivò a costare 6.2 miliardi di dollari e causò un ritardo di 18 mesi.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.smithsonianmag.com/air-space-magazine/weight-watchers-13117183/|titolo=Weight Watchers|autore=Smithsonian Magazine|sito=Smithsonian Magazine|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il primo F-35A, codificato AA-1, venne presentato a [[Fort Worth]], in Texas, il 19 febbraio del 2006, e volò per la prima volta il 15 dicembre dello stesso anno.&lt;ref&gt;Il primo F-35 mancava dell'ottimizzazione del peso apportata dallo SWAT.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.westdef.com/presentations/2013presentations/Keith_Knotts.pdf|titolo=CF 35 Lightning II|data=21 febbraio 2014|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=21 febbraio 2014|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140221233717/http://www.westdef.com/presentations/2013presentations/Keith_Knotts.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Sempre nel medesimo, l'F-35 prese il nome &quot;Lightning II&quot; da un aereo della Seconda Guerra Mondiale, il [[Lockheed P-38 Lightning|P-38 Lightning]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/130499/lightning-ii-moniker-given-to-joint-strike-fighter/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.af.mil%2FNews%2FArticle-Display%2FArticle%2F130499%2Flightning-ii-moniker-given-to-joint-strike-fighter%2F|titolo='Lightning II' moniker given to Joint Strike Fighter|sito=Air Force|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Qualche pilota USAF soprannominò l'aereo &quot;Panther&quot;.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/20914/the-f-35-has-a-new-nickname-given-to-it-by-the-usafs-most-elite-pilots|titolo=The Air Force's Elite Weapons School Has Given The F-35 A New Nickname - The Drive|data=13 agosto 2018|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=13 agosto 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20180813044728/http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/20914/the-f-35-has-a-new-nickname-given-to-it-by-the-usafs-most-elite-pilots|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il software dell'aereo venne sviluppato e diviso in 6 rilasci per l'SDD, detti Blocks (&quot;blocchi&quot;, letteralmente). I primi due Blocks, l'1A e l'1B, prepararono l'F-35 all'addestramento iniziale e fornirono sicurezza multilivello. Il Block 2A migliorò le capacità di addestramento, mentre il 2B fu il primo rilascio pronto al combattimento pianificato per la capacità operativa iniziale (IOC, [[Initial Operational Capability]]) dell'USMC. Il Block 3i pianificato per l'IOC dell'USAF mantiene le capacità del 2B, impiegando però hardware diverso. L'ultimo rilascio per l'SDD, il Block 3F, fornì un pieno inviluppo di volo e tutte le capacità di combattimento base. Accompagnati alle software release, ciascun aggiornamento include aggiornamenti per l'avionica di bordo e miglioramenti del veicolo aereo derivati dai voli effettuati e da test strutturali.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|titolo=F-35 Software Development {{!}} F-35 Lightning II|sito=web.archive.org|data=2 luglio 2020|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=2 luglio 2020|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702032933/https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; In quella che si chiama &quot;co-occorrenza&quot;, qualche aereo appartenente alla produzione iniziale a bassa velocità (LRIP, in inglese: low rate initial production) vennero consegnati con dei Block più datati per poi essere eventualmente migliorati con il Block 3F non appena venne sviluppato.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06356.pdf|titolo=DOD Plans to Enter Production before Testing Demonstrates Acceptable Performance|data=1º agosto 2020|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=1 agosto 2020|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200801012121/https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06356.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Dopo 17000 ore di voli di prova, il volo finale per la fase SDD venne completato ad Aprile del 2018.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defensenews.com/air/2018/04/12/f-35-program-office-wraps-up-final-developmental-flight-test/|titolo=F-35 program office wraps up final developmental flight test|autore=Valerie Insinna|sito=Defense News|data=16 aprile 2018|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Proprio come l'F-22, l'F-35 fu soggetto ad [[Attacco informatico|attacchi cibernetici]] e a tentativi di furto delle componenti, appaiati a potenziali vulnerabilità nell'integrità della catena di fornitura.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://news.sky.com/story/f-35-jets-chinese-owned-company-making-parts-for-top-secret-uk-us-fighters-11741889|titolo=F-35 jets: Chinese-owned company making parts for top-secret UK-US fighters|sito=Sky News|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/zakdoffman/2019/06/15/chinese-owned-company-supplies-electronics-on-u-s-and-u-k-f-35-fighter-jets/|titolo=U.S. And U.K. F-35 Jets Include 'Core' Circuit Boards From Chinese-Owned Company|autore=Zak Doffman|sito=Forbes|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defensenews.com/breaking-news/2016/03/24/chinese-businessman-pleads-guilty-of-spying-on-f-35-and-f-22/|titolo=Chinese Businessman Pleads Guilty of Spying on F-35 and F-22|autore=Wendell Minnick|sito=Defense News|data=24 marzo 2016|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Vennero individuati numerosi e gravi problemi durante le prove: i primi modelli dell'F-35B dimostrarono crepature premature,&lt;ref&gt;I primi F-35B hanno una vita di servizio di 2100 ore prima di rimodernizzazioni come visto sul Lot 9 e aerei successivi.&lt;/ref&gt; il gancio d'arresto dell'F-35C non era completamente affidabile, i serbatoi erano troppo vulnerabili ai fulmini, il display dell'elmetto presentava problemi, e via dicendo. Il software fu continuamente rinviato a causa del suo ambito mai visto prima d'allora e della sua complessità. Nel 2009, il Joint Estimate Team (JET, in italiano: Comitato Unito Preventivi) del Dipartimento della Difesa affermò che il progetto era indietro di 30 mesi rispetto alla tabella di marcia pubblicata.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita testo|url=|cognome=Cox|nome= Bob |data=1 marzo 2010|titolo= &quot;Internal Pentagon memo predicts that F-35 testing won't be complete until 2016&quot;|pubblicazione= Fort Worth Star-Telegram}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-01-06/lockheed-f-35-purchases-delayed-in-pentagon-s-fiscal-2011-plan.html|titolo=Lockheed F-35 Purchases Delayed in Pentagon’s Fiscal 2011 Plan - BusinessWeek|data=10 gennaio 2010|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=10 gennaio 2010|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20100110005120/http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-01-06/lockheed-f-35-purchases-delayed-in-pentagon-s-fiscal-2011-plan.html|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Nel 2011, il programma venne &quot;ri-definito&quot;. Ciò sta a significare che i suoi costi e i suoi scopi pianificati vennero modificati, spostando l'IOC dal 2010 al 2015.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://spectrum.ieee.org/f35-program-continues-to-struggle-with-software|titolo=F-35 Program Continues to Struggle with Software|sito=IEEE Spectrum|data=19 settembre 2012|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=https://www.dote.osd.mil/pub/reports/FY2018/pdf/dod/2018f35jsf.pdf|titolo=F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)|data=26 giugno 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=26 giugno 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190626203053/https://www.dote.osd.mil/pub/reports/FY2018/pdf/dod/2018f35jsf.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; La decisione di collaudare, sistemare i difetti, e dare il via alla produzione allo stesso tempo fu criticata per essere stata una mossa inefficace. Nel 2014, il Sottosegretario della Difesa per l'Acquisizione Frank Kendall la definì &quot;negligenza d'acquisizione&quot;.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.cbsnews.com/news/f-35-joint-strike-fighter-60-minutes/|titolo=Is the F-35 worth it?|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Le tre varianti condividevano solo il 25% delle componenti, percentuale di gran lunga inferiore al 70% previsto.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.airforcemag.com/all-for-one-and-all-for-all/|titolo=All For One and All for All|sito=Air Force Magazine|data=14 marzo 2016|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il programma attirò critiche notevoli a causa dello sforamento dei costi e per il prezzo totale previsto per il mantenimento dell'aereo, e anche a causa della malagestione del controllo qualità da parte degli appaltatori.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-united-tech-fighter-engine-idUSKBN0NI1TL20150427|titolo=U.S. watchdog finds quality violations in Pratt work on F-35 engine|pubblicazione=Reuters|data=27 aprile 2015|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2017-04-04/is-the-f-35-a-trillion-dollar-mistake|titolo=Is the F-35 a Trillion-Dollar Mistake?|pubblicazione=Bloomberg.com|data=4 aprile 2017|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il programma JSF sarebbe dovuto costare circa 200 miliardi di dollari per l'acquisizione nell'anno di riferimento (2002), quando l'SDD venne assegnato nel 2001.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2001/10/27/lockheed-martin-beats-boeing-for-fighter-contract/c65b8843-131f-4827-9c69-c183066f1f57/|titolo=Schneider, Greg (27 October 2001). &quot;Lockheed Martin Beats Boeing for Fighter Contract&quot;}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|nome=James Dao With Laura M.|cognome=Holson|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/27/us/lockheed-wins-200-billion-deal-for-fighter-jet.html|titolo=Lockheed Wins $200 Billion Deal for Fighter Jet|pubblicazione=The New York Times|data=27 ottobre 2001|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Già agli inizi del 2005, il [[Government Accountability Office]] (GAO) aveva individuato dei rischi non indifferenti nel progetto e nella programmazione.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38236-2005Mar15.html|titolo=GAO Questions Cost Of Joint Strike Fighter (washingtonpost.com)|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; I costosi ritardi incrinarono i rapporti tra il Pentagono e gli appaltatori.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-lockheed-fighter-idUSBRE88H00D20120918|titolo=Pentagon tells Lockheed to shape up on F-35 fighter|pubblicazione=Reuters|data=18 settembre 2012|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Per il 2017, tra ritardi e sforamenti, il programma di acquisizione dell'F-35 aveva gonfiato i prezzi fino 406.5 miliardi di dollari, con un costo complessivo della vita di servizio dell'aereo (cioè fino al 2070) ammontanti a 1.5 trilioni di dollari (valore dollaro calibrato su quell'annata) tra operazioni e mantenimento.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.airforcemag.com/DRArchive/Pages/2014/January%202014/January%2008%202014/The-Cost-of-Teamwork.aspx|titolo=The Cost of Teamwork|sito=web.archive.org|data=25 maggio 2014|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=25 maggio 2014|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140525023853/http://www.airforcemag.com/DRArchive/Pages/2014/January%202014/January%2008%202014/The-Cost-of-Teamwork.aspx|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-07-10/f-35-program-costs-jump-to-406-billion-in-new-pentagon-estimate|titolo=F-35 Program Costs Jump to $406.5 Billion in Latest Estimate|pubblicazione=Bloomberg.com|data=10 luglio 2017|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.thenation.com/article/f35-fighter-jet-pentagon/|titolo=&quot;The Pentagon's $1.5 Trillion Addiction to the F-35 Fighter&quot;|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=6 dicembre 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20191206140954/https://www.thenation.com/article/f35-fighter-jet-pentagon/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il costo LRIP di un lotto di 13 F-35A arrivava a 79.2 milioni di dollari.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.airforcemag.com/massive-34-billion-f-35-contract-includes-price-drop-as-readiness-improves/|titolo=Massive $34 Billion F-35 Contract Includes Price Drop as Readiness Improves|sito=Air Force Magazine|data=29 ottobre 2019|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Ritardi nello sviluppo, nei test operativi e nella valutazione hanno respinto la produzione a pieno regime al 2023.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=https://www.gao.gov/assets/700/692307.pdf|titolo=Development Is Nearly Complete, but Deficiencies Found in Testing Need to Be<br /> Resolved}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://breakingdefense.sites.breakingmedia.com/2022/03/full-rate-production-for-f-35-is-at-least-another-year-away/|titolo=Full rate production for F-35 is at least another year away|autore=Valerie Insinna|sito=Breaking Defense|data=8 marzo 2022|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> === Migliorie e sviluppi futuri ===<br /> La prima configurazione pronta al combattimento, la Block 2B, possedente abilità aria-aria e di attacco al suolo basilari, venne dichiarata pronta dall'USMC nel luglio del 2015.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.flightglobal.com/first-operational-f-35-squadron-declared-ready-for-combat/117812.article|titolo=First operational F-35 squadron declared ready for combat|autore=James Drew2015-07-31T19:09:51+01:00|sito=Flight Global|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; La configurazione Block 3F iniziò test operativi e valutazione (OT&amp;E, Operational Test and Evaluation) nel dicembre del 2018, e al completamento di essa si avrà la fine del SDD.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defensenews.com/2018/12/07/after-a-couple-months-delay-the-f-35-moves-into-operational-tests/|titolo=After a couple months delay, the F-35 moves into operational tests|autore=Valerie Insinna|sito=Defense News|data=7 dicembre 2018|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il programma dell'F-35 sta anche conducendo la realizzazione di un piano di mantenimento e miglioramento; i primi aerei furono gradualmente aggiornati al Block 3F nel 2021.<br /> <br /> L'F-35 verrà continuamente migliorato durante la sua vita operativa. Il primo pacchetto di aggiornamenti, chiamato Continuous Capability Development and Delivery (C2D2, in italiano: Sviluppo e Consegna Continui Funzionalità) iniziò nel 2019 e al momento la sua durata è pianificata fino al 2024. La priorità di sviluppo a breve termine del C2D2 è il Block 4, che integrerà armamenti aggiuntivi, includendo quelli esclusivi ai clienti internazionali, e intende anche aggiornare l'avionica, migliorare le capacità ESM (Electronic Support Measures, in italiano: Misure Supporto Elettronico) e aggiungere supporto per il Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver (ROVER, in italiano: Ricevitore Video Avanzato Remoto).&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defenseworld.net/?utm_source=404Redirect&amp;utm_medium=404Redirect|titolo=Defense World|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il C2D2 concentra ulteriormente l'attenzione su una [[metodologia agile]] per permettere rilasci più veloci.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviationtoday.com/2019/03/19/dod-plans-spend-6-6-b-f-35-continuing-development-2024/|titolo=U.S. Defense Department Plans to Spend $6.6B on F-35 Continuing Development Through 2024|sito=Aviation Today|data=19 marzo 2019|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Nel 2018, l'[[Air Force Life Cycle Management Center|Air Force Life Cycle Management Centre]] (AFLCMC, in italiano: Centro Gestione Vita Utile Aeronautica) concesse dei contratti alla General Electric e alla Pratt &amp; Whitney per sviluppare motori a ciclo adattivo più potenti ed efficaci per un potenziale impiego, sfruttando la ricerca fatta sotto il Programma di Transizione al Motore Adattivo (AETP, Adaptive Engine Transition Program). Nel 2022, il FAER, ovvero il programma di Sostituzione Motore Adattivo dell'F-35 (F-35 Adaptive Engine Replacement) venne avviato per integrare, per il 2028, motori a ciclo adattivo nell'aereo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.flightglobal.com/fixed-wing/usaf-starts-work-on-defining-adaptive-engine-for-future-fighter/128748.article|titolo=USAF starts work on defining adaptive engine for future fighter|autore=Stephen Trimble2018-07-10T01:14:59+01:00|sito=Flight Global|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.janes.com/defence-news/news-detail/usaf-launches-f-35-advanced-engine-effort|titolo=USAF launches F-35 advanced engine effort|sito=Janes.com|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Gli appaltatori della Difesa hanno offerto migliorie per l'F-35 anche fuori dai contratti ufficiali del progetto. Nel 2013, la Northrop Grumman divulgò lo sviluppo di una serie di [[contromisure a infrarossi]], denominata Threat Nullification Defensive Resource (ThDNR, in italiano: Risorsa Difensiva Annullamento Pericoli). Il sistema di contromisure avrebbe condiviso lo stesso spazio dei sensori DAS (Distributed Aperture System, in italiano: Sistema Distribuito Diaframmi), ed ora agisce come disturbatore di missili a laser al fine di proteggere l'aereo contro missili con ricerca a infrarossi.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=http://www.aviationweek.com/Article/PrintArticle.aspx?id=%2Farticle-xml%2Fawx_09_12_2013_p0-615904.xml&amp;p=1&amp;printView=true|titolo=Northrop Developing Laser Missile Jammer For F-35|data=20 aprile 2014|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=20 aprile 2014|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140420220645/http://www.aviationweek.com/Article/PrintArticle.aspx?id=%2Farticle-xml%2Fawx_09_12_2013_p0-615904.xml&amp;p=1&amp;printView=true|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Israele vuole più accesso all'avionica per includere il loro equipaggiamento.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://breakingdefense.sites.breakingmedia.com/2021/09/israel-wants-to-put-new-equipment-inside-the-f-35-exclusive-qa-with-top-officer/|titolo=Israel Wants To Put New Equipment Inside The F-35: Exclusive Q&amp;A With Top Officer|sito=Breaking Defense|data=21 settembre 2021|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Tecnica ==<br /> === Cellula ===<br /> [[File:F-35A - Inauguration Towing.jpg|miniatura|L'F-35A viene trainato durante la sua cerimonia di inaugurazione il 7 luglio [[2006]]]]<br /> L'F-35 appare più piccolo e leggermente più tradizionale del bimotore [[F-22 Raptor]]. Il progetto del condotto di scarico si è ispirato al modello 200 della [[General Dynamics]], un aereo VTOL del 1972 progettato per le [[Sea Control Ship]]. I progettisti della [[Lockheed Corporation|Lockheed]] hanno lavorato assieme al [[Yakovlev Design Bureau]] che progettò l'aereo [[Yakovlev Yak-141|Yakovlev Yak-141 &quot;Freestyle&quot;]] negli anni novanta&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|autore=Hayles, John|url=http://www.aeroflight.co.uk/types/russia/yakovlev/yak-41/yak-41.htm|titolo=Yakovlev Yak-41 'Freestyle'|editore=''Aeroflight''|data=28 marzo 2005|accesso=3 luglio 2008}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.janes.com/defence/air_forces/news/jawa/jawa010103_1_n.shtml|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)|accesso=3 luglio 2008}}&lt;/ref&gt;. La [[Velivolo stealth|tecnologia stealth]] rende l'aereo difficile da individuare mentre si avvicina ai radar a corto raggio.<br /> <br /> Rispetto alla generazione precedente, gli obiettivi di questo progetto sono di creare un velivolo:<br /> * con tecnologia stealth a bassa manutenzione e durevole;<br /> * con sistemi avionici integrati con i sensori per combinare le informazioni e aumentare la conoscenza del pilota sulla situazione circostante, l'identificazione e lo sgancio delle armi e l'invio veloce di informazioni ad altri nodi di controllo e comando;<br /> * con una rete interna ad alta velocità, tra cui l'[[IEEE 1394]]&lt;ref name=&quot;avweek_20070205&quot;&gt;{{Cita testo|autore=Philips, E. H.|titolo=The Electric Jet|editore=Aviation Week &amp; Space Technology|data=5 febbraio 2007}}&lt;/ref&gt; e [[fibre ottiche]]&lt;ref name=&quot;avionics_20070601&quot;&gt;{{Cita web |cognome=Parker |nome=Ian |url=http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/military/11667.html |titolo=Reducing Risk on the Joint Strike Fighter |editore=Avionics Magazine |data=1º giugno 2007 |accesso=8 luglio 2007}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> === Motori ===<br /> Inizialmente erano stati sviluppati due diversi propulsori per l'F-35: il [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135]] e il [[General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136]], il secondo, nonostante le proteste di Rolls-Royce che comunque rimane responsabile per la costruzione/integrazione del gruppo trasmissione/ventola per la versione STOVL ad atterraggio verticale, è stato annullato.<br /> <br /> [[File:Engine of F-35.jpg|miniatura|Il Rolls-Royce LiftSystem in mostra al salone aeronautico di Parigi del 2007]]<br /> <br /> Il sistema di decollo verticale, della versione STOVL (Short Take Off Vertical Landing) è composto dal motore, una [[turboventola]] a basso [[rapporto di diluizione]] con [[postbruciatore]] come su un normale aereo da combattimento, fornito di un ugello di coda dotato di un particolare meccanismo di rotazione che permette di orientare il flusso dei gas di scarico verso il basso, e da una ventola anteriore verticale a due stadi controrotanti, posta subito dietro l'abitacolo; quando questa viene innestata all'albero della turbina di bassa pressione del motore, attraverso un albero e un giunto di collegamento, trasforma il propulsore in una sorta di turboventola ad alto rapporto di diluizione a flussi separati ottenendo, grazie al miglior rendimento di questo tipo di propulsore, un surplus di spinta che viene utilizzato per il sostentamento verticale della parte anteriore e centrale del velivolo. Il controllo del rollio viene effettuato deviando aria pressurizzata, spillata dal compressore a bassa pressione, verso ugelli posti sotto le ali&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/issues/issue20/hutchinson.pdf|titolo=Going vertical. Developing a STOVL system|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150720000027/http://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/issues/issue20/hutchinson.pdf }}.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il motore produce una spinta di 128,1&amp;nbsp;kN a secco e 191,3&amp;nbsp;kN (213,5&amp;nbsp;kN al decollo) con post-combustione inserita&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35a&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_ctol.pdf|titolo=Engine for F-35A Conventional Take Off and Landing (CTOL)|formato=PDF|accesso=22 febbraio 2015|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924083344/http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_ctol.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35b&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_stovl.pdf|titolo=Power for F-35B Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL)|formato=PDF|accesso=22 febbraio 2015|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924083346/http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_stovl.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;; quando la ventola anteriore è innestata, la spinta a secco diventa di 80&amp;nbsp;kN dall'ugello di coda, 89&amp;nbsp;kN dalla ventola anteriore verticale e 8,7&amp;nbsp;kN da ciascuno dei due ugelli per il controllo laterale, per un totale di 186,4&amp;nbsp;kN&lt;ref name=&quot;rr-liftsystem&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.rolls-royce.com/defence/products/combat_jets/liftsystem/technology/|titolo=Rolls-Royce LiftSystem Technology|accesso=22 febbraio 2015}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Rispetto alla normale turboventola ad alto rapporto di diluizione a flussi separati utilizzata sull'[[BAE Harrier II|Harrier]], questo sistema di propulsione presenta il vantaggio che, una volta disinnestata la ventola anteriore, può essere utilizzato anche a velocità supersonica. Inoltre il raffreddamento aggiuntivo dei gas di scarico operato dal maggior lavoro, sottratto loro dalla turbina a bassa pressione per il funzionamento della ventola anteriore, diminuisce la quantità di aria ad alta velocità e a elevata temperatura che viene proiettata verso il basso durante il decollo, aria calda che può danneggiare i ponti delle portaerei e le piste di decollo.<br /> <br /> === Sistemi e impianti ===<br /> ==== Abitacolo ====<br /> [[File:F-35 Wind Tunnel Model.jpg|miniatura|Un modello di F-35 per i test nella galleria del vento nell'Arnold Engineering Development Center]]<br /> L'F-35 possiede un display di tipo &quot;panoramic cockpit display (PCD)&quot; con dimensioni di 50 x 20&amp;nbsp;cm&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.airvectors.net/avf35.html|titolo=The Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)|editore=vectorsite.net}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Un sistema di riconoscimento vocale permette di aumentare le capacità del pilota di interagire con il velivolo. L'F-35 sarà il primo aereo ad ala fissa operativo a usare questo sistema, anche se soluzioni simili sono state utilizzate nell'[[McDonnell Douglas-BAe AV-8B Harrier II|AV-8B]] e sperimentati in altri aerei, come l'[[F-16 VISTA]]&lt;ref name=&quot;voice&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123071861|titolo=Researchers fine-tune F-35 pilot-aircraft speech system|editore=US Air Force|data=10 ottobre 2007|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20071020030310/http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123071861}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Un sistema di visualizzazione sull'elmetto sarà integrato in tutti i modelli dell'F-35. Anche se alcuni caccia di quarta generazione (come lo svedese [[Saab JAS 39 Gripen]]) hanno questo sistema assieme a un visore a testa alta ([[Head-Up Display|HUD]]), l'F-35 sarà il primo caccia moderno a essere progettato senza dotazione di HUD&lt;ref name=hdms&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.rockwellcollins.com/news/page8813.html|titolo=VSI's Helmet Mounted Display System flies on Joint Strike Fighter|editore=Rockwell Collins|accesso=8 giugno 2008}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il pilota può manovrare l'aereo tramite un sidestick sul lato destro e una manetta per il controllo della spinta a sinistra&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.militarypower.com.br/english-frame4-f35.htm|titolo=F-35 JSF Joint Strike Fighter|editore=militarypower.com.br}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> In tutte le varianti dell'F-35 sarà impiegato il [[Seggiolino eiettabile|sedile]] US16E, costruito dalla [[Martin-Baker]]&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.jsf.org.uk/JSF-UK-Industry-Team/Martin-Baker.aspx|titolo=Martin-Baker|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20081021165256/http://www.jsf.org.uk/JSF-UK-Industry-Team/Martin-Baker.aspx }}, Jsf.org.uk.&lt;/ref&gt;, che soddisfa i requisiti di prestazioni e impiega un sistema a doppia catapulta contenuto in binari laterali&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.martin-baker.com/getdoc/848c206d-6dc7-4afc-b8f3-ec2f09cd75a3/US16E---JSF.aspx|titolo=Martin-Baker, UK|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090306123448/http://www.martin-baker.com/getdoc/848c206d-6dc7-4afc-b8f3-ec2f09cd75a3/US16E---JSF.aspx }}, Martin-baker.com.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> ==== Sensori ====<br /> [[File:F-35 EOTS.jpeg|miniatura|Il Sistema Integrato di Puntamento Elettro-Ottico (EOTS) sotto il muso di un modello dell'aereo]]<br /> <br /> Il sensore principale è il radar [[APG-81]], progettato dalla [[Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems]]&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.es.northropgrumman.com/ASD/combat/APG-81.html|titolo=APG-81 (F-35 Lightning II)|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20070212221255/http://www.es.northropgrumman.com/ASD/combat/APG-81.html|accesso=4 agosto 2007 }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Verrà integrato dal sistema elettro-ottico di puntamento, montato sotto il muso dell'aereo e progettato dalla Lockheed Martin e dalla BAE&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/JointStrikeFighterElectroOpticalTar/|titolo=Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control: Joint Strike Fighter Electro-Optical Targeting System.|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090106235314/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/JointStrikeFighterElectroOpticalTar/|accesso=11 aprile 2008 }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Lungo tutto l'aereo sono distribuiti ulteriori sensori elettro-ottici, come parte del sistema AN/AAS-37 che funge da sistema di allerta per il lancio di missili e può aiutare la navigazione e le operazioni notturne.<br /> <br /> ==== Software ====<br /> il sistema software che gestirà l'aereo sarà costituito da 8,3 milioni di linee di codice e consentirà di gestire i controlli di volo, le funzionalità del radar, comunicazioni, navigazione, identificazione, gestire gli attacchi elettronici, integrare i dati dei sensori, dispiegare le armi. Il software dell'[[Lockheed Martin-Boeing F-22 Raptor|F22]] raptor, primo aereo di quinta generazione, ha &quot;solo&quot; 2 milioni di righe di codice.<br /> <br /> Lo sviluppo del software verrà effettuato tramite 6 release denominati block:<br /> <br /> * Block 1A / 1B. Il block 1 comprende il 78% delle 8,3 milioni di linee di codice sorgente richieste per la piena capacità militare. Il blocco 1A sarà la configurazione per il training di base, il blocco 1B fornirà i primi livelli di sicurezza.<br /> * Block 2A. Il block 2A comprende l'86% del codice previsto e consentirà fusione off-board, link dati, attacchi elettronici e definizione delle missioni.<br /> * Block 2B. Il block 2B comprende l'87% del codice previsto e fornirà le funzionalità iniziali di guerra.<br /> * Block 3i - il block 3i comprenderà l'89 per cento del codice previsto e fornirà le stesse capacità tattiche del blocco 2B. La principale differenza tra 2B e 3i è l'implementazione di nuovi hardware, in particolare il processore integrato di aggiornamento.<br /> * Block 3F. Il block 3F fornisce il 100 per cento del software richiesto per la completa capacità militare&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|titolo=F-35 Software Development {{!}} F-35 Lightning II|sito=F-35 Lightning II|accesso=21 aprile 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702032933/https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> === Sistemi d'arma ===<br /> [[File:F-35 weapons bay.jpeg|miniatura|Stiva delle armi di un modello dell'aereo]]<br /> L'F-35 impiega un cannone a quattro canne [[GAU-12 Equalizer|GAU-22/A]] da 25&amp;nbsp;mm&lt;ref&gt;. {{Cita web |url=http://www.gdatp.com/products/Gun_Systems/JSF/JSF.htm |titolo=Copia archiviata |accesso=13 febbraio 2009 |urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090711145138/http://www.gdatp.com/products/Gun_Systems/JSF/JSF.htm |urlmorto=sì }}, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il cannone è montato internamente con 180 colpi nella variante F-35A, mentre nelle altre varianti F-35B e C è disponibile in un pod esterno (stealth) con 220 colpi&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-35-specs.htm|titolo=F-35 specifications}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nelle due stive interne possono essere inserite varie combinazioni di armamenti, come due missili aria-aria e due armi aria-terra (fino a due bombe da 910&amp;nbsp;kg - {{formatnum:2000}}&amp;nbsp;lb nei modelli A e C; due bombe da 450&amp;nbsp;kg - {{formatnum:1000}}&amp;nbsp;lb nel modello B)&lt;ref name=F-35_brief&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/AFA%20Conf%20-%20JSF%20Program%20Brief%20-%2026%20Sept%2006.pdf|titolo=F-35 Program Brief|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20070809091958/http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/AFA%20Conf%20-%20JSF%20Program%20Brief%20-%2026%20Sept%2006.pdf }}, USAF, 26 September 2006.&lt;/ref&gt;. L'armamento impiegabile include missili [[AIM-120 AMRAAM]], [[AIM-132 ASRAAM]], il [[Joint Direct Attack Munition]] (JDAM) fino a {{formatnum:2000}}&amp;nbsp;lb (910&amp;nbsp;kg), il [[AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon|Joint Standoff Weapon]] (JSOW), le bombe [[GBU-39]] (un massimo di quattro in ogni stiva), i missili [[Brimstone (missile)|Brimstone]], le munizioni a grappolo (WCMD) e i missili AARGM-ER, della Orbital ATK, che sono la versione con nuovo triplo sistema di guida, raggio d'azione raddoppiato e dimensioni compatibili con la stiva interna dell'F-35A e C, del precedente [[AGM-88 HARM]]. Il missile aria-aria [[MBDA Meteor]] è in fase di adattamento per essere alloggiato negli F-35. Originariamente il Regno Unito ha pianificato di posizionare internamente quattro missili AIM-132 ASRAAM, ma i piani sono stati modificati per caricare due missili ASRAAM internamente e altri due esternamente&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.f-16.net/news_article2762.html|titolo=&quot;F-35 Lightning II News: ASRAAM Config Change For F-35&quot;}}, f-16.net, 4 March 2008.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Possono essere agganciati altri missili, bombe e serbatoi di carburante ai quattro piloni alari e nelle due posizioni sulle punte delle ali, con lo svantaggio di rendere l'aereo più rilevabile dai radar. Sull'estremità delle ali possono essere inseriti solo missili di tipi [[AIM-9 Sidewinder|AIM-9X Sidewinder]], mentre i missili AIM-120 AMRAAM, [[Storm Shadow]], [[AGM-158 JASSM]] e i serbatoi di carburante possono essere inseriti nei piloni alari. Impiegando le posizioni interne ed esterne potrebbe essere impiegata una configurazione aria-aria con oltre otto AIM-120 e due AIM-9, oppure una configurazione aria-terra con sei bombe da 2000&amp;nbsp;lb, due AIM-120 e due AIM-9&lt;ref name=&quot;JSFrange&quot;&gt;{{Cita web |cognome=Digger |nome=Davis |url=http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2007targets/Day1/Davisday1.pdf |titolo=JSF Range &amp; Airspace Requirements |editore=Headquarters Air Combat Command |formato=PDF |data=30 ottobre 2007 |accesso=3 dicembre 2008 |urlmorto=sì |urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20081219205327/http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2007targets/Day1/Davisday1.pdf }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Con la sua capacità di carico, l'F-35 può trasportare più armi aria-aria e aria-terra dei suoi predecessori&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MzM3M2U5NDBjYjE0ODI1ZjFlYjYzZjFlZWZjZjhiMmI=|titolo=National Review|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090109212717/http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MzM3M2U5NDBjYjE0ODI1ZjFlYjYzZjFlZWZjZjhiMmI= }}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il velivolo potrà inoltre essere equipaggiato con bombe nucleari [[B61]].<br /> <br /> == Partecipazione internazionale al progetto ==<br /> Oltre agli [[Stati Uniti d'America|Stati Uniti]], il principale cliente e finanziatore, hanno contribuito anche [[Regno Unito]], [[Italia]], [[Paesi Bassi]], [[Canada]], [[Turchia]], [[Australia]], [[Norvegia]] e [[Danimarca]] con un totale di 4&amp;nbsp;375 milioni di [[dollaro statunitense|dollari]] nella fase di sviluppo. I costi totali sono stimati in più di 40 miliardi di dollari, coperti in gran parte dagli Stati Uniti, mentre l'acquisto dei 2&amp;nbsp;400 esemplari previsti è stimato in ulteriori 200 miliardi di dollari&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38236-2005Mar15.html|titolo=GAO Questions Cost Of Joint Strike Fighter|autore=Renae Merle|editore=Washington Post|data=15 marzo 2005|accesso=15 luglio 2007}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Le nove nazioni partner principali prevedono di acquistare più di 3&amp;nbsp;100 esemplari entro il [[2035]]&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/ANNEX%20A%20Revision_April%202007.pdf|formato=PDF|titolo=Estimated JSF Air Vehicle Procurement Quantities|editore=JSF.mil|data=aprile 2007|accesso=accesso=7 ottobre 2008|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090327082340/http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/ANNEX%20A%20Revision_April%202007.pdf}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Ci sono tre livelli di partecipazione internazionale che riflettono l'impegno finanziario comune nel programma, la quantità di tecnologia trasferita e l'ordine con il quale le nazioni possono ottenere esemplari di produzione.&lt;br /&gt; Il Regno Unito è l'unico partner di &quot;livello 1&quot;, con un contributo di 2,5 miliardi di dollari, pari al 10% dei costi di sviluppo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.teamjsf.com/jsf/data.nsf/75public/07CF737749FA9E5585256F3900720288?OpenDocument|titolo=JSF Global Partners|accesso=20 marzo 2007|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20071004212446/https://www.teamjsf.com/jsf/data.nsf/75public/07CF737749FA9E5585256F3900720288?OpenDocument}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;UKJAST&quot;&gt;&quot;US, UK sign JAST agreement.&quot; ''Aerospace Daily'' New York: McGraw-Hill, 25-11-1995, p. 451.&lt;/ref&gt; I partner di &quot;livello 2&quot; sono l'Italia, che contribuisce con $1 miliardo, e i Paesi Bassi con un contributo di $800 milioni. I partner di &quot;livello 3&quot; sono Canada ($440 milioni), Turchia ($175 milioni), Australia ($144 milioni), Norvegia ($122 milioni) e Danimarca ($110 milioni). [[Israele]] e [[Singapore]] partecipano al programma in qualità di &quot;''Security Cooperative Partecipants''&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04554.pdf|formato=PDF|autore=Katherine V. Schnasi|editore=US Accounts Office|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Observations on the Supplier Base|accesso=8 febbraio 2006|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200816190247/https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04554.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Alcuni dei partner internazionali hanno esitato negli impegni del programma JSF, alludendo o minacciando l'abbandono del JSF a favore di altri velivoli come l'[[Eurofighter Typhoon]], il [[Saab JAS 39 Gripen]] o il [[Dassault Rafale]]. La [[Norvegia]] ha lanciato vari avvertimenti su una possibile interruzione del sostegno finanziario in mancanza di sostanziali garanzie su un incremento nella quota industriale&lt;ref&gt;''Defense Industry Daily''. {{cita testo|url=https://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2007/02/f35-lightning-ii-faces-continued-dogfights-in-norway/index.php|titolo=F-35 Lightning II Faces Continued Dogfights in Norway|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20070401012043/http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2007/02/f35-lightning-ii-faces-continued-dogfights-in-norway/index.php }}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Le uniche forze aeree interessate alla versione ''B'' sono lo [[United States Marine Corps]] degli [[Stati Uniti]], l'[[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare]] e l'[[Aviazione Navale]] della [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare Italiana]], la [[Royal Air Force]] e la [[Fleet Air Arm]] della [[Gran Bretagna]]. &lt;br /&gt;Nel 2010 La [[Gran Bretagna]], nell'ambito della revisione dei programmi della difesa attuata dall'allora neo-insediato governo [[David Cameron|Cameron]] aveva annunciato l'intenzione di abbandonare completamente la versione ''B'', scegliendo in sua vece la versione ''C'', e di voler modificare di conseguenza le portaerei in costruzione della [[Classe Queen Elizabeth (portaerei)|Classe Queen Elizabeth]] da [[STOVL]] a [[CATOBAR]]&lt;ref name=&quot;RAF&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.dedalonews.it/it/index.php/10/2010/londra-dice-addio-agli-stovl-si-disfa-degli-harrier-e-per-lf-35-sceglie-la-versione-c/|titolo=Dedalonews » Londra dice addio agli STOVL si disfa degli Harrier e per l’F-35 sceglie la versione C|accesso=9 gennaio 2011|editore=dedalonews.it|data=25 ottobre 2010|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110112121612/http://www.dedalonews.it/it/index.php/10/2010/londra-dice-addio-agli-stovl-si-disfa-degli-harrier-e-per-lf-35-sceglie-la-versione-c/}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Tuttavia nel maggio del 2012 una nuova analisi dei costi e dei tempi per realizzare le pesanti modifiche sulle predette portaerei, oltre ai mancati ritorni per l'industria motoristica nazionale, ha indotto lo stesso governo Cameron a ritornare sui suoi passi e a riconfermare l'acquisizione della versione ''B''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/uk-reverses-controversial-f-35-switch-371661/|titolo=UK reverses controversial F-35 switch&lt;!-- Titolo generato automaticamente --&gt;}}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> La Marina Italiana, poiché la portaerei [[Cavour (550)|Cavour]] ha un ponte di volo troppo corto per ospitare caccia a decollo convenzionale e non essendovi al mondo alcun altro [[STOVL]] in via di sviluppo, sostituirà gli attuali [[AV-8B Harrier II]] della [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare]] con l'F-35B.<br /> <br /> Tra il 3 e il 5 febbraio 2016 un F-35A Lightning II dell'[[Aeronautica militare italiana|AMI]] ha effettuato il primo volo transatlantico di un F-35, volando dall'[[aeroporto di Cameri]] fino alla base aerea della [[United States Navy|Marina militare statunitense]] di Patuxent River, nel [[Maryland]], con una sosta a [[Lajes das Flores]], nelle [[Azzorre]] e con rifornimento in volo da parte di un [[Boeing KC-767]]. Il velivolo utilizzato per il volo, denominato AL-1, è il primo completamente costruito in Italia nella Final Assembly &amp; Check-Out (F.A.C.O.) di Cameri&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.difesa.it/Primo_Piano/Pagine/20160208F_35_primo_volo_transoceanico.aspx|titolo=Italiano il primo F-35 che completa volo oltreoceano|accesso=2 aprile 2016}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Con l'acquisto dei sistemi missilistici russi [[S-400]] la Turchia è stata posta dagli Stati Uniti fuori dal programma F-35; i due esemplari forniti verranno riutilizzati in altro modo, il personale turco rimpatriato, le aziende turche che avevano ottenuto la certificazione di abilitazione alla fornitura di materiali rimpiazzate aumentando la quota di componentistica prodotta da altre aziende&lt;ref name=&quot;analisidifesa.it&quot;&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2019/07/la-turchia-e-ufficialmente-fuori-dal-programma-f-35/|titolo=La Turchia è ufficialmente fuori dal Programma F-35|accesso=27 luglio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;; rimane il trasferimento di tecnologia e di conoscenza che i turchi hanno dichiarato di voler mettere a frutto con un proprio programma nazionale. Successivamente, il Pentagono ha assegnato a Lockheed Martin un contratto &quot;di rimodulazione&quot; di 861,7 milioni di dollari per riacquistare otto F-35A Lot 14, inizialmente destinati alla Turchia, e per finanziare altri sei aerei dello stesso lotto da destinare all'USAF.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Stati Uniti. L'USAF incorpora gli F-35 turchi&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 408 - 10/[[2020]] pag. 80&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Impiego operativo ==<br /> Nel febbraio 2013 il [[Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti|Pentagono]] decideva di sospendere tutti i voli dell'aereo dopo che sulla turbina di uno degli F-35 era stata rilevata una frattura&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=Redazione online|url=http://www.corriere.it/esteri/13_febbraio_22/f35-stop-voli_60050664-7d2e-11e2-a4ef-4daf51aa103c.shtml|titolo=Il Pentagono sospende i voli del F-35Problemi alla turbina, supercaccia a terra|pubblicazione=Corriere della Sera|giorno=22|mese=febbraio|anno=2013|accesso=23 febbraio 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Il 1º marzo 2013 la USAF confermava che tutti i voli sarebbero ripresi, essendo stato appurato in sede d'indagine tecnica che la suddetta rottura era dovuta all'eccesso di esposizione a parametri estremi a cui era stata sottoposta la turbina, che quindi non necessitava una riprogettazione&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/f-35s-cleared-to-resume-flight-operations-382909/|titolo=F-35s cleared to resume flight operations}}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel luglio 2014 il [[Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti d'America|Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti]] ha bloccato tutti i voli degli F35&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=Redazione Online|url=http://www.corriere.it/esteri/14_luglio_04/usa-flotta-f35-terra-non-sono-sicuri-2470812c-0339-11e4-a610-3e4fd1a573b7.shtml|titolo=Usa, la flotta degli F35 a terra: «Non sono sicuri»|pubblicazione=Corriere della Sera|giorno=4|mese=luglio|anno=2014|accesso=4 luglio 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=|url=http://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2014/07/04/news/a_terra_tutti_gli_f35_per_il_pentagono_sono_a_rishio-90645630/|titolo=A terra tutti gli F35: per il Pentagono sono a rischio dopo incidente|pubblicazione=La Repubblica|giorno=4|mese=luglio|anno=2014|accesso=4 luglio 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt; in seguito a un principio d'incendio durante il decollo dalla base di Eglin, in Florida&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=|url=http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2014/06/28/news/f35_nuovi_problemi_pinotti_negli_usa-90193860/|titolo=F-35, caccia a terra negli Usa dopo principio di incendio|pubblicazione=La Repubblica|giorno=28|mese=giugno|anno=2014|accesso=4 luglio 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Il blocco è stato revocato meno di una settimana dopo&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/02/22/esteri/il-pentagono-blocca-i-voli-degli-f-problemi-alla-turbina-del-reattore-QzQ5iOUR99psW5IZjOSZ1K/pagina.html|titolo=''Il Pentagono blocca i voli degli F-35 “Problemi alla turbina del reattore”''}}. La stampa. Esteri. 22 febbraio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel giugno del 2015 l'F-35A partecipava alla &quot;Green Flag&quot;: manovre durante le quali gli aerei testavano la loro capacità di attacco ad aree densamente difese da caccia intercettori e missili terra-aria. Durante la simulazione l'F-35 risultava essere l'unico aereo a non subire abbattimenti&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://theaviationist.com/2015/07/01/f-35s-role-in-green-flag/|titolo=F-35s played the US Army’s primary CAS providers during Green Flag. And were not shot down in the process}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|cognome=|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,732_pubb,2_npp,1_npag,7.html|titolo=RID Portale Difesa|accesso=12 febbraio 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel giugno 2016 effettuava una simulazione di combattimento con gli [[McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle|F-15]] riportando uno score di 0 a 8, nessun F-35 abbattuto contro 8 F-15 abbattuti&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2016/06/27/f-15e-strike-eagles-unable-to-shoot-down-the-f-35s-in-8-dogfights-during-simulated-deployment/|titolo=F-15E Strike Eagles unable to shoot down the F-35s in 8 dogfights during simulated deployment|sito=The Aviationist|data=27 giugno 2016|accesso=22 marzo 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 2 agosto 2016 il gen. [[Herbert J. Carlisle|Hawk Carlisle]] dichiarava l'F-35A Lightning II 'combat ready', la IOC &quot;Initial Operational Capability&quot; e cioè che &quot;aveva raggiunto la capacità operativa iniziale&quot; la FOC &quot;Full Operational Capability&quot; verrà raggiunta dopo i test sul block 3F del software&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.corriere.it/notizie-ultima-ora/Economia/F35-Air-Force-dichiara-nuovo-jet-pronto-combattimento/03-08-2016/1-A_030375290.shtml|titolo=ultimaora - flash news 24 Corriere della Sera|accesso=3 agosto 2016}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel gennaio del 2017 l'F-35A partecipava alla &quot;[[Red Flag (esercitazione)|Red Flag]]&quot;: scontri simulati tra caccia degli USA e quelli dei suoi alleati. Durante i test l'F-35 otteneva il miglior risultato tra gli aerei presenti con un rapporto di 1 a 20 (un aereo perso ogni 20 abbattuti) definito dal Corpo dei Marines e dall'USAF &quot;senza precedenti&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://theaviationist.com/2017/02/05/f-35s-kill-ratio-with-aggressors-stands-at-151-during-red-flag-17-1-most-probably-thanks-to-the-supporting-f-22/|titolo=F-35’s kill ratio with Aggressors stands at 15:1 during Red Flag 17-1 (most probably thanks to the supporting F-22…)}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=http://www.popularmechanics.com/military/aviation/a25078/f-35-red-flag-war-games/|titolo=F-35 Dominates the Air at This Year's Red Flag War Games|pubblicazione=Popular Mechanics|data=7 febbraio 2017|accesso=12 febbraio 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|cognome=Dragon029|data=18 febbraio 2017|titolo=Final F-35 Kill Ratios at Red Flag 17-1 (and USMC Exercises)|accesso=19 febbraio 2017|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgLjNsB_hyM}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.janes.com/article/68301/avalon-2017-f-35-transforming-us-marine-corps-aviation-capabilities|titolo=Avalon 2017: F-35 transforming US Marine Corps' aviation capabilities {{!}} IHS Jane's 360|accesso=28 febbraio 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170301180432/http://www.janes.com/article/68301/avalon-2017-f-35-transforming-us-marine-corps-aviation-capabilities|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Il risultato è stato ottenuto sebbene l'aereo avesse il software in versione &quot;Block 3i&quot; che contiene l'89% del codice previsto per la piena operatività militare che sarà raggiunta con il &quot;Block 3F&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|titolo=F-35 Software Development {{!}} F-35 Lightning II|sito=F-35 Lightning II|accesso=13 febbraio 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702032933/https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Fonti giornalistiche, basate su informazioni provenienti dai [[servizi segreti francesi]], riportavano che il primo impiego militare dell'F-35 sarebbe avvenuto nella notte tra il 12 e il 13 gennaio 2017 in un'incursione aerea dell'[[Aeronautica militare israeliana|aviazione militare israeliana]] sul [[guerra civile in Siria|teatro di guerra in Siria]], usando i primi due F-35 consegnati&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|autore=Andrea Mottola|data=5 maggio 2019|titolo=La guerra d'attrito israeliana in Siria|rivista=[[Rivista italiana difesa]]|editore=Giornalistica riviera|città=[[Chiavari]]|numero=5|p=37|lingua=ita|citazione=Il conflitto in Siria ha fatto da cornice al primo impiego operativo degli F-35A-I ADIR. Dopo appena 2 mesi dalla loro consegna, gli aerei del 140º Squadrone sono stati più volte utilizzati in missioni di coordinamento/gestione del campo di battaglia e pattugliamento EW/ELIN accanto ad altri velivoli dedicati (B-200, G-550 SEMA)}}&lt;/ref&gt; appena un mese prima, per colpire obiettivi nell'aeroporto militare di [[Mezzeh]], presso [[Damasco]]: durante l'operazione, che non avrebbe causato alcuna vittima, sarebbero stati distrutti una rampa di missili SAM [[S-300]] e un deposito di missili, al fine di scongiurare il rischio della consegna di questi sistemi d'arma a gruppi [[Hezbollah]] attivi in [[Libano]]&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/|titolo=Have Israel’s new F-35s seen combat? {{!}} Air Forces Monthly|accesso=8 marzo 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170307210142/http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;LRoB&quot;/&gt;. Le stesse fonti di intelligence riferivano di un'azione dimostrativa di uno dei due aeromobili durante il rientro alla base dopo il raid, un passaggio di avvertimento ravvicinato sul [[Palazzo presidenziale (Damasco)|palazzo presidenziale]] di [[Bashar al-Assad]] a [[Damasco]]&lt;ref name=&quot;LRoB&quot;&gt;{{cita news | url = https://www.lrb.co.uk/v39/n07/daniel-soar/the-most-expensive-weapon-ever-built | titolo = The Most Expensive Weapon Ever Built | nome = Daniel | cognome = Soar | rivista = [[London Review of Books]] | lingua = en | volume = 39 | numero = 7 | giorno = 30 | mese = marzo | anno = 2017 |pp=3-5 | accesso = 23 aprile 2017 }}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel luglio del 2017 l'aereo raggiungeva le {{formatnum:100000}} ore di volo senza la perdita di nessun velivolo per incidente, collocandosi tra gli aerei militari più sicuri&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=http://www.popularmechanics.com/military/aviation/a27470/f-35-passes-100000-hour-mark-with-no-crashes/|titolo=F-35 Passes 100,000 Hour Mark with No Crashes|pubblicazione=Popular Mechanics|data=25 luglio 2017|accesso=3 agosto 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/almost-ready-war-f-35-joint-strike-fighter-has-flown-100000-21649|titolo=Almost Ready for War: F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Has Flown 100,000 Hours|autore=Dave Majumdar|sito=The National Interest|lingua=en|accesso=3 agosto 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il primo marzo 2018 l'aeronautica militare italiana attribuisce la capacità operatività iniziale agli F-35 in dotazione al 32º Stormo di Amendola che così entrano a far parte del dispositivo di Difesa Aerea Nazionale in quanto inseriti nel Servizio di Sorveglianza dello Spazio Aereo (S.S.S.A.)&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/gli-f-35-italiani-implementano-sistema-difesa-aerea-nazionale/|titolo=Gli F-35 italiani implementano il sistema di difesa aerea nazionale - Aviation Report|pubblicazione=Aviation Report|data=6 marzo 2018|accesso=8 marzo 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel maggio del 2018 l'[[Zro'a Ha-Yabasha|esercito israeliano]] (IDF) ha dichiarato che gli F-35 sono operativi e sono stati utilizzati in due missioni di bombardamento su due differenti fronti. Israele diventa così la prima nazione ad avere usato gli F-35 in uno scenario di guerra.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.analisidifesa.it/2018/05/battesimo-del-fuoco-in-siria-per-gli-f-35-israeliani/|titolo=Battesimo del fuoco in Siria per gli F-35 israeliani – Analisi Difesa|accesso=22 maggio 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 27 settembre 2018 in Afganistan un F-35B dell'US Marine Corps ha effettuato un attacco su posizioni dei talebani, si tratta della prima operazione militare condotta da questa variante dell'aereo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|nome=Ryan Browne and Barbara Starr,|cognome=CNN|url=https://edition.cnn.com/2018/09/27/politics/airstrike-afghanistan-first-f-35b/index.html|titolo=US F-35 fighter jet conducts first-ever airstrike|pubblicazione=CNN|accesso=29 settembre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 28 settembre 2018 nel sud della California un F-35B di un reparto di addestramento dell'US Marine Corps è precipitato al suolo distruggendosi, diventando il primo F-35 perso per incidente; il pilota eiettatosi è sopravvissuto.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.islandpacket.com/news/local/community/beaufort-news/article219182290.html|titolo=Marine pilot in stable condition after fighter jet crashes near Beaufort air station|pubblicazione=islandpacket|accesso=29 settembre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 20 gennaio 2019 Israele ha effettuato con gli F-35I un attacco in Siria, distruggendo un radar JY-27 di fabbricazione cinese. La particolarità dell'azione militare sta nel fatto che il radar JY-27 è stato progettato specificamente per individuare gli aerei stealth come l'F-35. Secondo alcune testate giornalistiche specialistiche il radar, pur riuscendo ad individuare l'aereo, non sarebbe stato in grado di tracciarlo in modo tale che i missili terra-aria potessero colpirlo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/mondo-militare/neanche-i-radar-cinesi-fermano-gli-f-35|titolo=Neanche i radar cinesi fermano gli F-35|sito=Difesa Online|data=25 febbraio 2019|accesso=26 febbraio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|cognome=J Francowa|data=23 febbraio 2019|titolo=Israeli F 35 &amp; Chinese made radar JY 27|accesso=26 febbraio 2019|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6bCI9WZwXU}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.avionews.com/item/1219169-siria-l-f-35-evidenzia-i-limiti-dei-radar-cinesi.html|titolo=Siria. L'F-35 evidenzia i limiti dei radar cinesi?|sito=AVIONEWS - World Aeronautical Press Agency|accesso=26 febbraio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 9 aprile 2019 un F-35A dell'Aeronautica giapponese, decollato dalla base di Misawa, è precipitato nell'Oceano Pacifico durante un'esercitazione al combattimento aereo mentre era in volo a circa 85 miglia a nord-est dell'isola di Honshu. La perdita del velivolo ha dato il via a un'imponente operazione di recupero del relitto. La perdita dell'aereo è stata attribuita ad un errore del pilota per disorientamento.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://thediplomat.com/2019/06/japan-air-self-defense-force-pilot-error-likely-cause-of-f-35a-crash/|titolo=Japan Air Self-Defense Force: Pilot Error Likely Cause of F-35A Crash|autore=Franz-Stefan Gady, The Diplomat|sito=The Diplomat|lingua=en|accesso=27 giugno 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|nome=Reiji|cognome=Yoshida|url=https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/06/07/national/remains-japan-asdf-pilot-found-two-months-f-35a-fighter-crash-off-aomori/|titolo=Remains of Japan ASDF pilot found, two months after F-35A fighter crash off Aomori|pubblicazione=The Japan Times Online|data=7 giugno 2019|accesso=27 giugno 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Nel mese di luglio 2019 l’ayatollah Ali Khamenei, guida suprema della Repubblica islamica, avrebbe rimosso dall'incarico Farzad Ismail, il numero uno dell’Aeronautica militare, per l'incapacità delle forze da lui condotte di intercettare ripetuti voli di F-35 Adir israeliani sull’Iran, in particolare su Teheran, Karajrak, Isfahan, Shiraz e Bandar Abbas.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.notiziegeopolitiche.net/iran-f-35-israeliani-sorvolano-e-fotografano-indisturbati-obiettivi-militari/|titolo=Iran. F-35 israeliani sorvolano e fotografano indisturbati obiettivi militari {{!}} Notizie Geopolitiche|autore=Ng|accesso=27 luglio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> In Europa, tre aeronautiche militari hanno dichiarato a tutto febbraio 2020 la Initial Operation Capability del velivolo: [[Royal Air Force|RAF]], [[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare]] e [[Royal Norwegian Air Force]]&lt;ref name = theaviationist2020&gt;{{cita web | url=https://theaviationist.com/2020/02/21/norwegian-f-35s-have-deployed-to-iceland-for-nato-air-policing-mission/ |titolo= Norwegian F-35s Have Deployed To Iceland for NATO Air Policing Mission | accesso = 28 febbraio 2020}}&lt;/ref&gt;; a fine febbraio la RNoAF ha ridispiegato quattro velivoli in Islanda nell'ambito della NATO [[Icelandic Air Policing]]&lt;ref name = theaviationist2020/&gt;; gli F-35 norvegesi sono gli unici ad avere un paracadute frenante, per abbreviare i tempi di rallentamento durante gli atterraggi su piste ghiacciate e ventose, ma vi sono stati vari problemi nell'uso di questa capacità&lt;ref name = theaviationist2020/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://www.defensenews.com/air/2019/06/12/the-pentagon-is-battling-the-clock-to-fix-serious-unreported-f-35-problems/ The Pentagon is battling the clock to fix serious, unreported F-35 problems - June 12, 2019&lt;/ref&gt;. Sempre nell'ambito Nato Iceland Air Policing nel giugno 2020 sei velivoli F-35 dell'Aeronautica Militare Italiana sono stati dispiegati in Islanda. Altri F-35 italiani sono stati dispiegati in Estonia nel maggio 2021. Gli F35A del 32º Stormo dell'Aeronautica Militare sono stati impiegati per la prima volta nell'Operazione ''Northern Lightning I'' in Islanda nel 2019.<br /> <br /> Nella seconda metà di novembre 2021 un F-35B della Royal Navy, decollato dalla portaerei [[HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08)|Queen Elizabeth]], durante esercitazioni con la USNAVY e Marina/Aeronautica italiana nel Mediterraneo centro orientale, è precipitato in mare&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.startmag.it/innovazione/f-35-precipita-nel-mediterraneo-cosa-e-successo/|titolo=F-35 precipita nel Mediterraneo, ecco cosa è successo|accesso=24 novembre 2021}}&lt;/ref&gt; in fase di decollo, il pilota si è eiettato ed è sopravvissuto. Il veicolo è stato recuperato dalla Royal Navy nei giorni successivi. Secondo indiscrezioni della stampa specializzata e in attesa di conferme ufficiali, l'incidente sarebbe dovuto ad errore umano per la mancata rimozione, prima del decollo, del telo antipioggia che copriva il motore.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/recuperato-relitto-velivolo-stealth-f35b-inglese-precipato-in-mare-durante-decollo-da-portaerei-hms-queen-elizabeth/|titolo=Recuperato il relitto del velivolo stealth F-35B inglese precipato in mare durante il decollo dalla portaerei HMS Queen Elizabeth|autore=Redazione di Aviation Report News Militari 2 min read|sito=Aviation Report|data=7 dicembre 2021|lingua=it|accesso=6 gennaio 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/pubblicato-su-twitter-video-incidente-velivolo-da-combattimento-f35b-britannico/|titolo=Pubblicato su Twitter il video dell'incidente del velivolo da combattimento F-35B britannico|sito=Aviation Report|data=30 novembre 2021|lingua=it|accesso=6 gennaio 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Versioni ==<br /> * '''F-35A''': versione di base ad atterraggio e decollo convenzionale destinata all'USAF, per la sostituzione della flotta di [[General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon|F-16]] e [[Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II|A-10 Thunderbolt II]], ed altri acquirenti tra cui l'[[Aeronautica Militare italiana]]. Questa è la versione leggera ed è l'unica a montare un cannone interno GAU-22/A da 25&amp;nbsp;mm che sostituirà l'[[M61 Vulcan]] da 20&amp;nbsp;mm finora montato su i caccia dell'[[United States Air Force|USAF]].<br /> [[File:F-35B Joint Strike Fighter (thrust vectoring nozzle and lift fan).PNG|miniatura|L'immagine raffigura il funzionamento degli ugelli nella versione &quot;B&quot;, cioè in caso di atterraggio verticale]]<br /> * '''F-35B''': versione a decollo corto e atterraggio verticale ([[STOVL]]). Questa versione è destinata in particolar modo al [[United States Marine Corps|Corpo dei Marines]], alla [[Royal Navy]], alla [[Royal Air Force|RAF]], alla [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare Italiana]] e all'[[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare italiana]]. Il BF-6, primo modello di produzione per il corpo dei Marines, ha effettuato il volo inaugurale il 25 ottobre 2011. Il 31 luglio 2015 è stata dichiarata la IOC (Capacità Operativa Iniziale) per il corpo dei Marines. L'F-35B è quindi la prima versione a entrare in servizio attivo.&lt;br /&gt;Differisce dalla versione base per:<br /> ** 1x [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135|Pratt &amp; Whitney F135-PW-600]] da 128,1kN a secco e 191,3kN (con [[postbruciatore]])&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35a&quot; /&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35b&quot; /&gt;, ed ugello di scarico orientabile verso il basso;<br /> ** 1x [[Rolls-Royce LiftSystem|Lift Fan]] da 89kN della [[Rolls-Royce plc|Rolls-Royce]], con flabelli mobili inferiori che permettono di orientare la spinta di 15º-30º in avanti o all'indietro rispetto alla verticale, installato dietro l'abitacolo&lt;ref name=&quot;rr-liftsystem&quot; /&gt;:<br /> ** 2x ugelli per la stabilizzazione laterale posti nelle ali;<br /> ** riduzione della capacità interna di carburante a {{TA|6 045 kg;}}<br /> ** riduzione del volume utile della stiva armi interna;<br /> ** assenza del cannone interno (previsto in un pod sotto la fusoliera);<br /> ** sonda retrattile per il [[rifornimento in volo]];<br /> ** tettuccio accorciato per la presenza del Lift Fan.<br /> ** struttura riprogettata/alleggerita nella parte posteriore dell'abitacolo al fine di posizionare la ventola aggiuntiva;<br /> * '''F-35C''': versione imbarcata del Lightning, operante da portaerei tutto-ponte dotate di catapulta. Dovrebbe sostituire nella US Navy le prime versioni degli [[McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet|F-18 Hornet]].&lt;br /&gt; Differisce dalla versione base per:<br /> ** 1x [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135|Pratt &amp; Whitney F135-PW-400]];<br /> ** capacità interna del carburante di {{TA|8 901 kg;}}<br /> ** assenza del cannone interno (previsto in un pod sotto la fusoliera);<br /> ** sonda retrattile per il [[rifornimento in volo]];<br /> ** carrello a doppio ruotino anteriore con annessa barra di aggancio alla catapulta;<br /> ** incremento delle dimensioni alari (apertura: 13,11&amp;nbsp;m; superficie: 57,6&amp;nbsp;m²);<br /> ** lunghezza: di 14,48&amp;nbsp;m;<br /> ** incremento della superficie dei piani di coda;<br /> ** estremità alari ripiegabili per facilitare lo stivaggio.<br /> <br /> == Utilizzatori ==<br /> [[File:F-35_Operators_Updated_2021.svg|alt=|thumb|upright=1.4|{{legend|#00aa00|Opera varianti F-35A, F-35B e F-35C (Stati Uniti d'America)}} <br /> {{Legend|#0088aa|Opera varianti F-35A e F-35B (Italia, Giappone e Sud Corea)}}<br /> {{Legend|#0044AA|Opera solo variante F-35A (Australia, Belgio, Danimarca, Finlandia, Paesi Bassi, Norvegia e Polonia)}}<br /> {{Legend|#55DDFF|Opera solo variante F-35B (Regno Unito)}}<br /> {{Legend|#CC00FF|Opera solo variante F-35i (Israele)}}<br /> {{Legend|#FF6600|In attesa di consegna (Finlandia, Singapore &amp; Svizzera)}}<br /> ]] <br /> * [[United States Air Force]]&lt;br /&gt;previsti 1 763 F-35A.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceG&quot;&gt;&quot;Il Pentagono pianifica la produzione su larga scala (FRP, Full Rate Production) dell'F-35 Lightning II&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 380 - 06/[[2018]] pag. 21&lt;/ref&gt; Al settembre 2019 186 esemplari in organico.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;US Air Force: uno sguardo ai numeri&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 395 - 09/[[2019]] pp. 42-47&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** '''[[Air Combat Command]]'''<br /> *** '''[[388th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''HL''', [[Hill Air Force Base]], [[Utah]] - Equipaggiato con 75 F-35A<br /> **** ''4th Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''34th Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''421st Fighter Squadron''<br /> *** '''[[53rd Wing]]''', codice '''OT''', [[Eglin Air Force]], [[Florida]] - Equipaggiato con 14 F-35A<br /> **** ''31st Test and Evaluation Squadron''<br /> **** ''422d Test and Evaluation Squadron''<br /> *** '''[[57th Wing]]''', codice '''WA''', [[Nellis Air Force Base]], [[Nevada]] - Equipaggiato con 16 F-35A<br /> **** ''6th Weapons Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[United States Air Forces in Europe-Air Forces Africa]]'''<br /> *** '''[[48th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''LN''', [[RAF Lakenheath]], [[Regno Unito]] - Equipaggiato con 27 F-35A<br /> **** ''495th Fighter Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[Air National Guard]]'''<br /> *** '''[[158th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''VT''', Vermont Air National Guard, Burlington ANGB - Equipaggiato con 20 F-35A<br /> **** ''134th Fighter Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[Air Education and Training Command]]'''<br /> *** '''[[33rd Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''EG''', [[Eglin Air Force]], [[Florida]] - Equipaggiato con 25 F-35A<br /> **** ''58th Fighter Squadron''<br /> *** '''[[56th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''LF''', [[Luke Air Force Base]], [[Arizona]] - Equipaggiato con 49 F-35A<br /> **** ''61st Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''62nd Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''63st Fighter Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[Air Force Materiel Command]]'''<br /> *** '''[[412th Test Wing]]''', codice '''ED''', [[Edwards Air Force Base]], [[California]] - Equipaggiato con 9 F-35 A/B/C<br /> **** ''412th Flight Test Squadron''<br /> * [[United States Navy]]<br /> *: 273 F-35C.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceG&quot;/&gt;<br /> ** COMOPTEVFOR, [[Edwards Air Force Base]], [[California]] (parte del Joint Operational Test Team) - su F-35C<br /> *** Distaccamento del VX-9 &quot;''Vampires''&quot; <br /> ** NAWDC [[Patuxtent River Naval Air Station]], [[Maryland]], con un distaccamento a [[Fallon Air Force Base]], [[Nevada]] - su F-35B e F-35C<br /> *** VX-23 <br /> ** COMSTRKFIGHTWINGPAC, [[Leemore Naval Air Station]], [[California]] - su F-35C<br /> *** {{simbolo|VFA125 NJ.png|200px}} VFA-125 (FRS) &quot;''Rough Riders''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|VFA97 NE.png|200px}} VFA-97 &quot;''Warhawks''&quot;<br /> *** {{simbolo|VFA147 NE.png|200px}} VFA-147 &quot;''Argonauts''&quot;<br /> * [[United States Marine Corps Aviation]]<br /> *: 353 F-35B e 67 F-35C ordinati.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceG&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35C AI MARINES&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;L'aviazione dei Marines&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 379 - 05/[[2018]] pp. 50-55&lt;/ref&gt; &gt; Due F-35B sono stati persi, uno il 27 settembre 2018, l'altro un anno prima, si è incendiato, ma non ancora considerato fuori inventario in quanto si è provato a recuperarlo, operazione, poi, non eseguita.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://defence-blog.com/news/marine-corps-f-35-fighter-jet-crashed-in-south-carolina.html/|titolo=&quot;MARINE CORPS F-35 FIGHTER JET CRASHED IN SOUTH CAROLINA&quot;}}, su defence-blog.com, 28 settembre 2018, URL consultato il 3 ottobre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/your-marine-corps/2018/06/21/the-corps-has-lost-its-first-f-35/|titolo=&quot;THE MARINE CORPST HAS LOST ITS FIRST F-35&quot;}}, su marinecorpstimes.com, 21 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 3 ottobre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; Il primo F-35C risulta consegnato al giugno 2019.&lt;ref name=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35C AI MARINES&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,3086.html/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35C AI MARINES&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 10 giugno 2019, URL consultato il 10 giugno 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** MAG-11, [[Miramar Marine Corps Air Station]], [[California]] - su F-35C<br /> *** {{simbolo|VMFA314 NG.png|200px}} VMFA-314&quot;''Blue Knights''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-12, [[Iwakumi Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Giappone]] - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA121 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-121 &quot;''Green Knights''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA242 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-242 &quot;''Bats''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-13, [[Yuma Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Arizona]] - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA122 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-122 &quot;''The Flying Leathernecks''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA211 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-211 &quot;''Wake Island Avenger''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA225 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-225 &quot;''Vikings''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-14, [[Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Nord Carolina]] - su F-35C<br /> *** VMFA-251 &quot;''Thunderbolts''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-31, [[Beaufort Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Sud Carolina]] - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFAT501 2022.png|200px}} VMFAT-501 &quot;''Warlords''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFAT502 2022.png|200px}} VMFAT-502 &quot;''Nightmares''&quot;<br /> ** MAWTS, [[Edwards air Force Base]], [[California]] (parte del Joint Operational Test Team) - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMX1 2022.png|200px}} VMX-1 <br /> ;<br /> <br /> === Paesi Partner ===<br /> [[File:RAF F-35B.jpg|miniatura|F-35B, [[Royal Air Force|RAF]]]]<br /> ;{{GBR}}<br /> * [[Royal Air Force]] - [[Fleet Air Arm]] ([[Royal Navy]])<br /> : 48 F-35B ordinati inizialmente (fabbisogno di 138 esemplari), più ulteriori 26 esemplari ordinati il 26 aprile 2022, che hanno portato il numero degli esemplari ordinati a 74 &lt;ref name=&quot;ADDITIONAL LIGHTNING IIs FOR RAF&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/additional-lightning-iis-for-raf/|titolo=&quot;ADDITIONAL LIGHTNING IIs FOR RAF&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 29 aprile 2022, URL consultato il 12 maggio 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;GLI F-35B BRITANNICI COMPLETANO LE PRIME MISSIONI OPERATIVE SU SIRIA E IRAQ&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/gli-f-35b-britannici-completano-le-prime-missioni-operative-su-siria-e-iraq/|titolo=&quot;GLI F-35B BRITANNICI COMPLETANO LE PRIME MISSIONI OPERATIVE SU SIRIA E IRAQ&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 27 giugno 2019, URL consultato il 9 luglio 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/uk-orders-next-batch-of-17-f-35b-lightning-jets/?no_cache=1/|titolo=&quot;UK ORDERS NEXT BATCH OF 17 F-35B LIGHTNING JETS&quot;}}, su ukdefencejournal.org.uk, 15 novembre 2018, URL consultato il 16 novembre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/riformato-il-famoso-617-squadron-dambusters-della-raf-per-volare-con-i-nuovi-f-35/|titolo=&quot;RIFORMATO IL FAMOSO 617 SQUADRON DAMBUSTERS DELLA RAF PER VOLARE CON I NUOVI F-35&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 18 aprile 2018, URL consultato il 2 maggio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/majority-of-british-f-35b-fleet-to-arrive-in-uk-this-summer/|titolo=&quot;MAJORITY OF BRITISH F-35B FLEET TO ARRIVE IN UK THIS SUMMER&quot;}}, su ukdefencejournal.org.uk, 20 aprile 2018, URL consultato il 2 maggio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Un ripensamento (al ribasso) sul numero complessivo degli F-35B Lightning II per le forze aeree britanniche?&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 375 - 01/[[2018]] pag. 19&lt;/ref&gt; ed assegnati:<br /> * n.3 al Air Warfare Center - 17 Squadron (Edwards Air Force Base) California;<br /> * 207 Squadron, RAF Marham;<br /> * 617 Squadron, RAF Marham.<br /> [[File:Il primo F-35B della Marina Militare in volo.jpg|miniatura|Il primo F-35B della [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare]] in volo]]<br /> ;{{ITA}}<br /> * [[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare]]<br /> : 60 F-35A + n.15 F-35B ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.geopoliticalcenter.com/attualita/laeronautica-militare-entra-ufficialmente-nella-5-generazione-con-lf-35/amp/|titolo=&quot;L’AERONAUTICA MILITARE ENTRA UFFICIALMENTE NELLA 5 GENERAZIONE CON L’F-35&quot;}}, su geopoliticalcenter.com, 8 marzo 2018, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; 17 F-35A + 2 F-35 B consegnati al marzo 2022.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/primo-volo-per-f35-32-12-destinato-aeronautica-militare/|titolo=Primo volo per l'F-35A 32-12 destinato all'Aeronautica Militare|autore=Gianluca Conversi|sito=Aviation Report|data=1º febbraio 2020|lingua=it|accesso=21 luglio 2020}}&lt;/ref&gt; al Reparto:<br /> *[[32º Stormo]] &quot;[[Armando Boetto]]&quot;, [[Aeroporto di Amendola|Amendola]] 13º Gruppo operante sia F-35A che F-35B.<br /> *[[6º Stormo]] di Ghedi<br /> * [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare]]<br /> : 15 F-35B ordinati, 4 consegnati al marzo 2022.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Il primo F-35B italiano consegnato alla Marina Militare&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 377 - 03/[[2018]] pp. 22-23&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2111.html/|titolo=&quot;LA MARINA MILITARE RICEVE IL PRIMO F-35B&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 25 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.fromtheskies.it/consegnato-primo-f-35b-alla-marina-militare/#jp-carousel-12784/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35B ALLA MARINA MILITARE&quot;}}, su fromtheskies.it, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.airpressonline.it/29469/f35b-difesa-consegna-velivolo-cameri/|titolo=&quot;F-35, CONSEGNATO ALLA DIFESA IL PRIMO VELIVOLO A DECOLLO CORTO&quot;}}, su airpressonline.it, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/consegnato-alla-marina-militare-italiana-primo-f-35b-realizzato-cameri/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO ALLA MARINA MILITARE IL PRIMO F-35B&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.analisidifesa.it/2018/01/consegnato-il-primo-f-35b-alla-marina-militare-italiana/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35B ALLA MARINA MILITARE ITALIANA&quot;}}, su analisidifesa.it, 26 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/industria/il-primo-f-35b-realizzato-italia-è-stato-consegnato-al-ministero-della-difesa-italiano/|titolo=&quot;IL PRIMO F-35B REALIZZATO IN ITALIA È STATO CONSEGNATO AL MINISTERO DELLA DIFESA ITALIANO&quot;}}, su difesaonline.it, 26 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.airpressonline.it/29601/f35-consegna-wilhelm-lockheed-martin/|titolo=&quot;ITALIA? ECCELLENZA GLOBALE DELL’AERONAUTICA. PAROLA DI WILHELM (LOCKHEED MARTIN)&quot;}}, su airpressonline.it, 27 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Alla Marina Militare il primo F-35B STOVL&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 3 - 03/[[2018]] pag. 9&lt;/ref&gt; al Reparto:<br /> * [[Aviazione Navale#Gruppo aerei imbarcati|Gruppo Aerei Imbarcati]], [[Grottaglie]] - solo F-35B.<br /> [[File:F-35 Open Dag KLU 2016 191.jpg|miniatura|F-35, [[Koninklijke Luchtmacht]]]]<br /> ;{{NLD}}<br /> * [[Koninklijke Luchtmacht]]<br /> : 37 F-35A ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Il libro bianco della difesa olandese&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 6 - 06/[[2018]] pag. 28&lt;/ref&gt; Dei 37 aerei, 8 sono stati consegnati direttamente dalla linea di montaggio Lockheed Martin, 29 invece, saranno costruiti in [[Italia]] da [[Leonardo (azienda)|Leonardo]] nella FACO di [[Cameri]].&lt;ref&gt;&quot;In montaggio a Cameri il primo F-35 olandese&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 381 - 07/[[2018]] pag. 16&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2403.html/|titolo=CAMERI: IN PRODUZIONE PRIMO F-35 OLANDESE&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 15 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 15 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; Ad ottobre 2019 la difesa olandese ha confermato l'acquisto di ulteriori 9 aerei, che porterà il totale degli F-35 da consegnare a 46.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,3260.html/|titolo=&quot;ALTRI 9 F-35 PER L’OLANDA, BUONE NOTIZIE PER L’ITALIA&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 9 ottobre 2019, URL consultato il 9 ottobre 2019.&lt;/ref&gt; Un ordine di ulteriore 6 aerei, approvato a giugno 2022, ha portato a 52 il totale dei velivoli ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;[https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/more-lightning-iis-for-the-dutch/ &quot;MORE LIGHTNING IIs FOR THE DUTCH&quot;], su scramble, 3 ottobre 2022, URL consultato il 3 ottobre 2022.&lt;/ref&gt; I velivoli sono stati assegnati ai seguenti Reparti:<br /> * 308 Squadron, [[Luke Air Force Base]], [[Arizona]];<br /> * 313 Squadron, [[Uden|Volkel]];<br /> * 322 Squadron, [[Leeuwarden]];<br /> * 323 Squadron, [[Luke Air Force Base]], [[Arizona]].<br /> ;{{TUR}}<br /> * [[Türk Hava Kuvvetleri]]<br /> : 30 F-35A ordinati (più opzione per altri 70), il primo dei quali ha volato il 10 maggio 2018.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Vola il primo F-35 turco e si apre un dibattito&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 380 - 06/[[2018]] pag. 21&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/mondo-militare/f-35-la-turchia-acquista-secondo-lotto/|titolo=&quot;F-35: LA TURCHIA ACQUISTA SECONDO LOTTO&quot;}}, su difesaonline.it, 2 novembre 2016, URL consultato il 2 novembre 2016.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il primo esemplare è stato presentato (ne sono stati consegnati 2) il 21 giugno 2018.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2416.html/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATI I PRIMI 2 F-35 PER LA TURCHIA&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 21 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 21 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.janes.com/article/81259/us-delivers-first-f-35-to-turkey-as-congressional-opposition-to-further-deliveries-grows/|titolo=&quot;US DELIVERS FIRST F-35 TO TURKEY AS CONGRESSIONAL OPPOSITION TO FURTHER DELIVERIES GROWS&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622140735/http://www.janes.com/article/81259/us-delivers-first-f-35-to-turkey-as-congressional-opposition-to-further-deliveries-grows/ }}, su janes.com, 21 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 21 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; I due esemplari consegnati, che non avevano mai lasciato gli Stati Uniti, verranno girati ad altri acquirenti poiché la Turchia, '''con l'acquisto dei sistemi missilistici russi [[S-400]], è stata esclusa dal programma, e nessuna consegna ulteriore dovrebbe avere luogo e, oltre all'esclusione della fornitura dei mezzi finiti, sono stati esclusi dal programma anche i fornitori turchi della componentistica'''&lt;ref name=&quot;analisidifesa.it&quot; /&gt;.<br /> * 7° Base Principale Jet (''7’inci Ana Jet Üs’sü''), [[Malatya]]:<br /> ** 171º Gruppo &quot;Corsari&quot; (''171 Filo &quot;Korsan&quot;'');<br /> ** 172º Gruppo &quot;Falchi&quot; (''172 Filo &quot;Sahin&quot;'').[[File:Royal Australian Air Force F-35 at Luke AFB 14 May 2015.JPG|miniatura|F-35, [[Royal Australian Air Force]]]]<br /> ;{{AUS}}<br /> * [[Royal Australian Air Force]]<br /> : 72 F-35A ordinati.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceF&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Il futuro della difesa australiana&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 364 - 02/[[2017]] pp. 52-55&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 81st Wing, [[Base aerea di Williamston|Williamston]] ([[Nuovo Galles del Sud]]), con distaccamenti a [[Butterworth (Malaysia)|Butterworth]] ([[Malesia]]) - su F-35A<br /> *** 3 Squadron<br /> *** 77 Squadron (in fase di attivazione)<br /> [[File:Norwegian F-35 Lightning II.jpg|miniatura|F-35 Lightning II, [[Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret]]]]<br /> ;{{NOR}}<br /> * [[Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret]]<br /> : 52 F-35A ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Test del paracadute freno dell'F-35 in Norvegia&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 378 - 04/[[2018]] pag. 18&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;La Norvegia dichiara operativo l'F-35&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 398 - 12/[[2019]] pag. 23&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{DNK}}<br /> * [[Flyvevåbnet]]<br /> : 27 F-35A ordinati a giugno 2016.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Danimarca&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 391 - 05/[[2019]] pag. 70&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/mondo-militare/f-35-ufficiale-la-danimarca-è-lundicesimo-paese-scegliere-il-jsf/|titolo=&quot;F-35, UFFICIALE: LA DANIMARCA È L'UNDICESIMO PAESE A SCEGLIERE IL JSF&quot;}}, su difesaonline.it, 12 maggio 2016, URL consultato il 9 aprile 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.avionslegendaires.net/2019/07/actu/le-parc-aerien-de-la-flyvevabnet-en-2019-et-en-images/|titolo=&quot;LE PARC AÉRIEN DE LA FLYVEVABNET EN 2019 ET EN IMAGES&quot;}}, su avionslegendaires.net, 2 luglio 2019, URL consultato il 5 luglio 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;OFFICIAL HAND-OVER FIRST RDAF F-35A&quot;/&gt; Il primo aereo è stato consegnato il 7 aprile 2021.&lt;ref name=&quot;OFFICIAL HAND-OVER FIRST RDAF F-35A&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/official-hand-over-first-rdaf-f-35a/|titolo=&quot;OFFICIAL HAND-OVER FIRST RDAF F-35A&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, <br /> 7 aprile 2021, URL consultato il 7 aprile 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{CAN}}<br /> * [[Air Command|Canadian Forces Air Command]]<br /> :Il 28 marzo 2022 il Canada ha selezionato l’F-35A della Lockheed Martin come offerta per il nuovo aereo da combattimento che prevede l’acquisto di 88 velivoli per sostituire i suoi Boeing CF-18 Hornet con una spesa prevista di 19 miliardi di dollari canadesi (15 miliardi di dollari USA).&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2022/03/f-35-anche-per-il-canada/|titolo=&quot;F-35 ANCHE PER IL CANADA&quot;}}, su analisidifesa.it, 30 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/lightning-ii-for-canada/|titolo=&quot;LIGHTNING II FOR CANADA&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 29 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.avionslegendaires.net/2022/03/actu/le-lockheed-martin-f-35a-lightning-ii-volera-sous-la-cocarde-a-feuille-derable/|titolo=&quot;LE LOCKHEED-MARTIN F-35A LIGHTNING II VOLERA SOUS LA COCARDE À FEUILLE D’ÉRABLE&quot;}}, su avionslegendaires.net, 29 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> ===Security Cooperative Partecipants===<br /> [[File:IAF-F-35I-2016-12-13-nf.jpg|miniatura|F-35I, [[Heyl Ha'Avir]]]]<br /> ;{{ISR}}<br /> * [[Heyl Ha'Avir]]<br /> : 50 F-35I ordinati al marzo 2017.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceE&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/|titolo=&quot;Have Israel’s new F-35s seen combat?&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170307210142/http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/ }}, su airforcesmonthly.com, 7 marzo 2017, URL consultato il 8 marzo 2017.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Israele&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 425 - 3/[[2022]] pag. 68&lt;/ref&gt; In fase di consegna, 9 consegnati all'agosto 2018.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;F-35I Adir: il battesimo del fuoco&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 382 - 08/[[2018]] pp. 42-45&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 28ª Base Aerea (''באצ'ה 28 - Bacha 28''), [[Nevatim]] - su F-35i<br /> *** 116º Gruppo &quot;Leoni del Sud&quot; (''116 טייסת - Tayeset 116'')<br /> *** 117º Gruppo &quot;Primo Gruppo Jet&quot; (''117 טייסת - Tayeset 117'') - in fase di attivazione<br /> *** 140º Gruppo &quot;Aquila d'Oro&quot; (''140 טייסת - Tayeset 140'')<br /> ;{{SGP}}<br /> * [[Aeronautica militare della Repubblica di Singapore]]<br /> : 12 F-35B selezionati nel 2019, accordo siglato nel marzo 2020 per soli 4 F-35B (più un'opzione per ulteriori 8 aerei) con consegne previste tra il 2025 e il 2026.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;L'Aeronautica di Singapore&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 1 - 01/[[2022]] pp. 40-50&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2021/01/23/f35-la-crisi-non-ferma-la-produzione-ma-i-difetti-e-le-carenze-sono-moltissimi/6072636/amp/|titolo=F35: la crisi non ferma la produzione, ma i difetti e le carenze sono moltissimi}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2766.html|titolo=Anche Singapore sceglie l'F-35}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-eyes-f-35-jets-to-replace-ageing-f-16-fighters|titolo=Singapore eyes F-35 jets to replace ageing F-16 fighters|lingua=en}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> ===Altri utilizzatori===<br /> ;{{BEL}}<br /> * [[Componente aerea dell'armata belga]]<br /> : 34 F-35A ordinati&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.hln.be/nieuws/binnenland/-keuze-voor-f-35-is-gemaakt-regering-zoekt-naar-beste-communicatie~ab30ee1d/?referer=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fi%2Fcards%2Ftfw%2Fv1%2F1054029411203325958%3Fcardname%3Dsummary%26autoplay_disabled%3Dtrue%26forward%3Dtrue%26earned%3Dtrue%26edge%3Dtrue%26lang%3Dit%26card_height%3D130%26scribe_context%3D%257B%2522client%2522%253A%2522web%2522%252C%2522page%2522%253A%2522home%2522%252C%2522section%2522%253A%2522home%2522%252C%2522component%2522%253A%2522tweet%2522%257D%26bearer_token%3DAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPYXBAAAAAAACLXUNDekMxqa8h%25252F40K4moUkGsoc%25253DTYfbDKbT3jJPCEVnMYqilB28NHfOPqkca3qaAxGfsyKCs0wRbw|titolo=“Keuze voor F-35 is gemaakt, regering zoekt naar beste communicatie”|lingua=nl}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2018/10/22/belgium-reportedly-chooses-f-35-stealth-jets-over-eurofighter-typhoons-to-replace-its-aging-f-16s/|titolo=Belgium Reportedly Chooses F-35 Stealth Jets over Eurofighter Typhoons To Replace Its Aging F-16s|lingua=EN}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> ;{{KOR}}<br /> * [[Republic of Korea Air Force]]<br /> : 40 F-35A ordinati nel dicembre 2017, e consegnati tra il 2018 ed il gennaio 2022.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceF&quot;&gt;&quot;Opportunità per l'F-35 nel Sud-est Asiatico?&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 354 - 04/[[2016]] pag. 21&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://theaviationist.com/2022/03/25/rokaf-f-35-elephant-walk/amp/|titolo=&quot;SOUTH KOREA STAGES ‘ELEPHANT WALK’ WITH ITs F-35As A DAY AFTER NORTH KOREA TEST-FIRED A LARGE ICBM&quot;}}, su theaviationist.com, 25 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 31 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.janes.com/amp/south-korea-says-f-35a-fleet-operational/ZnlJK3dHVU9mZ28xajRJVkc5dVI5VFp1cVMwPQ2/|titolo=&quot;SOUTH KOREA SAYS F-35A FLEET OPERATIONAL&quot;}}, su janes.com, 30 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Corea del Sud&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 386 - 12/[[2018]] pag. 72&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.aviationtoday.com/2018/03/28/south-korea-gets-first-forty-f-35s-fort-worth/|titolo=&quot;SOUTH KOREA GETS FIRST OF 40 F-35s&quot;}}, su aviationtoday.com, marzo 2018, URL consultato il 29 marzo 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;[https://www.f35.com/global/participation/republic-of-korea Republic of Korea]&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 17º Stormo Caccia (''제17전투비행단 - je17jeontubihaengdan''), [[Cheongju]] - su F-35A<br /> *** 151º Gruppo Caccia (''제151전투비행대대 - je151jeontubihaengdaedae'')<br /> *** 152º Gruppo Caccia (''제152전투비행대대 - je152jeontubihaengdaedae'')<br /> *** 156º Gruppo Caccia (''제156전투비행대대 - je156jeontubihaengdaedae'') - in fase di attivazione<br /> ;{{FIN}}<br /> * [[Suomen ilmavoimat]]<br /> : Il 10 dicembre 2021, la Finlandia ha selezionato l'F-35A quale nuovo caccia, con un fabbisogno di 64 esemplari da consegnarsi a partire dal 2026.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/finland-chooses-lightning-ii/|titolo=&quot;FINLAND CHOOSES LIGHTNING II&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 10 dicembre 2021, URL consultato il 10 dicembre 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.rid.it/shownews/4603/|titolo=&quot;LA FINLANDIA SCEGLIE L’F-35A&quot;}}, su rid.it, 10 dicembre 2021, URL consultato il 10 dicembre 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;La Finlandia ha scelto l'F-35A Lightning II per sostituire gli FA-18 Hornet dell'Ilmavoimat&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 424 - 2/[[2022]] pag. 67&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;FINLAND SIGNS FOR F-35s&quot;/&gt; Il contratto per 64 F-35A da consegnarsi tra il 2026 e il 2030 è stato firmato l'11 febbraio 2022.&lt;ref name=&quot;FINLAND SIGNS FOR F-35s&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.janes.com/defence-news/air-platforms/latest/finland-signs-for-f-35s/|titolo=&quot;FINLAND SIGNS FOR F-35s&quot;}}, su janes.com, 11 febbraio 2022, URL consultato il 11 febbraio 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{DEU}}<br /> * [[Luftwaffe (Bundeswehr)|Luftwaffe]]<br /> ** [[Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 33]]<br /> : Il 28 luglio 2022, il Dipartimento di Stato americano ha dato il via libera alla vendita di 35 F-35A alla Germania per 8,4 miliardi di dollari (incluse munizioni, logistica e apparecchiature), con entrata in servizio prevista per il 2030.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Gli USA approvano la vendita di 35 F-35A alla Germania&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 9 - 09/[[2022]] pag. 13&lt;/ref&gt; Tali velivoli sostituiranno, nei compiti di deterrenza nucleare, la flotta di Tornado del Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 33 a Büchel.&lt;ref name=caccia&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2022/07/la-grecia-punta-a-raddoppiare-gli-f-35-la-repubblica-ceca-ne-vuole-ordinare-24/|titolo=Germani, Grecia e Repubblica Ceca: il trionfo dell’F-35 in Europa|data=29 luglio 2022|accesso= 31 luglio 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;Il 14 dicembre 2022 la Commissione Bilancio del parlamento tedesco ha dato il via libera al Ministero della Difesa tedesco per l'acquisto di 35 caccia F-35 della statunitense Lockheed Martin. I velivoli costeranno 9,9 miliardi di Euro.<br /> ;{{JPN}}<br /> * [[Japan Air Self-Defense Force]]<br /> [[File:USMC_F-35B_conducting_a_vertical_landing_aboard_the_JS_Izumo.jpg|thumb|Il 3 ottobre 2021, i primi F-35B hanno effettuato atterraggi e decolli da JS Izumo]]<br /> *: 42 F-35A ordinati (13 consegnati al giugno 2019), con previsione di ordini per 105 esemplari, compresi una quarantina a decollo verticale che dovrebbero andare alla [[Kaijō Jieitai|Marina]].&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceF&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Giappone&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 409 - 11/[[2020]] pag. 66&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;Alla ricerca del caccia perduto&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2721.html/|titolo=&quot;ALTRI 105 F-35 PER IL GIAPPONE&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 18 dicembre 2018, URL consultato il 19 dicembre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.f35.com/news/detail/first-japanese-assembled-f-35a-components-mate-at-nagoya-faco/|titolo=&quot;FIRST JAPANESE-ASSEMBLED F-35A COMPONENTS MATE AT NAGOYA FACO&quot;}}, su f35.com, 15 dicembre 2015, URL consultato il 7 maggio 2017.&lt;/ref&gt; Uno dei 13 aerei consegnati è andato perso ad aprile 2019.&lt;ref name=&quot;Alla ricerca del caccia perduto&quot;&gt;&quot;Alla ricerca del caccia perduto&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 392 - 06/[[2019]] pp. 48-50&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 3º Stormo (''第3航空団 - Dai 3 kōkū-dan''), [[Misawa Air Base|Misawa]], su F-35A<br /> *** 301º Gruppo (''第301飛行隊 - Dai 301 hikō-tai'')<br /> *** 302º Gruppo (''第302飛行隊 - Dai 302 hikō-tai'')<br /> ;{{POL}}<br /> * [[Siły Powietrzne]]<br /> : 32 F-35A ordinati il 31 gennaio 2020, con consegne previste per il 2023-2024.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.janes.com/article/94035/poland-signs-f-35-deal/|titolo=&quot;POLAND SIGNS F-35 DEAL&quot;}}, su janes.com, 31 gennaio 2020, URL consultato il 3 febbraio 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,3440.html/|titolo=&quot;F-35A PER LA POLONIA&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 31 gennaio 2020, URL consultato il 3 febbraio 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/polonia-firma-accordo-di-4-6-miliardi-di-dollari-per-acquisto-32-f35/|titolo=&quot;LA POLONIA FIRMA UN ACCORDO DI 4,6 MILIARDI DI DOLLARI PER L'ACQUISTO DI 32 F-35&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 3 febbraio 2020, URL consultato il 3 febbraio 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{CHE}}<br /> * [[Schweizer Luftwaffe]]<br /> : Il 30 giugno 2021, il Consiglio federale svizzero ha selezionato l'F-35A come vincitore del programma per un nuovo caccia.&lt;ref name=&quot;BREAKING: F-35A LIGHTNING II FOR SWITZERLAND&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/breaking-f-35a-lightning-ii-for-switzerland/|titolo=&quot;BREAKING: F-35A LIGHTNING II FOR SWITZERLAND&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 30 giugno 2021, URL consultato il 2 luglio 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;SWITZERLAND SELECTS F-35 JETS, PATRIOT MISSILE SYSTEMS&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.defenseworld.net/news/29928/Switzerland_Selects_F_35_Jets__Patriot_Missile_Systems#.YN7x-WnOM0E/|titolo=&quot;SWITZERLAND SELECTS F-35 JETS, PATRIOT MISSILE SYSTEMS&quot;}}, su defenseworld.net, 30 giugno 2021, URL consultato il 2 luglio 2021.&lt;/ref&gt; A partire dal 2030 saranno consegnati 36 F-35A.&lt;ref name=&quot;BREAKING: F-35A LIGHTNING II FOR SWITZERLAND&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;SWITZERLAND SELECTS F-35 JETS, PATRIOT MISSILE SYSTEMS&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Cieli neutrali: l'Aeronautica Svizzera&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 2 - 02/[[2022]] pp. 76-81&lt;/ref&gt;. Di questi almeno 24 dei complessivi 36 saranno assemblati dalla FACO di [[Cameri]], 8 velivoli negli [[Stati Uniti d'America|USA]] e forse 4 presso gli stabilimenti elvetici della RUAG.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2022/03/gli-f-35a-svizzeri-verranno-assemblati-a-cameri/|titolo=Gli F-35 svizzeri verranno assemblati a cameri|sito=analisidifesa.it|data=30 marzo 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Ordine per 36 F-35A firmato il settembre 2022.&lt;ref&gt;[https://aresdifesa.it/il-parlamento-svizzero-autorizza-lacquisto-dei-caccia-bombardieri-f-35a-e-dei-missili-patriot/ &quot;IL PARLAMENTO SVIZZERO AUTORIZZA L’ACQUISTO DEI CACCIA BOMBARDIERI F-35A E DEI MISSILI PATRIOT&quot;], su aresdifesa.it, 16 settembre 2022, URL consultato il 17 settembre 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;[https://aresdifesa.it/la-svizzera-firma-il-contratto-di-acquisto-degli-f-35a/ &quot;LA SVIZZERA FIRMA IL CONTRATTO DI ACQUISTO DEGLI F-35A&quot;], su aresdifesa.it, 20 settembre 2022, URL consultato il 21 settembre 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> ===Possibili utilizzatori futuri===<br /> ;{{ARE}}<br /> * [[Al-Quwwāt al-Jawiyya al-Imārātiyya]]<br /> ;{{GRC}}<br /> *[[Polemikí Aeroporía]]a<br /> A fine giugno, la Grecia ha inviato una lettera di richiesta (LoR) ufficiale agli Stati Uniti per ordinare 20 caccia F-35. Il primo ministro, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, ha affermato che Atene sta esaminando l’acquisto di un secondo gruppo di jet.&lt;ref name=caccia/&gt;<br /> ;{{MAR}}<br /> *[[Royal Moroccan Air Force]]<br /> ;{{CZE}}<br /> * [[Vzdušné síly armády České republiky]]<br /> Il 20 luglio, Praga ha intavolato i colloqui con gli Stati Uniti per la fornitura dei caccia F-35A Lightning II in sostituzione dei JAS 39 Gripen presi in leasing dalla svedese Saab AB. Lo ha affermato il primo ministro Petr Fiala.&lt;ref name=caccia/&gt;<br /> <br /> == Iter parlamentare e burocratico in Italia ==<br /> In Italia si è iniziato a parlare del progetto nel 1996 e nel 1998 è stato firmato il ''Memorandum of Agreement'' per la fase concettuale-dimostrativa con un investimento di 10 milioni di dollari. Nel 2002, dopo l'approvazione delle Commissioni Difesa di Camera e Senato è stata confermata la partecipazione alla fase di sviluppo. Nel 2009 le Commissioni difesa di Camera e Senato hanno espresso parere favorevole sullo schema di programma trasmesso dal Governo che comprendeva l'acquisto di 131 F-35 al costo di 12,9 miliardi di euro.&lt;ref name=&quot;camera.it&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.camera.it/465?area=13&amp;tema=558&amp;Il+programma+Joint+Strike+Fighter+-+F35|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130131014219/http://www.camera.it/465?area=13&amp;tema=558&amp;Il+programma+Joint+Strike+Fighter+-+F35 |titolo= Temi dell'attività Parlamentare}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 15 febbraio 2012 il ministro della Difesa [[Giampaolo Di Paola]], nel quadro delle riduzioni di spesa del suo ministero, ha proposto tra i vari provvedimenti quello di diminuire l'acquisto di F-35 da 131 (69 F-35A e 62 F-35B) a 90 (60 F-35A e 30 F-35B) unità&lt;ref name=F-35-italy&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://cca.analisidifesa.it/it/magazine_8034243544/numero129/article_371438062752515357801484456054_2683573816_0.jsp|titolo=PACE (QUASI) FATTA TRA MARINA E AERONAUTICA PER GLI F-35 STOVL|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130612090724/http://cca.analisidifesa.it/it/magazine_8034243544/numero129/article_371438062752515357801484456054_2683573816_0.jsp }}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 28 marzo 2012 l'Aula della Camera ha approvato alcune mozioni sulla riduzione e razionalizzazione delle spese militari tra cui quelle che riducono a 90 gli aerei da acquistare&lt;ref name=&quot;camera.it&quot;/&gt;.<br /> <br /> Varie parti politiche hanno mosso critiche al progetto già dai primi giorni del 2012&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2012/01/02/news/spese_difesa-27483358/index.html?ref=search|titolo=''Ora la parola d'ordine è tagliare''}}. Repubblica. Politica. 2 gennaio 2012.&lt;/ref&gt; proprio a causa dell'elevato costo dei 131 caccia ordinati inizialmente che, secondo il giornale [[La Repubblica (quotidiano)|La Repubblica]], è lievitato verso l'alto nel 2011 ed è riportato dal giornale pari a 200 milioni di dollari ad aereo.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2012/01/02/news/programma_acquisto-27509860/|titolo=''Costano troppo,il governo non li compri''}}. ''Repubblica. 2 gennaio 2012''.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://temi.repubblica.it/micromega-online/don-renato-sacco-quante-bugie-sullf35/|titolo=''Don Renato Sacco: Quante bugie sull'F-35''}}. Repubblica. MicroMega. 22 febbraio 2012.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Al 22 febbraio 2013 l'Italia ha materialmente ordinato 3 velivoli e si appresta a firmare il contratto per altri 3: il primo F-35 A uscirà dagli impianti di Cameri, in Piemonte, entro il 2015 ed entrerà in servizio l'anno dopo.&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2013/02/22/news/f35_pentagono_sospende_tutti_i_voli_per_problemi_al_motore-53212575/?ref=search]. Repubblica. 22 febbraio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Dopo una polemica inter-istituzionale sviluppatasi ad inizio legislatura&lt;ref&gt;Una &quot;baruffa mediatica&quot; secondo Giampiero Buonomo, {{cita testo|url=https://www.questionegiustizia.it/data/doc/2982/163358983718572.pdf|titolo=''La crescente procedimentalizzazione dell’atto parlamentare di indirizzo politico''}}, Questione giustizia, 7 ottobre 2021 (p. 9).&lt;/ref&gt;, il 30 luglio 2013 il ministro della Difesa ha riferito al parlamento a proposito di un eventuale ritiro dal programma: «Bisogna considerare, oltre ai 700 milioni di euro già spesi per la progettazione e i due miliardi investiti per l'impianto di produzione di [[Cameri]], anche il fatto che la portaerei [[Cavour (550)|Cavour]]&lt;ref&gt;Nel luglio 2013, la [[Cavour (550)|Cavour]] è l'unica portaerei rimasta in Europa insieme alla francese [[Charles de Gaulle (R 91)|Charles De Gaulle]].&lt;/ref&gt; dovrà ospitare gli F-35 a decollo verticale, altrimenti non capiremmo per quale ragione avremmo speso 3 miliardi e mezzo di euro per la nave»&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/07/31/italia/politica/f-mauro-gi-spesi-miliardi-per-modificare-la-portaerei-cavour-yCj5WpIqzQ4ow97d4DbDkK/pagina.html|titolo=Articolo online}} sul sito de ''La Stampa''.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 24 settembre 2014 il Parlamento italiano ha votato a maggioranza di tagliare del 50% il finanziamento sull'acquisto di 90 cacciabombardieri americani F-35, da 13 a 6,5 miliardi di euro, il che comporta una riduzione del numero di velivoli acquistabili&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2014/09/24/f35-la-camera-dimezza-i-fondi-per-i-cacciabombardieri-da-13-a-65-miliardi/1131605/|titolo=''F35, sì a mozione Pd: Camera dimezza i fondi per i caccia: da 13 a 6,5 miliardi''}}. Enrico Piovesana. Il fatto quotidiano. 24 settembre 2014.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> L'11 dicembre 2014 [[Roberta Pinotti]], ministro della Difesa, e John Philips, ambasciatore americano in Italia, hanno annunciato che lo stabilimento della [[Finmeccanica]] di [[Cameri]] a [[Novara]] è stato scelto per la manutenzione di tutti gli F-35 operanti in Europa&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/notizie/2014-12-11/f-35-sara-italia-polo-europeo-manutenzione-jet-185837.shtml?uuid=ABQWPTPC&amp;fromSearch|titolo=''F-35, sarà in Italia il polo europeo di manutenzione dei jet''}}. Il Sole 24 ore. 11 dicembre 2014.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 21 maggio 2015 il ministro Pinotti ha presentato il documento programmatico pluriennale per il triennio 2015-2017 che conferma la partecipazione dell'Italia al programma, con un budget complessivo di circa 10 miliardi di euro. Il numero di velivoli da acquistare è stato fissato nuovamente a 90 unità, di cui 38 da acquisire entro il 2020&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2015/05/21/spese-militari-nessun-taglio-agli-f35-anzi-il-budget-complessivo-aumenta/1706067/|titolo=''Spese militari, nessun taglio agli F35. Anzi, il budget complessivo aumenta''}}. Enrico Piovesana. Il Fatto Quotidiano. 21 maggio 2015.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2015/05/26/f35-tre-anni-di-promesse-e-smentite-cosi-la-politica-ha-messo-le-ali-alle-armi/1718994/|titolo=''F35, tre anni di promesse e smentite. Così la politica ha messo le ali alle armi''}}. Thomas Mackinson. Il Fatto Quotidiano. 26 maggio 2015.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> La [[Corte dei Conti]], nella sua ''Relazione speciale sulla partecipazione italiana al Programma Joint Strike Fighter F-35 Lightning II'' del 3 agosto 2017, circa i costi complessivi del programma ha esposto che l'investimento iniziale a carico degli USA è passato da 233 miliardi di dollari a 406 miliardi di dollari, i costi operativi per l'intero ciclo di vita dell'aereo ammontano a {{formatnum:1100}} miliardi di dollari. Tuttavia la Corte precisa che la misura della partecipazione dei partner, Italia compresa, alla fase di sviluppo è fissa e non suscettibile di aumenti. Gli incrementi di costo attribuibili a questa fase vengono pertanto assorbiti dai soli Stati Uniti. Per la fase di produzione è previsto che i partner acquistino i propri velivoli allo stesso prezzo dei velivoli americani appartenenti allo stesso lotto&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.corteconti.it/export/sites/portalecdc/_documenti/controllo/sez_contr_affari_com_internazionali/2017/delibera_15_2017_e_relazione.pdf|titolo=Relazione della Corte dei Conti|accesso=9 agosto 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810011737/http://www.corteconti.it/export/sites/portalecdc/_documenti/controllo/sez_contr_affari_com_internazionali/2017/delibera_15_2017_e_relazione.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Inoltre i mezzi d'informazione hanno riferito che l'avanzamento del programma è in ritardo di almeno cinque anni sulla tabella di marcia originaria, con costi quasi raddoppiati rispetto alle previsioni iniziali&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2017/08/07/economia/la-corte-dei-conti-sugli-f-ritardi-e-costi-raddoppiati-ma-non-possiamo-ritirarci-8mc9a4Axq3GE8jYUxWz3TP/pagina.html|titolo=''La Corte dei Conti sugli F-35: Ritardi e costi raddoppiati, ma non possiamo ritirarci''}}. La Stampa. Economia. 7 agosto 2017.&lt;/ref&gt;. Su quest'ultimo punto una nota del giornalista e storico dell'aviazione Gregory Alegi riporta che gli 80 milioni al pezzo per il block buy attualmente in discussione sono il 16% in più dei 69 previsti nel 2001 e non il doppio, sottolineando che il costo maggiore dei primi lotti è fisiologico e che, per una valutazione corretta, bisognerebbe fare la media ponderata tenendo in considerazione i valori di spesa con gli impianti a pieno regime di produzione.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=http://formiche.net/blog/2017/08/09/relazione-corte-conti-f-35/|titolo=F-35, vi racconto l'abbaglio mediatico sulla relazione della Corte dei Conti - Formiche.net|pubblicazione=Formiche.net|data=9 agosto 2017|accesso=12 agosto 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Nel gennaio 2018 il primo F-35 è stato consegnato al Ministero della Difesa Italiano e poi assegnato alla [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare Italiana]]. Nel dicembre 2018 i primi otto F-35 sono operativi per l'Aeronautica Militare&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2018/12/01/news/aeronautica_militare_operativi_i_primi_otto_aerei_caccia_f-35-213111682/|titolo=Repubblica}}&lt;/ref&gt;. I velivoli sono stati assegnati al 32º Stormo con sede ad Amendola (Foggia), primo reparto in Europa ad acquisire gli F-35.<br /> Al giugno 2019 del lotto di 28 velivoli previsti entro il 2022, ne sono stati consegnati 13&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/torna-a-volare-il-secondo-esemplare-degli-f-35b-italiani-destinati-alla-marina-militare/|titolo=Torna a volare il secondo esemplare degli F-35B italiani destinati alla Marina Militare}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> == Critiche al progetto ==<br /> Il progetto ha attirato su di sé molte critiche da parte di analisti strategici e personale militare.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2013/06/21/f-35-bocciati-e-anti-economici-ma-parlamento-discute-se-acquistarne-altri/632525/|titolo=F-35 bocciati e anti-economici | giornale = [[Il Fatto Quotidiano]] | giorno = 21 | mese = giugno | anno = 2006}}&lt;/ref&gt; Tra i detrattori il mezzo si è da tempo guadagnato il degradante soprannome di &quot;Fiasco 35&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web | titolo = Tories feel the heat over F-35 Fiasco | giornale = The Global and Mail | data =12 dicembre 2012 | url=https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/tories-feel-the-heat-over-f-35-fiasco/article6292008/ }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Tra gli altri, la [[RAND Corporation]], una società di analisi strategiche che collabora a stretto contatto col [[Dipartimento della Difesa]] statunitense, ha apertamente criticato l'F-35: prima è trapelato che, secondo le simulazioni effettuate dalla società statunitense, l'F-35 non sarebbe in grado di competere con il russo [[Su-35]] in un combattimento aereo&lt;ref&gt;Lake 2010, pp. 37–45.&lt;/ref&gt;; poi un analista della stessa società ha dichiarato che l'F-35 &quot;è inferiore nel combattimento in termini di accelerazione, salita e virate sostenute&quot;.&lt;ref name=&quot;critiche1&quot;&gt;Pocock, Chris. {{cita testo|url=http://www.ainonline.com/news/single-news-page/article/lm-defends-f-35-jsf-agility-against-critics-21060/|titolo=&quot;LM defends F-35 JSF agility against critics.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110616214423/http://www.ainonline.com/news/single-news-page/article/lm-defends-f-35-jsf-agility-against-critics-21060/ }} Aviation International News, 15 giugno 2009.&lt;/ref&gt; Tuttavia i dati tecnici e le prove effettuate evidenziano che l'F-35 ha una velocità di punta di mach 1,67 e sostenuta di 1.65 a carico bellico (mentre l'F-16 a carico bellico non raggiunge i mach 1,4), il carico alare è inferiore a quello di un SU-27 e superiore a quello di un F-16, l'accelerazione a carico bellico è simile o superiore a quello di un F-16 e a quello di un'F-18, la virata a carico bellico è pari o migliore rispetto a quella della maggior parte dei caccia Usa e di poco inferiore a quella dell'F-22, tutte caratteristiche in linea con il progetto iniziale. Viene anche evidenziato come queste prestazioni miglioreranno ulteriormente nel corso della vita dell'aereo, come è successo per tutti i suoi predecessori.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.loneflyer.com/?p=551|titolo=L’F-35 Lightning II in combattimento: parte prima|accesso=10 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://aviationweek.com/defense/f-35-demo-pilot-paris-performance-will-crush-years-misinformation|titolo=F-35 Demo Pilot: Paris Performance Will ‘Crush Years Of Misinformation’|sito=aviationweek.com|lingua=en|accesso=10 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt; In realtà la cellula dell'F-35 è progettata per sostenere accelerazioni fino ad un massimo di 6&amp;nbsp;''[[Accelerazione di gravità|g]]'', mentre caccia come il Rafale e l'Eurofighter sono progettati per accelerazioni superiori a 8&amp;nbsp;''g''. La scarsa predisposizione dell'F-35 a manovre estreme è evidente anche dal tipo di ala, trapezoidale e dalla ridotta superficie alare (42 metri quadrati contro i 51 metri quadrati dell'Eurofighter ad esempio) rispetto al peso dell'aviogetto. La manovrabilità ad alta velocità non è il suo punto di forza, ma lo scopo principale di questo aereo non è la superiorità aerea, quanto la ridotta [[Sezione radar equivalente|RCS]]; in effetti un aereo con un peso al decollo tra le 21 e le 30 tonnellate, spinto da un reattore che produce al massimo 19 tonnellate di spinta, nasce evidentemente senza pretese di superiorità aerea.<br /> <br /> È circolata un'intervista al [[produttore discografico]] [[Pierre Sprey]] (titolare della [[Mapleshade Records]]), presentato in veste di progettista aeronautico e definito &quot;padre&quot; degli aerei [[A-10]] e [[F-16]]: nell'intervista, Sprey definiva l'F-35 come &quot;pesante e poco reattivo&quot;&lt;ref name=&quot;sprey&quot;&gt;&quot;Amerikaanse twijfel over JSF&quot;. Nova, 12 luglio 2010. (in [[lingua olandese|olandese]]).&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.presadiretta.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-03052556-4a49-4a6d-8249-7c59169b8890.html#p=0|titolo=Video della puntata}} di ''[[Presa diretta (programma televisivo)|Presa diretta]]'' andata in onda il 3 febbraio 2013, con l'intervista all'ingegnere Sprey; un frammento del video con l'intervista a Pierre Sprey è visibile su {{cita testo|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DwQyjOok-U|titolo=YouTube}}.&lt;/ref&gt;. Secondo quanto riportato da testate specialistiche, Pierre Sprey non è né progettista né il &quot;padre&quot; degli A-10 e F-16, ma solo un ex analista della difesa attivo fino al 1986, poi divenuto [[produttore discografico]] con la [[Mapleshade Records]], famoso per aver fatto parte del gruppo di analisti strategici che, negli [[anni settanta]] e [[anni ottanta|ottanta]] del [[XX secolo|Novecento]], avevano propugnato la dottrina militare detta della &quot;[[Fighter Mafia]]&quot;, mentre a progettare F-16 è stato un team guidato da Robert H. Widmer.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://sobchak.wordpress.com/2015/10/02/pierre-sprey-non-ha-progettato-lf-16/|titolo=Pierre Sprey non ha progettato l’F-16|autore=Aleks|sito=SOBCHAK SECURITY - est. 2005|data=2 ottobre 2015|accesso=10 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Critiche sono state avanzate da un gruppo di piloti statunitensi che, avendo provato in volo l'F-35A, lo hanno definito &quot;per niente stellare&quot;&lt;ref&gt;Gianluca Di Feo, {{cita testo|url=http://espresso.repubblica.it/dettaglio/con-questi-f35-ci-abbattono-subito/2202065|titolo=&quot;Con questi F35 ci abbattono subito&quot;}} - L'Espresso, 7 marzo 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il rapporto ufficiale da loro redatto il 15 febbraio 2013&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://speciali.espresso.repubblica.it/pdf/F35dossier.pdf|titolo=''F 35 dossier''}}, {{pdf}}. Repubblica. Espresso. Speciale.&lt;/ref&gt; offre un ritratto desolante del mezzo: vi sono individuate otto aree di grave rischio (la visibilità, l'interfaccia tra gli apparati di bordo e il pilota, il sistema radar, l'apparato di proiezione dei dati nel [[casco di volo]], l'eventualità di esplosione in caso d'impatto con fulmini, per via delle pareti troppo sottili dei serbatoi&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/01/21/esteri/l-f-esplode-con-i-fulmini-Yibk72WD1PaeNI8Rj9RAVJ/pagina.html|titolo=''L'F-35 esplode con i fulmini''}}. La stampa. Esteri. 21 gennaio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt; e così via), problemi tali da suggerire addirittura una nuova progettazione del velivolo&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/01/23/edizioni/novara/f-il-caccia-dei-guai-ma-il-cantiere-alla-base-militare-di-cameri-non-si-ferma-XrVZIcKLf2bLvCwHK1G3dM/pagina.html|titolo=''F-35, il caccia dei guai: “Ma il cantiere alla base militare di Cameri non si ferma”''}}. La stampa. Novara. 23 gennaio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;. Le più recenti valutazioni da parte dei piloti, suffragate dai test bellici effettuati come la ''green flag'' o ''red flag'', sono risultate positive.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2016/07/11/f-35-pilot-explains-how-he-dominated-dogfights-against-multiple-a-4-aggressors-every-time/|titolo=F-35 pilot explains how he dominated dogfights against multiple A-4 aggressors. Every time.|sito=The Aviationist|data=11 luglio 2016|accesso=11 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2016/03/01/heres-what-ive-learned-so-far-dogfighting-in-the-f-35-a-jsf-pilot-first-hand-account/|titolo=“Here’s what I’ve learned so far dogfighting in the F-35”: a JSF pilot’s first-hand account|sito=The Aviationist|data=1º marzo 2016|accesso=11 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Secondo un rapporto del Pentagono&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2014/01/30/edizioni/novara/rapporto-del-pentagono-f-fragile-e-inaffidabile-crepe-durante-i-test-oPwrnR4KMudpqxkUmIXH7N/pagina.html|titolo=''Rapporto del Pentagono: “F-35 fragile e inaffidabile, crepe durante i test”''}}. La stampa. Novara. 30 gennaio 2014.&lt;/ref&gt; gli strumenti elettronici del jet non funzionano&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/06/27/italia/cronache/f-pieno-di-guai-ma-difficile-da-eliminare-2tnKEoVCydUAtDlmwAKoaK/pagina.html|titolo=''F35, pieno di guai ma difficile da eliminare''}}. La stampa. Cronaca. 27 giugno 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;, perché il display nel casco di volo non fornisce un [[orizzonte artificiale]] analogo a quello reale, a volte l'immagine è troppo scura o scompare, e il radar in alcuni voli di collaudo si è dimostrato incapace di avvistare e inquadrare bersagli, o addirittura si è spento. Inoltre la manutenzione dell'F-35 è troppo laboriosa e limita l'efficienza operativa, l'affidabilità tecnica generale lascia a desiderare e il dispositivo di carica delle batterie tende a esser colpito da malfunzionamenti alle basse temperature&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/03/09/esteri/il-nuovo-f-verrebbe-abbattuto-dai-caccia-che-volano-da-anni-vViOpDmMI9s0q1ElUnfy1O/pagina.html|titolo=''Il nuovo F-35 verrebbe abbattuto dai caccia che volano da 30 anni''}}. La stampa. Esteri. 9 marzo 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;. Sempre riguardo alle presunte prestazioni in combattimento del velivolo, il maggiore Richard Koch dell'[[USAF]], capo dell'ufficio di superiorità aerea del ''USAF Air Combat Command'', ha dichiarato: &quot;mi sveglio la notte con i sudori freddi al pensiero che l'F-35 avrà solo due armi per la superiorità aerea&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita testo|lingua=en|url=http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/blogs/defense/index.jsp?plckController=Blog&amp;plckScript=blogScript&amp;plckElementId=blogDest&amp;plckBlogPage=BlogViewPost&amp;plckPostId=Blog%3a27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7Post%3ab1c3536a-8d96-481f-aef5-d6428ec6f9ca|titolo=&quot;JSF Leaders Back In The Fight&quot;}}. Sweetman, Bill. Aviation Week, 22 settembre 2008.&lt;/ref&gt;. La Lockheed Martin ha contestato le critiche alla sua creatura&lt;ref name=&quot;critiche1&quot;/&gt; dichiarando, tra l'altro, che &quot;la superiorità nell'elettronica di cui gode l'F-35 rispetto agli altri velivoli può risultare più importante della manovrabilità in future missioni&quot;&lt;ref&gt;en {{cita testo|url=http://www.lexingtoninstitute.org/f-35-fighter-confounding-critics-as-flight-tests-ramp-up?a=1&amp;c=1171|titolo=&quot;F-35 Fighter Confounding Critics As Flight Tests Ramp Up&quot;}}. Thompson, Loren B. Lexington Institute, 1º marzo 2011.&lt;/ref&gt;. Dopo la capacità di combattimento, le critiche più diffuse hanno puntato alla scarsa autonomia di volo, da alcuni ritenuta insufficiente per conflitti su larga scala, come un'ipotetica azione contro altri Paesi&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/20/us-china-usa-arms-idUSN1925736420070920?sp=true|titolo=&quot;Air Force chief links F-35 fighter jet to China&quot; |urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924123559/http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/20/us-china-usa-arms-idUSN1925736420070920?sp=true|cognome= Wolf|nome= Jim|data= 19 settembre 2007|accesso= 12 settembre 2011}}&lt;/ref&gt;. L'autonomia dell'aereo è in linea con i modelli che andrà a sostituire e il suo raggio di azione è aumentabile grazie ai serbatoi supplementari o tramite il rifornimento in volo con aerocisterne.&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/14103/lets-talk-about-the-usafs-plan-for-fully-combat-capable-f-35s?xid=fbshare]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;[https://foxtrotalpha.jalopnik.com/how-israel-wants-to-soup-up-its-fleet-of-f-35s-1769644978]&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Con l'allungarsi dei tempi di sviluppo non sono potute mancare le critiche ai costi del progetto, che la rivista specialistica ''World Military Affair'' ha imputato alla discutibile scelta di voler creare un unico aereo per tre differenti ruoli operativi&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=http://opinion.globaltimes.cn/commentary/2010-03/515744.html|titolo=&quot;F-35 fighter has become a clumsy white elephant&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20120317091704/http://opinion.globaltimes.cn/commentary/2010-03/515744.html|data=24 marzo 2010 }}&lt;/ref&gt;. I dubbi sugli elevati costi di progetto si sono aggiunti a quelli sui costi unitari di produzione&lt;ref name=&quot;sprey&quot; /&gt; e di manutenzione, che la [[United States Navy|marina statunitense]] ha stimato essere del 30%-40% superiori a quelli dei caccia attualmente in uso&lt;ref&gt;Clark, Colin. {{cita testo|url=http://www.dodbuzz.com/2011/01/27/af-worries-jsf-costs-may-soar/|titolo=&quot;AF Worries JSF Costs May Soar.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110130053956/http://www.dodbuzz.com/2011/01/27/af-worries-jsf-costs-may-soar/ }} DoD Buzz 27 gennaio 2011.&lt;/ref&gt;. Nel 2013 il [[tenente generale]] dell'[[USAF]] Christopher Bogdan ha apertamente accusato l'azienda di voler &quot;spremere ogni centesimo&quot; dal [[governo]] degli [[Stati Uniti]] per questa commessa.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita testo|lingua=en|url=http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/article-xml/awx_03_04_2013_p0-554940.xml|titolo=''U.S. General's Australian Outburst Could Undermine F-35 Program''|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130520142533/http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=%2Farticle-xml%2Fawx_03_04_2013_p0-554940.xml }}. Aviation Week. 4 marzo 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> A febbraio 2014 il Pentagono ha reso nota la decisione di acquistare otto aeromobili meno del previsto nel corso dell'anno successivo, dovuta a tagli al bilancio della difesa e non ad una valutazione delle prestazioni dell'F-35.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2014/02/26/edizioni/novara/f-il-pentagono-taglia-il-budget-e-riduce-a-jet-gli-ordini-del-n3mHOfpX6IXftuHn3WkpEM/pagina.html|titolo=''F-35, il Pentagono taglia il budget e riduce a 34 jet gli ordini del 2015''}}. La stampa. Novara. 26 febbraio 2014.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> In una audizione davanti all’Assemblea parlamentare nell'agosto del 2017 il generale André Lanata, Capo di stato maggiore dell’aeronautica francese, ha dichiarato che l’F-35 sarà presto lo standard di riferimento per i velivoli da combattimento in tutto il mondo e la Francia, che non è tra i paesi finanziatori del progetto e non prevede l'acquisto degli aerei, sarà surclassata dai partner ad oggi alla pari che acquisiranno il veicolo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=http://formiche.net/blog/2017/09/07/f-35-francia/|titolo=Così il capo dell'aeronautica francese elogia gli F-35 - Formiche.net|pubblicazione=Formiche.net|data=7 settembre 2017|accesso=7 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> La vita del veicolo è stata predeterminata in 8.000 ore di volo, la Lockheed Martin, a seguito del superamento di specifici test a terra corrispondenti a 24.000 ore di volo, ha dichiarato di voler portare la vita operativa del velivolo a 16.000 ore di volo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/f-35-i-test-a-terra-indicano-la-possibilita-di-unestensione-della-durata-di-vita-del-caccia-stealth-di-quinta-generazione/|titolo=F-35: i test a terra indicano la possibilità di un’estensione della durata di vita del caccia stealth di quinta generazione - Aviation Report|pubblicazione=Aviation Report|data=19 settembre 2018|accesso=23 settembre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> In una intervista alla rivista specializzata &quot;Difesa Online&quot; il comandante del 32º Stormo, il colonnello Davide Marzinotto, che ha seguito il programma per anni, in Italia e negli USA sin da quando sono stati definiti i requisiti operativi della macchina, ha dichiarato che: «''La rivoluzione che rappresenta l’F-35 è dovuta al suo DNA “omnirole”: il velivolo può assolvere a più missioni simultaneamente, senza bisogno di tornare alla base per essere riconfigurato. Forse non è immediatamente comprensibile a tutti il valore in termini operativi di tutto questo. Posso assicurare che si tratta di un qualcosa di rivoluzionario''» e «''Quando si è in volo impressiona la percezione della consapevolezza espansa fornita dai sensori: si apre un mondo e si resta a bocca aperta. In un confronto aereo un tempo si facevano considerazioni del tipo “Qui me la cavo...”, “Qui me la gioco...” o “Qui devo stare attento”. A bordo di un F-35 il pensiero non può essere altro che “Povero colui che si trova dall’altra parte!!!”''»&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/evidenza/interviste/rivoluzione-f35|titolo=Rivoluzione F35|pubblicazione=Difesa Online|data=1º ottobre 2018|accesso=1º ottobre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Cultura di massa ==<br /> * In particolare la versione C dell'F-35 compare tra i velivoli della serie di [[videogiochi]] ''Ace Combat''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://acecombat.wikia.com/wiki/F-35C_Lightning_II|titolo=F-35C Lightning II - Acepedia, the Ace Combat wiki&lt;!-- Titolo generato automaticamente --&gt;}}.&lt;/ref&gt; e nella serie ''[[Tom Clancy's H.A.W.X.]]''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url= http://forums-it.ubi.com/showthread.php/13496-INFO-La-LISTA-AEREI-di-Tom-Clancy-s-HAWX!-Forums |titolo= La LISTA AEREI di Tom Clancy's HAWX! {{!}} Forums }}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> * La versione B compare invece in ''Deadly Skies III''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url= https://www.gamefaqs.com/ps2/914994-airforce-delta-strike/faqs/28646 |editore= GameFQS |titolo= AirForceDelta Aircraft List }}&lt;/ref&gt; e nel simulatore di guerra [[ArmA II]], come principale velivolo pilotabile.<br /> * La versione sperimentale dello stesso, al tempo denominata X-35, compare come velivolo pilotabile nel videogioco di [[Eidos Interactive]] per computer dal titolo ''[[Joint Strike Fighter]]''.<br /> * È presente nei seguenti titoli videoludici: [[Battlefield 2]], DLC Back to Karkand di [[Battlefield 3]], [[Battlefield 4]], [[Empire Earth]] sotto il nome fittizio di &quot;Caccia Jackal&quot;, [[Call of Duty: Black Ops II]] e [[MetalStorm: Wingman]].<br /> * In ambito cinematografico l'aereo compare anche nel film ''[[Lanterna Verde (film)|Lanterna verde]]'', in alcune scene di ''[[Die Hard - Vivere o morire]]'', in ''[[The Avengers (film 2012)|The Avengers]]''&lt;ref&gt;{{YouTube|id=tgwW_hxmZAU|titolo=McClane vs F35}}&lt;/ref&gt; e in ''[[Transformers - L'ultimo cavaliere|Transformers: L'ultimo cavaliere]]''.<br /> * Nel film ''[[L'uomo d'acciaio]]'' i caccia multiruolo scortano un [[Boeing C-17 Globemaster III|C-17]].<br /> * Nel simulatore di volo [[Digital Combat Simulator]] si può volare su un modello gratuito creato da un utente.<br /> *Nel simulatore &quot;Alliance Air War&quot; compare la versione F-35 C<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references/&gt;<br /> <br /> == Voci correlate ==<br /> * [[Boeing X-32]]<br /> * [[Aerei X]]<br /> * [[Lockheed Martin-Boeing F-22 Raptor]]<br /> <br /> == Altri progetti ==<br /> {{interprogetto}}<br /> <br /> == Collegamenti esterni ==<br /> * {{collegamenti esterni}}<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://www.jsf.org.uk/|titolo=JSF UK Team|lingua=en|accesso=13 febbraio 2009|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20010521143853/http://www.jsf.org.uk/|urlmorto=sì}}<br /> * {{cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/|titolo=F-35 Lightning II|lingua=en}}<br /> * {{cita web | url = http://www.leonardocompany.com/-/f-35-jsf/ | titolo = F-35 JSF | accesso = 11 luglio 2016 | urlarchivio = https://web.archive.org/web/20160808151754/http://www.leonardocompany.com/-/f-35-jsf | urlmorto = sì }}<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://www.aereimilitari.org/Aerei/F-35.htm|titolo=Il Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II}}<br /> * {{cita testo|url=http://www.aviazione.org/f35.shtml|titolo=Descrizione tecnica dell'F-35 Lightning II|accesso=10 maggio 2018|dataarchivio=6 aprile 2009|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090406095945/http://www.aviazione.org/f35.shtml|urlmorto=sì}} su www.aviazione.org<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://www.difesanews.it/archives/scheda-tecnica-f-35-lightning-ii-joint-strike-fighter|titolo=Scheda Tecnica del Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II}}<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://multimedia.lastampa.it/multimedia/in-italia/lstp/107557/|titolo=video da lastampa.it}}<br /> * {{cita pubblicazione | url = http://www.heritage.org/defense/report/operational-assessment-the-f-35a-argues-full-program-procurement-and-concurrent | titolo = Operational Assessment of the F-35A Argues for Full Program Procurement and Concurrent Development Process | nome = John | cognome = Venable | rivista = Backgrounder | lingua = en |numero= 3014 | editore = [[The Heritage Foundation]] | giorno = 4 | mese = agosto | anno = 2016 | accesso = 12 ottobre 2016}}<br /> *{{cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/tag/f-35-jsf-lightning-ii/|titolo=Tutte le notizie sempre aggiornate sui velivoli Lockheed Martin F-35}} su www.aviation-report.com<br /> <br /> {{Lockheed}}<br /> {{Caccia USA}}<br /> {{Aerei X}}<br /> {{Controllo di autorità}}<br /> {{Portale|aviazione|guerra|marina|stati Uniti d'America}}<br /> <br /> [[Categoria:Aeromobili stealth]]<br /> [[Categoria:Aerei militari Lockheed Martin|F-35 Lightning II]]<br /> [[Categoria:Aerei militari dal 1992 a oggi]]<br /> [[Categoria:Caccia multiruolo]]<br /> [[Categoria:Aerei militari Leonardo|F-35 Lightning II]]</div> 2022-12-16T16:29:43Z 2022-12-16T16:29:43Z Lucamauri https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discussione:Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II&diff=130906422 Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II <p>Lucamauri: Ripristino il titolo &quot;Versioni&quot; erroneamente rimosso nella Versione delle 2022-01-05T20:35:41</p> <hr /> <div>{{nd||F35 (disambigua)|F35}}<br /> {{aeromobile<br /> |Aeromobile = aereo_militare<br /> |Nome = Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II<br /> |Immagine = U.S. Air Force pilot navigates an F-35A Lightning II aircraft assigned to the 58th Fighter Squadron, 33rd Fighter Wing into position to refuel with a KC-135 Stratotanker assigned to the 336th Air Refueling 130516-F-XL333-390.jpg<br /> |Didascalia = Un ''F-35A Lightning II'', in forza al ''58th Fighter Squadron'' dell'[[USAF]], impegnato in operazioni di [[rifornimento in volo]]<br /> &lt;!-- Descrizione --&gt;|Tipo = [[Caccia multiruolo]] [[velivolo stealth|stealth]]<br /> |Equipaggio = 1 [[aviatore|pilota]]<br /> |Progettista = <br /> |Costruttore = {{Bandiera|USA}} [[Lockheed Martin]]<br /> {{Bandiera|GBR}} [[BAE Systems]] Tier I&lt;br /&gt;<br /> {{Bandiera|ITA}} [[Leonardo (azienda)|Leonardo]] (dal 2017, in precedenza Finmeccanica) Tier II &amp; FACO<br /> |Data_ordine = <br /> |Data_accettazione = 10 maggio [[2011]]&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.armedforces-int.com/news/royal-navy-commissions-latest-type-45-destroyer.html|titolo=Royal Navy Commissions Latest Destroyer: Armed Forces Int. News&lt;!-- Titolo generato automaticamente --&gt;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110512011252/http://www.armedforces-int.com/news/royal-navy-commissions-latest-type-45-destroyer.html }}.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |Data_entrata_in_servizio = Luglio [[2015]] con i [[USMC|Marines]]; 2017 con l'[[Aeronautica Militare Italiana|AMI]]<br /> |Data_ritiro_dal_servizio = <br /> |Utilizzatore_principale = {{Bandiera|USA}} [[US Air Force]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|USA}} [[United States Navy|US Navy]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|USA}} [[USMC|US Marine Corps]]<br /> |Altri_utilizzatori = {{Bandiera|GBR}} [[Royal Air Force|RAF]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|ITA}} [[Aeronautica Militare Italiana|Aeronautica Militare]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|ITA}} [[Marina Militare Italiana|Marina Militare]]&lt;br /&gt;{{Bandiera|NLD}} [[Koninklijke Luchtmacht|KLU]]&lt;br /&gt;[[#Utilizzatori|altri]]<br /> |Esemplari = 700 (settembre 2021)&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://defence-blog.com/lockheed-martin-delivers-the-700th-f-35-stealth-fighter-jet/|titolo=&quot;LOCKHEED MARTIN DELIVERS THE 700th F-35 STEALTH FIGHTER JET&quot;}}, su defence-blog.com, 27 settembre 2021, URL consultato il 2 ottobre 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aresdifesa.it/2020/03/04/lockheed-martin-consegna-il-500-f35-tagliato-il-tragurado-delle-250000-ore-di-volo//|titolo=&quot;LOCKHEED MARTIN CONSEGNA IL 500° F-35&quot;}}, su aresdifesa.it, 4 marzo 2020, URL consultato il 4 marzo 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/400th-f-35-delivered-as-fleet-passes-200000-flight-hours/?no_cache=1/|titolo=&quot;400th F-35 DELIVERED AS FLEET PASSES 200,000 FLIGHT HOURS&quot;}}, su ukdefencejournal.org.uk, 4 giugno 2019, URL consultato il 9 giugno 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Sono 300 gli F-35 Lightning II prodotti&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 381 - 07/[[2018]] pag. 24&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Consegnato il 300° F-35&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 7 - 07/[[2018]] pag. 16&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.janes.com/article/80927/300-up-for-the-f-35-es18d3/|titolo=&quot;300 UP FOR THE F-35 - ES18D3&quot;}}, su janes.com, 13 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 13 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://a855196877272cb14560-2a4fa819a63ddcc0c289f9457bc3ebab.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/13567/f-35_fast_facts_mar_2017-revised.pdf|titolo=F-35 Lightning II Program Status and Fast Facts|sito=Lockheed Martin F-35 Communications Team|accesso=16 aprile 2017|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170417072555/https://a855196877272cb14560-2a4fa819a63ddcc0c289f9457bc3ebab.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/13567/f-35_fast_facts_mar_2017-revised.pdf}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://a855196877272cb14560-2a4fa819a63ddcc0c289f9457bc3ebab.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/17541/f35_weekly_update_4_6_17.pdf |titolo=General Manager Weekly Update April 3, 2017|sito=Jeff Babione |accesso=16 aprile 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |Costo_unitario = {{TA|[[dollaro statunitense|US$]] 82,4 milioni F35A}}<br /> <br /> {{TA|[[dollaro statunitense|US$]] 108 milioni F35B}}<br /> <br /> {{TA|[[dollaro statunitense|US$]] 103,1 milioni F35C }}<br /> <br /> [Lotto 12]<br /> [https://www.f35.com/news/detail/pentagon-and-lockheed-martin-reach-agreement-reducing-f-35a-cost-by-12.8-pe],<br /> |Sviluppato_dal = [[Lockheed Martin X-35]]<br /> |Altre_varianti = F-35B ([[STOVL]])&lt;br /&gt;F-35C ([[CATOBAR]])<br /> &lt;!-- Dimensioni e pesi --&gt;|Lunghezza = {{M|15,67|ul=m}} ({{M|51,4|ul=ft}})<br /> |Apertura_alare = 10,70&amp;nbsp;m (35&amp;nbsp;ft)<br /> |Larghezza = <br /> |Diametro_fusoliera = <br /> |Freccia_alare = <br /> |Altezza = 4,33&amp;nbsp;m (14,2&amp;nbsp;ft)<br /> |Superficie_alare = {{M|42,7|ul=m2}} (460&amp;nbsp;[[Piede quadro|ft²]])<br /> |Carico_alare = <br /> |Efficienza = <br /> |Allungamento_alare = <br /> |Peso_a_vuoto = {{formatnum:13000}}&amp;nbsp;kg<br /> |Peso_carico = {{formatnum:22470}}&amp;nbsp;kg<br /> |Peso_max_al_decollo = {{formatnum:31800}}&amp;nbsp;kg<br /> |Passeggeri = <br /> |Capacità = <br /> |Capacità_combustibile = {{formatnum:8382}}&amp;nbsp;kg ({{formatnum:18480}}&amp;nbsp;lb)<br /> &lt;!-- Propulsione --&gt;|Motore = 1 [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135|Pratt &amp; Whitney F135-PW-100]] con [[postbruciatore]]<br /> |Potenza = <br /> |Spinta = 191&amp;nbsp;[[newton (unità di misura)|kN]] (con [[postbruciatore]])<br /> &lt;!-- Prestazioni --&gt;|Velocità_max = 1.6 [[Numero di Mach|Mach]] {{formatnum:1962}}&amp;nbsp;[[Chilometro 3210orario|km/h]]<br /> |VNE = <br /> |Velocità_crociera = <br /> |Velocità_salita = <br /> |Decollo = <br /> |Atterraggio = <br /> |Autonomia = {{M|2 220|ul=km}}<br /> |Raggio_azione = {{formatnum:1080}}&amp;nbsp;km<br /> |Tangenza = {{formatnum:18288}}&amp;nbsp;[[metro|m]]<br /> &lt;!-- Armamento --&gt;|Mitragliatrici = <br /> |Cannoni = 1 [[GAU-12 Equalizer|GAU-12]] nella versione A, 1 GAU-22A in Gunpod per le versioni B e C<br /> |Bombe = '''caduta libera''':&lt;br /&gt;[[Mk 83]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Mk 82]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Mk 84]]&lt;br /&gt;<br /> '''a grappolo''':&lt;br /&gt;[[CBU-100|Mk.20 Rockeye II]]&lt;br /&gt;'''a guida laser''':&lt;br /&gt;serie [[Paveway]]&lt;br /&gt;'''a guida GPS''':&lt;br /&gt;[[GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb]]&lt;br /&gt;[[JDAM]]&lt;br /&gt;'''nucleari''':&lt;br /&gt;[[B61]]<br /> |Missili = '''aria-aria''':&lt;br /&gt;[[AIM-120 AMRAAM]]&lt;br /&gt;[[AIM-132 ASRAAM]]&lt;br /&gt;[[AIM-9 Sidewinder|AIM-9X Sidewinder]]&lt;br /&gt;[[IRIS-T]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Meteor (missile)|MBDA Meteor]]&lt;br /&gt;<br /> '''aria-superficie''':&lt;br /&gt;[[AGM-154 JSOW]]&lt;br /&gt;[[AGM-158 JASSM]]&lt;br /&gt;[[SCALP|Storm Shadow]]&lt;br /&gt;[[Brimstone (missile)|Brimstone]]&lt;br /&gt;'''anti-nave''':&lt;br /&gt;[[Joint Strike Missile]]<br /> |Piloni = 6 subalari&lt;br /&gt;4 nelle stive<br /> &lt;!-- Impieghi sperimentali e di ricerca --&gt;|Impieghi_sperimentali = &lt;!-- Record e primati --&gt;<br /> |Record = <br /> |Altro_campo = <br /> |Altro = <br /> |Note = I dati riportati sono riferiti alla versione ''F-35A''<br /> |Ref = ''Lockheed Martin''&lt;ref name=LM_F-35A_page&gt;{{Cita web|url= http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/f35/f-35A-ctol-variant.html|titolo= F-35A Conventional Takeoff and Landing Variant|accesso= 13 luglio 2012|cognome= [[Lockheed Martin]]|data= undated|urlarchivio= https://web.archive.org/web/20110317113904/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/f35/f-35A-ctol-variant.html|urlmorto= sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35b-stovl-variant.html|titolo=&quot;F-35B Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing Variant.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130703182742/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35b-stovl-variant.html|accesso=13 luglio 2012 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35c-carrier-variant.htmll|titolo=&quot;F-35C Carrier Variant.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140112141536/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/f35/f-35c-carrier-variant.htmll|accesso=13 luglio 2012 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;br /&gt;''F-35 Program brief''&lt;ref name=LM_F-35A_page/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;F-35_prog_brief_Sept2006&quot;&gt;per un carico complessivo di armamenti pari a {{TA|18 000 lb (8 100 kg)}}.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;br /&gt;''F-35 JSF Statistics''&lt;ref name=&quot;F-35_Stats&quot;&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/mediakits/7764.zip|titolo=&quot;F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Media Kit Statistics.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190626203103/http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/mediakits/7764.zip|data=agosto 2004 }}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;br /&gt;''F-35 Program Status''&lt;ref name=LM_F-35_Status_Fast_Facts&gt;{{cita web|url=http://f-35.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/F-35-Fast-Facts-March-13-2012.pdf|titolo=&quot;F-35 Lightning II Program Status and Fast Facts.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130524200620/http://f-35.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/F-35-Fast-Facts-March-13-2012.pdf |data=13 marzo 2012|accesso=22 maggio 2012}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> |Data_primo_volo = 15 [[dicembre]] [[2006]]<br /> |Tavole_prospettiche = F-35A three-view.PNG<br /> }}<br /> <br /> Il '''[[Lockheed Martin]] F-35 Lightning II''', o '''Joint Strike Fighter-F35''', è un [[caccia multiruolo]] monoposto di 5ª generazione, a singolo [[motore|propulsore]], con [[ala trapezoidale]] e [[velivolo stealth|caratteristiche stealth]]. Le sue capacità multiruolo lo rendono utilizzabile per compiti di [[supporto aereo ravvicinato]], [[bombardamento tattico]] e missioni di [[supremazia aerea]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/capabilities|titolo=F-35 Capabilities}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> L'aereo viene anche definito in ambito militare come omni-ruolo data la capacità di svolgere contemporaneamente, senza tornare alle base per modificare il suo assetto, differenti attività operative.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.aeronautica.difesa.it/comunicazione/notizie/Pagine/TLPAmendola2018.aspx|titolo=TLP Amendola, Gen. Rosso: conseguita Initial Operational Capability F-35|accesso=31 ottobre 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/evidenza/interviste/rivoluzione-f35|titolo=Rivoluzione F35|sito=Difesa Online|data=1º ottobre 2018|accesso=31 ottobre 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Battendo il [[Boeing X-32]], è diventato il vincitore della gara per il programma '''JSF (Joint Strike Fighter)''' per la ricerca di un aereo che potesse sostituire diversi modelli dell'[[United States Air Force|USAF]], dell'[[United States Navy|US Navy]] e dei [[United States Marine Corps|USMC (Marines)]]. Inizialmente era previsto che circa l'80% delle parti fosse in comune fra le diverse versioni, ma poi, con l'evolversi del progetto, non si è potuto raggiungere più del 25/27%, sebbene l'[[avionica|elettronica di bordo]] e una parte del [[software]] saranno molto simili tra loro.<br /> <br /> Esistono tre versioni dell'F-35: una variante a [[decollo]] e [[atterraggio]] convenzionale (F-35A - [[CTOL|Conventional Take Off and Landing]]), una variante a decollo corto e atterraggio verticale, per poter operare da [[portaerei]] di dimensioni ridotte come la portaerei italiana [[Cavour (C 550)|Cavour]] (F-35B [[STOVL|Short Take Off And Vertical Landing]]), e una variante per l'uso su portaerei convenzionali dotate di catapulte (F-35C - [[CATOBAR|Catapult Assisted Take Off But Arrested Recovery]])&lt;ref name=&quot;glob_sec_F-35&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-35-int.htm|titolo=F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Lightning II – International Partners|autore=GlobalSecurity.org}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> == Storia del progetto ==<br /> L'F-35 è il risultato del programma Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), la sintesi di svariati progetti di aerei da combattimento andanti dal 1980 al 1990. Uno degli antenati del progetto fu il programma Advanced Short Take-Off/Vertical Landing (ASTOVL, in italiano: Decollo avanzato su pista corta con atterraggio verticale) promosso dalla [[Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency|DARPA]], il quale decorse dal 1983 fino al 1984. L'ASTOVL mirava a sviluppare un rimpiazzo per gli [[British Aerospace Harrier II|Harrier]] dell'USMC (United States Marine Corps) e della [[Royal Navy]] inglese. Sotto uno dei progetti segreti dell'ASTOVL, il Supersonic STOVL Fighter (SSF, in italiano: Caccia Supersonico STOVL), la [[Lockheed]] [[Skunk Works]] promosse la ricerca per un velivolo d'attacco stealth, supersonico e STOVL, mirato sia all'aeronautica statunitense (USAF) che all'USMC. Una componente tecnologica chiave presa in considerazione fu il sistema della ventola di sollevamento ad albero condotto (SDLF, shaft-driven lift fan). Il prototipo della Lockheed era un aereo a un solo motore dotato di alette canard a forma di delta di circa 11,000&amp;nbsp;kg scarico. Nel 1993 l'ASTOVL fu ribattezzato Common Affordable Lightweight Fighter (CALF, in italiano: Caccia Leggero Comune Economico) e portò a bordo la Lockheed, la [[McDonnell Douglas|McConnell Douglas]] e la [[Boeing]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.codeonemagazine.com/images/C1_V09N3_SM_1271449318_9088.pdf|titolo=Code One Magazine. Lockheed.}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;web.archive.org&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_prejast.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; Pre-JAST|data=6 dicembre 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=6 dicembre 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20191206155846/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_prejast.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Nel 1993, soggiunse il progetto Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST, in italiano: Programma Congiunto Tecnologia Avanzata di Assalto) in seguito all'annullamento dei programmi Advanced Fighter-Attack (A/F-X, in italiano: Aereo d'Assalto d'Avanguardia) MRF (Multi-Role Fighter, in italiano: Caccia Multi-Ruolo) dell'USAF e della marina statunitense. L'MRF, un progetto per un rimpiazzo a buon mercato dell'[[General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon|F-16]] venne ridimensionato e rinviato a causa del cambiamento nell'assetto difensivo in seguito alla Guerra Fredda, con una diminuzione nell'impiego della flottiglia di F-16 con conseguente allungamento della sua vita utile, accompagnato ad un aumento della pressione fiscale sul progetto [[Lockheed Martin-Boeing F-22 Raptor|F-22]]. L'A/F-X, inizialmente conosciuto come Advanced-Attack (A-X), nacque nel 1991 come successore del progetto Advanced Tactical Aircraft (ATA, in italiano: Aereo Tattico d'Avanguardia) della USN (United States Navy) per sostituire l'[[Grumman A-6 Intruder|A-6]]. Il risultante [[McDonnell Douglas-General Dynamics A-12 Avenger II|A-12 Avenger II]] venne dismesso nel 1991 a causa di problemi tecnici e sforamenti dei fondi allocati. Nello stesso anno, la fine del piano Naval Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF, in italiano: Caccia Tattico Avanzato Navale), un derivato del progetto [[Advanced Tactical Fighter]] (ATF) atto a sostituire l'[[Grumman F-14 Tomcat|F-14]], condusse ad un aumento delle abilità del caccia A-X, successivamente rinominato A/F-X. Trovandosi alle prese con una pressione fiscale molto alta, la Bottom-Up Review (BUR) del [[Dipartimento della difesa degli Stati Uniti d'America|Dipartimento della Difesa]] nel 1993 annunciò la soppressione dei progetti MRF e A/F-X, e le conoscenze applicabili vennero trasferite al progetto JAST.&lt;ref name=&quot;web.archive.org&quot;/&gt; Il JAST non doveva sviluppare un nuovo aereo, quanto nuovi requisiti, tecnologie ormai mature e dimostrare nuove idee per il combattimento di precisione avanzato.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceA&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jast.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; JAST|sito=web.archive.org|data=15 luglio 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=15 luglio 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190715052740/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jast.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Man mano che il JAST faceva progressi, nel 1996 emerse il bisogno per un aereo dimostrativo, il che avrebbe coinciso con la fase di dimostrazione aerea su larga scala dell'ASTOVL/CALF. Poiché il progetto sembrava essere in linea con gli obiettivi del JAST, i due programmi vennero eventualmente fusi nel 1994 sotto il nome del JAST, e il progetto ora era in servizio dell'USAF, USMC, e USN.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceA&quot;/&gt; Da JAST si passò a Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) nel 1995, con le proposte STOVL avanzate dalla McDonnell Douglas, Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin&lt;ref&gt;La Lockheed acquisì la divisione caccia della General Dynamics situata a Fort Worth nel 1993, e si unì con Martin Marietta nel 1995 per creare la Lockheed Martin.&lt;/ref&gt; e Boeing. Si preumeva che, ad un certo punto, il JSF avrebbe rimpiazzato un gran numero di aerei multi-ruolo e d'attacco al suolo nelle mani degli Stati Uniti e dei suoi alleati, includendo l'Harrier, l'F-16, l'[[McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet|F/A-18]], l'[[Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II|A-10]] e l'[[Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk|F-117]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1995/1995%20-%200833.html|titolo=1995 {{!}} 0833 {{!}} Flight Archive|sito=web.archive.org|data=17 luglio 2015|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=17 luglio 2015|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150717172813/http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1995/1995%20-%200833.html|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> La partecipazione internazionale fu un aspetto chiave del JSF, partendo dall'adesione del Regno Unito nel progetto ASTOVL. Molti partner internazionali che avevano bisogno di rimodernizzare le loro aeronautiche erano perciò interessati nel JSF. Nel 1995 il Regno Unito entrò nel JAST/JSF come membro fondatore e divenne dunque l'unico partner Tier 1 del progetto.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.org.uk/|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) UK Industry Team - Home Page|sito=web.archive.org|data=27 aprile 2006|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=21 maggio 2001|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20010521143853/http://www.jsf.org.uk/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; L'Italia, i Paesi Bassi, la Danimarca, la Norvegia, il Canada, l'Australia, e la Turchia affermarono la loro presenza durante la Fase Dimostrativa del Progetto (CDP, Concept Demonstration Phase), con Italia e Danimarca diventando partner Tier 2, mentre il resto divenne Tier 3. Successivamente, l'aereo venne creato in cooperazione con partner internazionali aperti all'esportazione.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;US, UK sign JAST agreement&quot;. ''Aerospace Daily''. New York: McGraw-Hill. 25 November 1995. p. 451.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> === Concorrenza al JSF ===<br /> Boeing e Lockheed Martin vennero scelti all'inizio del 1997 per il CDP, con i loro [[Boeing X-32|X-32]] e [[Lockheed Martin X-35|X-35]]; la squadra McDonnell Douglas venne eliminata, e la Northrop Grumann e la [[British Aerospace]] entrarono a far parte del team Lockheed Martin. Ciascuna azienda avrebbe prodotto due velivoli aerei prototipo per comprovare decollo e atterraggio convenzionali (CTOL, Conventional Takeoff and Landing), decollo e atterraggio da portaerei (CV in inglese), e la funzionalità STOVL.&lt;ref&gt;In qualità di aerei dimostratori per la riduzione rischi, essi non avevano bisogno di una struttura interna o della maggior parte dei sottosistemi d'attacco dell'aereo finale.&lt;/ref&gt; Il design della Lockheed Martin si fece forte del lavoro svolto sull'SDLF sotto il programma ASTOVL/CALF. La caratteristica chiave dell'X-35 che permetteva l'operatività STOVL era il sistema SDLF, che consiste nella presenza della ventola di sollevamento nella parte centrale della fusoliera, la quale poteva essere attivata mediante un innesto che connette il semiasse alla turbina, aumentando di fatto la spinta ottenuta dall'ugello di scarico girevole. La ricerca sugli aerei precedenti, che incorporava sistemi simili, come il [[Convair Model 200]]&lt;ref&gt;L'ugello direzionale dell'F-35 venne testato per la prima volta sul Convair Model 200.&lt;/ref&gt;, il [[Rockwell XFV-12|Rockwell SFV-12]] e lo [[Yakovlev Yak-141|Yakolev Yak-141]], venne presa in considerazione.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.govexec.com/defense/defense-beat/2002/01/the-engine-that-could/10890/|titolo=The engine that could - Defense Beat - Defense - GovExec.com|sito=web.archive.org|data=19 ottobre 2013|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=19 ottobre 2013|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20131019160442/http://www.govexec.com/defense/defense-beat/2002/01/the-engine-that-could/10890/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5209428.html|titolo=&quot;Propulsion system for a vertical and short takeoff and landing aircraft, United States Patent 5209428&quot;|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=25 febbraio 2012|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20120225075708/http://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5209428.html|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita libro|nome=Bill|cognome=Library Genesis|nome2=Yefim|cognome2=Gordon|titolo=Yakovlev aircraft since 1924|url=http://archive.org/details/yakovlevaircraft00guns|accesso=29 agosto 2022|data=1997|editore=London : Putnam Aeronautical Books|ISBN=978-0-85177-872-3}}&lt;/ref&gt; Per contro, l'X-32 della Boeing utilizzava un sistema diretto di sollevamento al quale la turboventola sarebbe stata poi riconfigurata nella modalità STOVL.<br /> <br /> La strategia di comunanza della Lockheed Martin era quella di rimpiazzare l'SDLF della versione STOVL con un serbatoio, e l'ugello di scarico girevole presente a poppa con un ugello a spinta vettoriale bi-dimensionale per la versione CTOL.&lt;ref&gt;L'ugello a spinta vettoriale venne eventualmente rimpiazzato da un ugello asimmetrico a bassa visibilità per ridurre il peso.&lt;/ref&gt; Ciò avrebbe permesso configurazioni aerodinamiche identiche per le versioni STOVL e CTOL, mentre la variante CV aveva un'ala più grande per diminuire la velocità d'atterraggio per il carrier recovery.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;&gt;{{Cita libro|nome=Arthur E.|cognome=Sheridan|nome2=Robert|cognome2=Burnes|titolo=F-35 Program History: From JAST to IOC|url=https://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/5.9781624105678.0001.0076|accesso=29 agosto 2022|editore=American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.|pp=1–76|ISBN=978-1-62410-566-1|doi=10.2514/5.9781624105678.0001.0076}}&lt;/ref&gt; A causa delle caratteristiche aerodinamiche e dei requisiti di carrier recovery dovuti all'unione con il JAST, il design venne modificato per includere un timone convenzionale al contrario del design a forma di delta delle alette canard, originarie del progetto ASTOVL/CALF; è degno di nota che dalla configurazione con un timone convenzionale deriva un rischio decisamente inferiore per il carrier recovery rispetto alla configurazione delle alette canard dei modelli ASTOVL/CALF. Ciò permise un'ulteriore comunanza fra le tre varianti, obiettivo di grande importanza nella fase di design.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;/&gt; I prototipi della Lockheed Martin furono dunque l'X-35A per dimostrare le capacità CTOL, per poi essere convertito alla versione X-35B per lo STOVL e all'X-35C per dimostrare la compatibilità con il CV.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|nome=Paul M.|cognome=Bevilaqua|data=2005|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter Dual-Cycle Propulsion System|rivista=Journal of Propulsion and Power|volume=21|numero=5|pp=778–783|accesso=29 agosto 2022|doi=10.2514/1.15228|url=https://doi.org/10.2514/1.15228}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> [[File:X-35 in volo.jpg|sinistra|miniatura|X-35B nel 2001]]<br /> Il primo X-35A volò il 24 ottobre 2000 e portò a termine voli di prova dimostrando le sue caratteristiche di volo subsoniche e supersoniche, maneggevolezza, portata, e prestazione di manovra.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceB&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jsf.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; JSF|sito=web.archive.org|data=15 luglio 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=15 luglio 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190715053937/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_jsf.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Dopo 28 voli, il velivolo fu poi convertito nella variante X-35B per testare lo STOVL, includendo modifiche chiave come l'aggiunta del SDLF, il 3BSM (three-bearing swivel module, in italiano: Modulo di Rotazione Tri-direzionale) e condotti di controllo del rollio. L'X35-B dimostrò con successo il sistema SDLF attraverso l'esecuzione di una sospensione stabile in aria, di un atterraggio verticale e di un decollo corto in meno di 150 metri.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/xplanes/|titolo=NOVA {{!}} Battle of the X-Planes {{!}} PBS|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; L'X-35C volò per la prima volta nel 16 dicembre del 2000 ed eseguì dei test di atterraggio su portaerei.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceB&quot;/&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 26 ottobre del 2001, la Lockheed Martin venne scelta come vincitrice e ottenne il contratto System Development and Demonstration (SDD, in italiano: Sviluppo e Dimostrazione Sistema); alla [[Pratt &amp; Whitney]] venne poi assegnato un appalto in separata sede per lo sviluppo del motore dell'F135 per il JSF.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_f35.htm|titolo=JSF.mil &gt; History &gt; F-35 Acquisition|sito=web.archive.org|data=6 luglio 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=6 luglio 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190706050004/http://www.jsf.mil/history/his_f35.htm|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; La denominazione F-35, la quale non è in linea con la numerazione standard del Dipartimento della Difesa, venne presumibilmente scelta sul luogo dal responsabile del programma, il Generale Maggiore Mike Hough; questa fu una sorpresa anche per la Lockheed Martin, che immaginava invece la designazione &quot;F-24&quot; per il JSF.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.designation-systems.net/usmilav/nonstandard-mds.html#_MDS_F35|titolo=Non-Standard DOD Aircraft Designations|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> === Design e produzione ===<br /> Man mano che il programma JSF progrediva nella fase SDD, il design del modello dimostratore X-35 venne modificato per creare l'F-35. La fusoliera frontale venne allungata di 13 centimetri per fare spazio all'avionica di missione, mentre gli stabilizzatori orizzontali vennero spostati di 5.1 centimetri a poppa per mantenere equilibrio e controllo. La parte della fusoliera si riempì con l'innalzamento di 2.5 centimetri della superficie superiore lungo la linea centrale, al fine di far spazio al vano armamenti. In seguito alla denominazione dei prototipi X-35, le tre varianti furono battezzate F-35A (CTOL), F-35B (STOVL), e F-35C (CV). L'appaltatore primario, la Lockheed Martin, conduce l'integrazione dei sistemi complessiva, assemblaggio e verifica finale (FACO, Final Assembly and Checkout), mentre la Northrop Grumman e la [[BAE Systems]] forniscono componenti per i sistemi di missione e per la cellula.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.codeonemagazine.com/f35_article.html?item_id=28|titolo=X to F: F-35 Lightning II And Its X-35 Predecessors {{!}} Code One Magazine|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;Keijsper 2007, pp. 122, 124.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> L'aggiunta dei sistemi comportò un aumento del peso. L'F-35B fu il più colpito fra tutti, in primo luogo grazie ad una decisione presa nel 2003, che stabiliva l'ingrandimento del vano armamenti per aumentare la somiglianza fra modelli. L'incremento totale del peso avrebbe toccato i 1000&amp;nbsp;kg, più dell'8%, comportando dunque il mancato raggiungimento delle soglie di prestazione della funzionalità STOVL.&lt;ref&gt;Keijsper 2007, p. 119.&lt;/ref&gt; A dicembre del 2003, lo STOVL Weight Attack Team (SWAT, in italiano: Squadra Riduzione Peso STOVL) venne creato per ridurre l'aumento di peso, e tra le modifiche effettuate si annoverano: più spinta ai motori, assottigliamento delle componenti della cellula, vano armamenti e stabilizzatori verticali più piccoli, meno spinta ai condotti di rollio, re-design della giuntura alare, modifica alle parti elettroniche e della cellula subito a poppa dell'abitacolo.&lt;ref&gt;Fulghum, David A.; Wall, Robert (19 September 2004). &quot;USAF Plans for Fighters Change&quot;. ''Aviation Week &amp; Space Technology''.&lt;/ref&gt; Molti dei cambiamenti derivati dallo SWAT vennero applicati a tutte e tre le varianti, e per settembre del 2004, questi sforzi lavorativi avevano ridotto il peso dell' F-35B di oltre 1400&amp;nbsp;kg, mentre l'F-35A e l'F-35C persero rispettivamente 1100 e 860&amp;nbsp;kg.&lt;ref name=&quot;arc.aiaa.org&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;Keijsper 2007, p. 124.&lt;/ref&gt; Questo lavoro arrivò a costare 6.2 miliardi di dollari e causò un ritardo di 18 mesi.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.smithsonianmag.com/air-space-magazine/weight-watchers-13117183/|titolo=Weight Watchers|autore=Smithsonian Magazine|sito=Smithsonian Magazine|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il primo F-35A, codificato AA-1, venne presentato a [[Fort Worth]], in Texas, il 19 febbraio del 2006, e volò per la prima volta il 15 dicembre dello stesso anno.&lt;ref&gt;Il primo F-35 mancava dell'ottimizzazione del peso apportata dallo SWAT.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.westdef.com/presentations/2013presentations/Keith_Knotts.pdf|titolo=CF 35 Lightning II|data=21 febbraio 2014|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=21 febbraio 2014|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140221233717/http://www.westdef.com/presentations/2013presentations/Keith_Knotts.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Sempre nel medesimo, l'F-35 prese il nome &quot;Lightning II&quot; da un aereo della Seconda Guerra Mondiale, il [[Lockheed P-38 Lightning|P-38 Lightning]].&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/130499/lightning-ii-moniker-given-to-joint-strike-fighter/https%3A%2F%2Fwww.af.mil%2FNews%2FArticle-Display%2FArticle%2F130499%2Flightning-ii-moniker-given-to-joint-strike-fighter%2F|titolo='Lightning II' moniker given to Joint Strike Fighter|sito=Air Force|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Qualche pilota USAF soprannominò l'aereo &quot;Panther&quot;.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/20914/the-f-35-has-a-new-nickname-given-to-it-by-the-usafs-most-elite-pilots|titolo=The Air Force's Elite Weapons School Has Given The F-35 A New Nickname - The Drive|data=13 agosto 2018|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=13 agosto 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20180813044728/http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/20914/the-f-35-has-a-new-nickname-given-to-it-by-the-usafs-most-elite-pilots|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il software dell'aereo venne sviluppato e diviso in 6 rilasci per l'SDD, detti Blocks (&quot;blocchi&quot;, letteralmente). I primi due Blocks, l'1A e l'1B, prepararono l'F-35 all'addestramento iniziale e fornirono sicurezza multilivello. Il Block 2A migliorò le capacità di addestramento, mentre il 2B fu il primo rilascio pronto al combattimento pianificato per la capacità operativa iniziale (IOC, [[Initial Operational Capability]]) dell'USMC. Il Block 3i pianificato per l'IOC dell'USAF mantiene le capacità del 2B, impiegando però hardware diverso. L'ultimo rilascio per l'SDD, il Block 3F, fornì un pieno inviluppo di volo e tutte le capacità di combattimento base. Accompagnati alle software release, ciascun aggiornamento include aggiornamenti per l'avionica di bordo e miglioramenti del veicolo aereo derivati dai voli effettuati e da test strutturali.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|titolo=F-35 Software Development {{!}} F-35 Lightning II|sito=web.archive.org|data=2 luglio 2020|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=2 luglio 2020|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702032933/https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; In quella che si chiama &quot;co-occorrenza&quot;, qualche aereo appartenente alla produzione iniziale a bassa velocità (LRIP, in inglese: low rate initial production) vennero consegnati con dei Block più datati per poi essere eventualmente migliorati con il Block 3F non appena venne sviluppato.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06356.pdf|titolo=DOD Plans to Enter Production before Testing Demonstrates Acceptable Performance|data=1º agosto 2020|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=1 agosto 2020|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200801012121/https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06356.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Dopo 17000 ore di voli di prova, il volo finale per la fase SDD venne completato ad Aprile del 2018.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defensenews.com/air/2018/04/12/f-35-program-office-wraps-up-final-developmental-flight-test/|titolo=F-35 program office wraps up final developmental flight test|autore=Valerie Insinna|sito=Defense News|data=16 aprile 2018|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Proprio come l'F-22, l'F-35 fu soggetto ad [[Attacco informatico|attacchi cibernetici]] e a tentativi di furto delle componenti, appaiati a potenziali vulnerabilità nell'integrità della catena di fornitura.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://news.sky.com/story/f-35-jets-chinese-owned-company-making-parts-for-top-secret-uk-us-fighters-11741889|titolo=F-35 jets: Chinese-owned company making parts for top-secret UK-US fighters|sito=Sky News|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/zakdoffman/2019/06/15/chinese-owned-company-supplies-electronics-on-u-s-and-u-k-f-35-fighter-jets/|titolo=U.S. And U.K. F-35 Jets Include 'Core' Circuit Boards From Chinese-Owned Company|autore=Zak Doffman|sito=Forbes|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defensenews.com/breaking-news/2016/03/24/chinese-businessman-pleads-guilty-of-spying-on-f-35-and-f-22/|titolo=Chinese Businessman Pleads Guilty of Spying on F-35 and F-22|autore=Wendell Minnick|sito=Defense News|data=24 marzo 2016|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Vennero individuati numerosi e gravi problemi durante le prove: i primi modelli dell'F-35B dimostrarono crepature premature,&lt;ref&gt;I primi F-35B hanno una vita di servizio di 2100 ore prima di rimodernizzazioni come visto sul Lot 9 e aerei successivi.&lt;/ref&gt; il gancio d'arresto dell'F-35C non era completamente affidabile, i serbatoi erano troppo vulnerabili ai fulmini, il display dell'elmetto presentava problemi, e via dicendo. Il software fu continuamente rinviato a causa del suo ambito mai visto prima d'allora e della sua complessità. Nel 2009, il Joint Estimate Team (JET, in italiano: Comitato Unito Preventivi) del Dipartimento della Difesa affermò che il progetto era indietro di 30 mesi rispetto alla tabella di marcia pubblicata.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita testo|url=|cognome=Cox|nome= Bob |data=1 marzo 2010|titolo= &quot;Internal Pentagon memo predicts that F-35 testing won't be complete until 2016&quot;|pubblicazione= Fort Worth Star-Telegram}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-01-06/lockheed-f-35-purchases-delayed-in-pentagon-s-fiscal-2011-plan.html|titolo=Lockheed F-35 Purchases Delayed in Pentagon’s Fiscal 2011 Plan - BusinessWeek|data=10 gennaio 2010|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=10 gennaio 2010|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20100110005120/http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-01-06/lockheed-f-35-purchases-delayed-in-pentagon-s-fiscal-2011-plan.html|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Nel 2011, il programma venne &quot;ri-definito&quot;. Ciò sta a significare che i suoi costi e i suoi scopi pianificati vennero modificati, spostando l'IOC dal 2010 al 2015.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://spectrum.ieee.org/f35-program-continues-to-struggle-with-software|titolo=F-35 Program Continues to Struggle with Software|sito=IEEE Spectrum|data=19 settembre 2012|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=https://www.dote.osd.mil/pub/reports/FY2018/pdf/dod/2018f35jsf.pdf|titolo=F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)|data=26 giugno 2019|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=26 giugno 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190626203053/https://www.dote.osd.mil/pub/reports/FY2018/pdf/dod/2018f35jsf.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; La decisione di collaudare, sistemare i difetti, e dare il via alla produzione allo stesso tempo fu criticata per essere stata una mossa inefficace. Nel 2014, il Sottosegretario della Difesa per l'Acquisizione Frank Kendall la definì &quot;negligenza d'acquisizione&quot;.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.cbsnews.com/news/f-35-joint-strike-fighter-60-minutes/|titolo=Is the F-35 worth it?|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Le tre varianti condividevano solo il 25% delle componenti, percentuale di gran lunga inferiore al 70% previsto.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.airforcemag.com/all-for-one-and-all-for-all/|titolo=All For One and All for All|sito=Air Force Magazine|data=14 marzo 2016|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il programma attirò critiche notevoli a causa dello sforamento dei costi e per il prezzo totale previsto per il mantenimento dell'aereo, e anche a causa della malagestione del controllo qualità da parte degli appaltatori.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-united-tech-fighter-engine-idUSKBN0NI1TL20150427|titolo=U.S. watchdog finds quality violations in Pratt work on F-35 engine|pubblicazione=Reuters|data=27 aprile 2015|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2017-04-04/is-the-f-35-a-trillion-dollar-mistake|titolo=Is the F-35 a Trillion-Dollar Mistake?|pubblicazione=Bloomberg.com|data=4 aprile 2017|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il programma JSF sarebbe dovuto costare circa 200 miliardi di dollari per l'acquisizione nell'anno di riferimento (2002), quando l'SDD venne assegnato nel 2001.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2001/10/27/lockheed-martin-beats-boeing-for-fighter-contract/c65b8843-131f-4827-9c69-c183066f1f57/|titolo=Schneider, Greg (27 October 2001). &quot;Lockheed Martin Beats Boeing for Fighter Contract&quot;}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|nome=James Dao With Laura M.|cognome=Holson|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/27/us/lockheed-wins-200-billion-deal-for-fighter-jet.html|titolo=Lockheed Wins $200 Billion Deal for Fighter Jet|pubblicazione=The New York Times|data=27 ottobre 2001|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Già agli inizi del 2005, il [[Government Accountability Office]] (GAO) aveva individuato dei rischi non indifferenti nel progetto e nella programmazione.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38236-2005Mar15.html|titolo=GAO Questions Cost Of Joint Strike Fighter (washingtonpost.com)|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; I costosi ritardi incrinarono i rapporti tra il Pentagono e gli appaltatori.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-lockheed-fighter-idUSBRE88H00D20120918|titolo=Pentagon tells Lockheed to shape up on F-35 fighter|pubblicazione=Reuters|data=18 settembre 2012|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Per il 2017, tra ritardi e sforamenti, il programma di acquisizione dell'F-35 aveva gonfiato i prezzi fino 406.5 miliardi di dollari, con un costo complessivo della vita di servizio dell'aereo (cioè fino al 2070) ammontanti a 1.5 trilioni di dollari (valore dollaro calibrato su quell'annata) tra operazioni e mantenimento.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.airforcemag.com/DRArchive/Pages/2014/January%202014/January%2008%202014/The-Cost-of-Teamwork.aspx|titolo=The Cost of Teamwork|sito=web.archive.org|data=25 maggio 2014|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=25 maggio 2014|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140525023853/http://www.airforcemag.com/DRArchive/Pages/2014/January%202014/January%2008%202014/The-Cost-of-Teamwork.aspx|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-07-10/f-35-program-costs-jump-to-406-billion-in-new-pentagon-estimate|titolo=F-35 Program Costs Jump to $406.5 Billion in Latest Estimate|pubblicazione=Bloomberg.com|data=10 luglio 2017|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.thenation.com/article/f35-fighter-jet-pentagon/|titolo=&quot;The Pentagon's $1.5 Trillion Addiction to the F-35 Fighter&quot;|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=6 dicembre 2019|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20191206140954/https://www.thenation.com/article/f35-fighter-jet-pentagon/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il costo LRIP di un lotto di 13 F-35A arrivava a 79.2 milioni di dollari.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.airforcemag.com/massive-34-billion-f-35-contract-includes-price-drop-as-readiness-improves/|titolo=Massive $34 Billion F-35 Contract Includes Price Drop as Readiness Improves|sito=Air Force Magazine|data=29 ottobre 2019|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Ritardi nello sviluppo, nei test operativi e nella valutazione hanno respinto la produzione a pieno regime al 2023.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=https://www.gao.gov/assets/700/692307.pdf|titolo=Development Is Nearly Complete, but Deficiencies Found in Testing Need to Be<br /> Resolved}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://breakingdefense.sites.breakingmedia.com/2022/03/full-rate-production-for-f-35-is-at-least-another-year-away/|titolo=Full rate production for F-35 is at least another year away|autore=Valerie Insinna|sito=Breaking Defense|data=8 marzo 2022|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> === Migliorie e sviluppi futuri ===<br /> La prima configurazione pronta al combattimento, la Block 2B, possedente abilità aria-aria e di attacco al suolo basilari, venne dichiarata pronta dall'USMC nel luglio del 2015.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.flightglobal.com/first-operational-f-35-squadron-declared-ready-for-combat/117812.article|titolo=First operational F-35 squadron declared ready for combat|autore=James Drew2015-07-31T19:09:51+01:00|sito=Flight Global|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; La configurazione Block 3F iniziò test operativi e valutazione (OT&amp;E, Operational Test and Evaluation) nel dicembre del 2018, e al completamento di essa si avrà la fine del SDD.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defensenews.com/2018/12/07/after-a-couple-months-delay-the-f-35-moves-into-operational-tests/|titolo=After a couple months delay, the F-35 moves into operational tests|autore=Valerie Insinna|sito=Defense News|data=7 dicembre 2018|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il programma dell'F-35 sta anche conducendo la realizzazione di un piano di mantenimento e miglioramento; i primi aerei furono gradualmente aggiornati al Block 3F nel 2021.<br /> <br /> L'F-35 verrà continuamente migliorato durante la sua vita operativa. Il primo pacchetto di aggiornamenti, chiamato Continuous Capability Development and Delivery (C2D2, in italiano: Sviluppo e Consegna Continui Funzionalità) iniziò nel 2019 e al momento la sua durata è pianificata fino al 2024. La priorità di sviluppo a breve termine del C2D2 è il Block 4, che integrerà armamenti aggiuntivi, includendo quelli esclusivi ai clienti internazionali, e intende anche aggiornare l'avionica, migliorare le capacità ESM (Electronic Support Measures, in italiano: Misure Supporto Elettronico) e aggiungere supporto per il Remotely Operated Video Enhanced Receiver (ROVER, in italiano: Ricevitore Video Avanzato Remoto).&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.defenseworld.net/?utm_source=404Redirect&amp;utm_medium=404Redirect|titolo=Defense World|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il C2D2 concentra ulteriormente l'attenzione su una [[metodologia agile]] per permettere rilasci più veloci.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviationtoday.com/2019/03/19/dod-plans-spend-6-6-b-f-35-continuing-development-2024/|titolo=U.S. Defense Department Plans to Spend $6.6B on F-35 Continuing Development Through 2024|sito=Aviation Today|data=19 marzo 2019|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Nel 2018, l'[[Air Force Life Cycle Management Center|Air Force Life Cycle Management Centre]] (AFLCMC, in italiano: Centro Gestione Vita Utile Aeronautica) concesse dei contratti alla General Electric e alla Pratt &amp; Whitney per sviluppare motori a ciclo adattivo più potenti ed efficaci per un potenziale impiego, sfruttando la ricerca fatta sotto il Programma di Transizione al Motore Adattivo (AETP, Adaptive Engine Transition Program). Nel 2022, il FAER, ovvero il programma di Sostituzione Motore Adattivo dell'F-35 (F-35 Adaptive Engine Replacement) venne avviato per integrare, per il 2028, motori a ciclo adattivo nell'aereo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.flightglobal.com/fixed-wing/usaf-starts-work-on-defining-adaptive-engine-for-future-fighter/128748.article|titolo=USAF starts work on defining adaptive engine for future fighter|autore=Stephen Trimble2018-07-10T01:14:59+01:00|sito=Flight Global|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.janes.com/defence-news/news-detail/usaf-launches-f-35-advanced-engine-effort|titolo=USAF launches F-35 advanced engine effort|sito=Janes.com|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Gli appaltatori della Difesa hanno offerto migliorie per l'F-35 anche fuori dai contratti ufficiali del progetto. Nel 2013, la Northrop Grumman divulgò lo sviluppo di una serie di [[contromisure a infrarossi]], denominata Threat Nullification Defensive Resource (ThDNR, in italiano: Risorsa Difensiva Annullamento Pericoli). Il sistema di contromisure avrebbe condiviso lo stesso spazio dei sensori DAS (Distributed Aperture System, in italiano: Sistema Distribuito Diaframmi), ed ora agisce come disturbatore di missili a laser al fine di proteggere l'aereo contro missili con ricerca a infrarossi.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=http://www.aviationweek.com/Article/PrintArticle.aspx?id=%2Farticle-xml%2Fawx_09_12_2013_p0-615904.xml&amp;p=1&amp;printView=true|titolo=Northrop Developing Laser Missile Jammer For F-35|data=20 aprile 2014|accesso=29 agosto 2022|dataarchivio=20 aprile 2014|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20140420220645/http://www.aviationweek.com/Article/PrintArticle.aspx?id=%2Farticle-xml%2Fawx_09_12_2013_p0-615904.xml&amp;p=1&amp;printView=true|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Israele vuole più accesso all'avionica per includere il loro equipaggiamento.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://breakingdefense.sites.breakingmedia.com/2021/09/israel-wants-to-put-new-equipment-inside-the-f-35-exclusive-qa-with-top-officer/|titolo=Israel Wants To Put New Equipment Inside The F-35: Exclusive Q&amp;A With Top Officer|sito=Breaking Defense|data=21 settembre 2021|lingua=en|accesso=29 agosto 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Tecnica ==<br /> === Cellula ===<br /> [[File:F-35A - Inauguration Towing.jpg|miniatura|L'F-35A viene trainato durante la sua cerimonia di inaugurazione il 7 luglio [[2006]]]]<br /> L'F-35 appare più piccolo e leggermente più tradizionale del bimotore [[F-22 Raptor]]. Il progetto del condotto di scarico si è ispirato al modello 200 della [[General Dynamics]], un aereo VTOL del 1972 progettato per le [[Sea Control Ship]]. I progettisti della [[Lockheed Corporation|Lockheed]] hanno lavorato assieme al [[Yakovlev Design Bureau]] che progettò l'aereo [[Yakovlev Yak-141|Yakovlev Yak-141 &quot;Freestyle&quot;]] negli anni novanta&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|autore=Hayles, John|url=http://www.aeroflight.co.uk/types/russia/yakovlev/yak-41/yak-41.htm|titolo=Yakovlev Yak-41 'Freestyle'|editore=''Aeroflight''|data=28 marzo 2005|accesso=3 luglio 2008}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.janes.com/defence/air_forces/news/jawa/jawa010103_1_n.shtml|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)|accesso=3 luglio 2008}}&lt;/ref&gt;. La [[Velivolo stealth|tecnologia stealth]] rende l'aereo difficile da individuare mentre si avvicina ai radar a corto raggio.<br /> <br /> Rispetto alla generazione precedente, gli obiettivi di questo progetto sono di creare un velivolo:<br /> * con tecnologia stealth a bassa manutenzione e durevole;<br /> * con sistemi avionici integrati con i sensori per combinare le informazioni e aumentare la conoscenza del pilota sulla situazione circostante, l'identificazione e lo sgancio delle armi e l'invio veloce di informazioni ad altri nodi di controllo e comando;<br /> * con una rete interna ad alta velocità, tra cui l'[[IEEE 1394]]&lt;ref name=&quot;avweek_20070205&quot;&gt;{{Cita testo|autore=Philips, E. H.|titolo=The Electric Jet|editore=Aviation Week &amp; Space Technology|data=5 febbraio 2007}}&lt;/ref&gt; e [[fibre ottiche]]&lt;ref name=&quot;avionics_20070601&quot;&gt;{{Cita web |cognome=Parker |nome=Ian |url=http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/military/11667.html |titolo=Reducing Risk on the Joint Strike Fighter |editore=Avionics Magazine |data=1º giugno 2007 |accesso=8 luglio 2007}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> === Motori ===<br /> Inizialmente erano stati sviluppati due diversi propulsori per l'F-35: il [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135]] e il [[General Electric/Rolls-Royce F136]], il secondo, nonostante le proteste di Rolls-Royce che comunque rimane responsabile per la costruzione/integrazione del gruppo trasmissione/ventola per la versione STOVL ad atterraggio verticale, è stato annullato.<br /> <br /> [[File:Engine of F-35.jpg|miniatura|Il Rolls-Royce LiftSystem in mostra al salone aeronautico di Parigi del 2007]]<br /> <br /> Il sistema di decollo verticale, della versione STOVL (Short Take Off Vertical Landing) è composto dal motore, una [[turboventola]] a basso [[rapporto di diluizione]] con [[postbruciatore]] come su un normale aereo da combattimento, fornito di un ugello di coda dotato di un particolare meccanismo di rotazione che permette di orientare il flusso dei gas di scarico verso il basso, e da una ventola anteriore verticale a due stadi controrotanti, posta subito dietro l'abitacolo; quando questa viene innestata all'albero della turbina di bassa pressione del motore, attraverso un albero e un giunto di collegamento, trasforma il propulsore in una sorta di turboventola ad alto rapporto di diluizione a flussi separati ottenendo, grazie al miglior rendimento di questo tipo di propulsore, un surplus di spinta che viene utilizzato per il sostentamento verticale della parte anteriore e centrale del velivolo. Il controllo del rollio viene effettuato deviando aria pressurizzata, spillata dal compressore a bassa pressione, verso ugelli posti sotto le ali&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/issues/issue20/hutchinson.pdf|titolo=Going vertical. Developing a STOVL system|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150720000027/http://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/issues/issue20/hutchinson.pdf }}.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il motore produce una spinta di 128,1&amp;nbsp;kN a secco e 191,3&amp;nbsp;kN (213,5&amp;nbsp;kN al decollo) con post-combustione inserita&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35a&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_ctol.pdf|titolo=Engine for F-35A Conventional Take Off and Landing (CTOL)|formato=PDF|accesso=22 febbraio 2015|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924083344/http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_ctol.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35b&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_stovl.pdf|titolo=Power for F-35B Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL)|formato=PDF|accesso=22 febbraio 2015|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924083346/http://www.pw.utc.com/Content/F135_Engine/pdf/b-2-4_me_f135_stovl.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;; quando la ventola anteriore è innestata, la spinta a secco diventa di 80&amp;nbsp;kN dall'ugello di coda, 89&amp;nbsp;kN dalla ventola anteriore verticale e 8,7&amp;nbsp;kN da ciascuno dei due ugelli per il controllo laterale, per un totale di 186,4&amp;nbsp;kN&lt;ref name=&quot;rr-liftsystem&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.rolls-royce.com/defence/products/combat_jets/liftsystem/technology/|titolo=Rolls-Royce LiftSystem Technology|accesso=22 febbraio 2015}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Rispetto alla normale turboventola ad alto rapporto di diluizione a flussi separati utilizzata sull'[[BAE Harrier II|Harrier]], questo sistema di propulsione presenta il vantaggio che, una volta disinnestata la ventola anteriore, può essere utilizzato anche a velocità supersonica. Inoltre il raffreddamento aggiuntivo dei gas di scarico operato dal maggior lavoro, sottratto loro dalla turbina a bassa pressione per il funzionamento della ventola anteriore, diminuisce la quantità di aria ad alta velocità e a elevata temperatura che viene proiettata verso il basso durante il decollo, aria calda che può danneggiare i ponti delle portaerei e le piste di decollo.<br /> <br /> === Sistemi e impianti ===<br /> ==== Abitacolo ====<br /> [[File:F-35 Wind Tunnel Model.jpg|miniatura|Un modello di F-35 per i test nella galleria del vento nell'Arnold Engineering Development Center]]<br /> L'F-35 possiede un display di tipo &quot;panoramic cockpit display (PCD)&quot; con dimensioni di 50 x 20&amp;nbsp;cm&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.airvectors.net/avf35.html|titolo=The Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)|editore=vectorsite.net}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Un sistema di riconoscimento vocale permette di aumentare le capacità del pilota di interagire con il velivolo. L'F-35 sarà il primo aereo ad ala fissa operativo a usare questo sistema, anche se soluzioni simili sono state utilizzate nell'[[McDonnell Douglas-BAe AV-8B Harrier II|AV-8B]] e sperimentati in altri aerei, come l'[[F-16 VISTA]]&lt;ref name=&quot;voice&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123071861|titolo=Researchers fine-tune F-35 pilot-aircraft speech system|editore=US Air Force|data=10 ottobre 2007|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20071020030310/http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123071861}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Un sistema di visualizzazione sull'elmetto sarà integrato in tutti i modelli dell'F-35. Anche se alcuni caccia di quarta generazione (come lo svedese [[Saab JAS 39 Gripen]]) hanno questo sistema assieme a un visore a testa alta ([[Head-Up Display|HUD]]), l'F-35 sarà il primo caccia moderno a essere progettato senza dotazione di HUD&lt;ref name=hdms&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.rockwellcollins.com/news/page8813.html|titolo=VSI's Helmet Mounted Display System flies on Joint Strike Fighter|editore=Rockwell Collins|accesso=8 giugno 2008}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il pilota può manovrare l'aereo tramite un sidestick sul lato destro e una manetta per il controllo della spinta a sinistra&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.militarypower.com.br/english-frame4-f35.htm|titolo=F-35 JSF Joint Strike Fighter|editore=militarypower.com.br}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> In tutte le varianti dell'F-35 sarà impiegato il [[Seggiolino eiettabile|sedile]] US16E, costruito dalla [[Martin-Baker]]&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.jsf.org.uk/JSF-UK-Industry-Team/Martin-Baker.aspx|titolo=Martin-Baker|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20081021165256/http://www.jsf.org.uk/JSF-UK-Industry-Team/Martin-Baker.aspx }}, Jsf.org.uk.&lt;/ref&gt;, che soddisfa i requisiti di prestazioni e impiega un sistema a doppia catapulta contenuto in binari laterali&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.martin-baker.com/getdoc/848c206d-6dc7-4afc-b8f3-ec2f09cd75a3/US16E---JSF.aspx|titolo=Martin-Baker, UK|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090306123448/http://www.martin-baker.com/getdoc/848c206d-6dc7-4afc-b8f3-ec2f09cd75a3/US16E---JSF.aspx }}, Martin-baker.com.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> ==== Sensori ====<br /> [[File:F-35 EOTS.jpeg|miniatura|Il Sistema Integrato di Puntamento Elettro-Ottico (EOTS) sotto il muso di un modello dell'aereo]]<br /> <br /> Il sensore principale è il radar [[APG-81]], progettato dalla [[Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems]]&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.es.northropgrumman.com/ASD/combat/APG-81.html|titolo=APG-81 (F-35 Lightning II)|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20070212221255/http://www.es.northropgrumman.com/ASD/combat/APG-81.html|accesso=4 agosto 2007 }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Verrà integrato dal sistema elettro-ottico di puntamento, montato sotto il muso dell'aereo e progettato dalla Lockheed Martin e dalla BAE&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/JointStrikeFighterElectroOpticalTar/|titolo=Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control: Joint Strike Fighter Electro-Optical Targeting System.|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090106235314/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/products/JointStrikeFighterElectroOpticalTar/|accesso=11 aprile 2008 }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Lungo tutto l'aereo sono distribuiti ulteriori sensori elettro-ottici, come parte del sistema AN/AAS-37 che funge da sistema di allerta per il lancio di missili e può aiutare la navigazione e le operazioni notturne.<br /> <br /> ==== Software ====<br /> il sistema software che gestirà l'aereo sarà costituito da 8,3 milioni di linee di codice e consentirà di gestire i controlli di volo, le funzionalità del radar, comunicazioni, navigazione, identificazione, gestire gli attacchi elettronici, integrare i dati dei sensori, dispiegare le armi. Il software dell'[[Lockheed Martin-Boeing F-22 Raptor|F22]] raptor, primo aereo di quinta generazione, ha &quot;solo&quot; 2 milioni di righe di codice.<br /> <br /> Lo sviluppo del software verrà effettuato tramite 6 release denominati block:<br /> <br /> * Block 1A / 1B. Il block 1 comprende il 78% delle 8,3 milioni di linee di codice sorgente richieste per la piena capacità militare. Il blocco 1A sarà la configurazione per il training di base, il blocco 1B fornirà i primi livelli di sicurezza.<br /> * Block 2A. Il block 2A comprende l'86% del codice previsto e consentirà fusione off-board, link dati, attacchi elettronici e definizione delle missioni.<br /> * Block 2B. Il block 2B comprende l'87% del codice previsto e fornirà le funzionalità iniziali di guerra.<br /> * Block 3i - il block 3i comprenderà l'89 per cento del codice previsto e fornirà le stesse capacità tattiche del blocco 2B. La principale differenza tra 2B e 3i è l'implementazione di nuovi hardware, in particolare il processore integrato di aggiornamento.<br /> * Block 3F. Il block 3F fornisce il 100 per cento del software richiesto per la completa capacità militare&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|titolo=F-35 Software Development {{!}} F-35 Lightning II|sito=F-35 Lightning II|accesso=21 aprile 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702032933/https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> === Sistemi d'arma ===<br /> [[File:F-35 weapons bay.jpeg|miniatura|Stiva delle armi di un modello dell'aereo]]<br /> L'F-35 impiega un cannone a quattro canne [[GAU-12 Equalizer|GAU-22/A]] da 25&amp;nbsp;mm&lt;ref&gt;. {{Cita web |url=http://www.gdatp.com/products/Gun_Systems/JSF/JSF.htm |titolo=Copia archiviata |accesso=13 febbraio 2009 |urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090711145138/http://www.gdatp.com/products/Gun_Systems/JSF/JSF.htm |urlmorto=sì }}, General Dynamics Armament and Technical Products.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il cannone è montato internamente con 180 colpi nella variante F-35A, mentre nelle altre varianti F-35B e C è disponibile in un pod esterno (stealth) con 220 colpi&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/f-35-specs.htm|titolo=F-35 specifications}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nelle due stive interne possono essere inserite varie combinazioni di armamenti, come due missili aria-aria e due armi aria-terra (fino a due bombe da 910&amp;nbsp;kg - {{formatnum:2000}}&amp;nbsp;lb nei modelli A e C; due bombe da 450&amp;nbsp;kg - {{formatnum:1000}}&amp;nbsp;lb nel modello B)&lt;ref name=F-35_brief&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/AFA%20Conf%20-%20JSF%20Program%20Brief%20-%2026%20Sept%2006.pdf|titolo=F-35 Program Brief|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20070809091958/http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/AFA%20Conf%20-%20JSF%20Program%20Brief%20-%2026%20Sept%2006.pdf }}, USAF, 26 September 2006.&lt;/ref&gt;. L'armamento impiegabile include missili [[AIM-120 AMRAAM]], [[AIM-132 ASRAAM]], il [[Joint Direct Attack Munition]] (JDAM) fino a {{formatnum:2000}}&amp;nbsp;lb (910&amp;nbsp;kg), il [[AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon|Joint Standoff Weapon]] (JSOW), le bombe [[GBU-39]] (un massimo di quattro in ogni stiva), i missili [[Brimstone (missile)|Brimstone]], le munizioni a grappolo (WCMD) e i missili AARGM-ER, della Orbital ATK, che sono la versione con nuovo triplo sistema di guida, raggio d'azione raddoppiato e dimensioni compatibili con la stiva interna dell'F-35A e C, del precedente [[AGM-88 HARM]]. Il missile aria-aria [[MBDA Meteor]] è in fase di adattamento per essere alloggiato negli F-35. Originariamente il Regno Unito ha pianificato di posizionare internamente quattro missili AIM-132 ASRAAM, ma i piani sono stati modificati per caricare due missili ASRAAM internamente e altri due esternamente&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.f-16.net/news_article2762.html|titolo=&quot;F-35 Lightning II News: ASRAAM Config Change For F-35&quot;}}, f-16.net, 4 March 2008.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Possono essere agganciati altri missili, bombe e serbatoi di carburante ai quattro piloni alari e nelle due posizioni sulle punte delle ali, con lo svantaggio di rendere l'aereo più rilevabile dai radar. Sull'estremità delle ali possono essere inseriti solo missili di tipi [[AIM-9 Sidewinder|AIM-9X Sidewinder]], mentre i missili AIM-120 AMRAAM, [[Storm Shadow]], [[AGM-158 JASSM]] e i serbatoi di carburante possono essere inseriti nei piloni alari. Impiegando le posizioni interne ed esterne potrebbe essere impiegata una configurazione aria-aria con oltre otto AIM-120 e due AIM-9, oppure una configurazione aria-terra con sei bombe da 2000&amp;nbsp;lb, due AIM-120 e due AIM-9&lt;ref name=&quot;JSFrange&quot;&gt;{{Cita web |cognome=Digger |nome=Davis |url=http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2007targets/Day1/Davisday1.pdf |titolo=JSF Range &amp; Airspace Requirements |editore=Headquarters Air Combat Command |formato=PDF |data=30 ottobre 2007 |accesso=3 dicembre 2008 |urlmorto=sì |urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20081219205327/http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2007targets/Day1/Davisday1.pdf }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Con la sua capacità di carico, l'F-35 può trasportare più armi aria-aria e aria-terra dei suoi predecessori&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MzM3M2U5NDBjYjE0ODI1ZjFlYjYzZjFlZWZjZjhiMmI=|titolo=National Review|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090109212717/http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MzM3M2U5NDBjYjE0ODI1ZjFlYjYzZjFlZWZjZjhiMmI= }}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il velivolo potrà inoltre essere equipaggiato con bombe nucleari [[B61]].<br /> <br /> == Partecipazione internazionale al progetto ==<br /> Oltre agli [[Stati Uniti d'America|Stati Uniti]], il principale cliente e finanziatore, hanno contribuito anche [[Regno Unito]], [[Italia]], [[Paesi Bassi]], [[Canada]], [[Turchia]], [[Australia]], [[Norvegia]] e [[Danimarca]] con un totale di 4&amp;nbsp;375 milioni di [[dollaro statunitense|dollari]] nella fase di sviluppo. I costi totali sono stimati in più di 40 miliardi di dollari, coperti in gran parte dagli Stati Uniti, mentre l'acquisto dei 2&amp;nbsp;400 esemplari previsti è stimato in ulteriori 200 miliardi di dollari&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38236-2005Mar15.html|titolo=GAO Questions Cost Of Joint Strike Fighter|autore=Renae Merle|editore=Washington Post|data=15 marzo 2005|accesso=15 luglio 2007}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Le nove nazioni partner principali prevedono di acquistare più di 3&amp;nbsp;100 esemplari entro il [[2035]]&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/ANNEX%20A%20Revision_April%202007.pdf|formato=PDF|titolo=Estimated JSF Air Vehicle Procurement Quantities|editore=JSF.mil|data=aprile 2007|accesso=accesso=7 ottobre 2008|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090327082340/http://www.jsf.mil/downloads/documents/ANNEX%20A%20Revision_April%202007.pdf}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Ci sono tre livelli di partecipazione internazionale che riflettono l'impegno finanziario comune nel programma, la quantità di tecnologia trasferita e l'ordine con il quale le nazioni possono ottenere esemplari di produzione.&lt;br /&gt; Il Regno Unito è l'unico partner di &quot;livello 1&quot;, con un contributo di 2,5 miliardi di dollari, pari al 10% dei costi di sviluppo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.teamjsf.com/jsf/data.nsf/75public/07CF737749FA9E5585256F3900720288?OpenDocument|titolo=JSF Global Partners|accesso=20 marzo 2007|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20071004212446/https://www.teamjsf.com/jsf/data.nsf/75public/07CF737749FA9E5585256F3900720288?OpenDocument}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;UKJAST&quot;&gt;&quot;US, UK sign JAST agreement.&quot; ''Aerospace Daily'' New York: McGraw-Hill, 25-11-1995, p. 451.&lt;/ref&gt; I partner di &quot;livello 2&quot; sono l'Italia, che contribuisce con $1 miliardo, e i Paesi Bassi con un contributo di $800 milioni. I partner di &quot;livello 3&quot; sono Canada ($440 milioni), Turchia ($175 milioni), Australia ($144 milioni), Norvegia ($122 milioni) e Danimarca ($110 milioni). [[Israele]] e [[Singapore]] partecipano al programma in qualità di &quot;''Security Cooperative Partecipants''&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04554.pdf|formato=PDF|autore=Katherine V. Schnasi|editore=US Accounts Office|titolo=Joint Strike Fighter Acquisition: Observations on the Supplier Base|accesso=8 febbraio 2006|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200816190247/https://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04554.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Alcuni dei partner internazionali hanno esitato negli impegni del programma JSF, alludendo o minacciando l'abbandono del JSF a favore di altri velivoli come l'[[Eurofighter Typhoon]], il [[Saab JAS 39 Gripen]] o il [[Dassault Rafale]]. La [[Norvegia]] ha lanciato vari avvertimenti su una possibile interruzione del sostegno finanziario in mancanza di sostanziali garanzie su un incremento nella quota industriale&lt;ref&gt;''Defense Industry Daily''. {{cita testo|url=https://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2007/02/f35-lightning-ii-faces-continued-dogfights-in-norway/index.php|titolo=F-35 Lightning II Faces Continued Dogfights in Norway|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20070401012043/http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2007/02/f35-lightning-ii-faces-continued-dogfights-in-norway/index.php }}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Le uniche forze aeree interessate alla versione ''B'' sono lo [[United States Marine Corps]] degli [[Stati Uniti]], l'[[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare]] e l'[[Aviazione Navale]] della [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare Italiana]], la [[Royal Air Force]] e la [[Fleet Air Arm]] della [[Gran Bretagna]]. &lt;br /&gt;Nel 2010 La [[Gran Bretagna]], nell'ambito della revisione dei programmi della difesa attuata dall'allora neo-insediato governo [[David Cameron|Cameron]] aveva annunciato l'intenzione di abbandonare completamente la versione ''B'', scegliendo in sua vece la versione ''C'', e di voler modificare di conseguenza le portaerei in costruzione della [[Classe Queen Elizabeth (portaerei)|Classe Queen Elizabeth]] da [[STOVL]] a [[CATOBAR]]&lt;ref name=&quot;RAF&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.dedalonews.it/it/index.php/10/2010/londra-dice-addio-agli-stovl-si-disfa-degli-harrier-e-per-lf-35-sceglie-la-versione-c/|titolo=Dedalonews » Londra dice addio agli STOVL si disfa degli Harrier e per l’F-35 sceglie la versione C|accesso=9 gennaio 2011|editore=dedalonews.it|data=25 ottobre 2010|urlmorto=sì|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110112121612/http://www.dedalonews.it/it/index.php/10/2010/londra-dice-addio-agli-stovl-si-disfa-degli-harrier-e-per-lf-35-sceglie-la-versione-c/}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Tuttavia nel maggio del 2012 una nuova analisi dei costi e dei tempi per realizzare le pesanti modifiche sulle predette portaerei, oltre ai mancati ritorni per l'industria motoristica nazionale, ha indotto lo stesso governo Cameron a ritornare sui suoi passi e a riconfermare l'acquisizione della versione ''B''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/uk-reverses-controversial-f-35-switch-371661/|titolo=UK reverses controversial F-35 switch&lt;!-- Titolo generato automaticamente --&gt;}}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> La Marina Italiana, poiché la portaerei [[Cavour (550)|Cavour]] ha un ponte di volo troppo corto per ospitare caccia a decollo convenzionale e non essendovi al mondo alcun altro [[STOVL]] in via di sviluppo, sostituirà gli attuali [[AV-8B Harrier II]] della [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare]] con l'F-35B.<br /> <br /> Tra il 3 e il 5 febbraio 2016 un F-35A Lightning II dell'[[Aeronautica militare italiana|AMI]] ha effettuato il primo volo transatlantico di un F-35, volando dall'[[aeroporto di Cameri]] fino alla base aerea della [[United States Navy|Marina militare statunitense]] di Patuxent River, nel [[Maryland]], con una sosta a [[Lajes das Flores]], nelle [[Azzorre]] e con rifornimento in volo da parte di un [[Boeing KC-767]]. Il velivolo utilizzato per il volo, denominato AL-1, è il primo completamente costruito in Italia nella Final Assembly &amp; Check-Out (F.A.C.O.) di Cameri&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.difesa.it/Primo_Piano/Pagine/20160208F_35_primo_volo_transoceanico.aspx|titolo=Italiano il primo F-35 che completa volo oltreoceano|accesso=2 aprile 2016}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Con l'acquisto dei sistemi missilistici russi [[S-400]] la Turchia è stata posta dagli Stati Uniti fuori dal programma F-35; i due esemplari forniti verranno riutilizzati in altro modo, il personale turco rimpatriato, le aziende turche che avevano ottenuto la certificazione di abilitazione alla fornitura di materiali rimpiazzate aumentando la quota di componentistica prodotta da altre aziende&lt;ref name=&quot;analisidifesa.it&quot;&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2019/07/la-turchia-e-ufficialmente-fuori-dal-programma-f-35/|titolo=La Turchia è ufficialmente fuori dal Programma F-35|accesso=27 luglio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;; rimane il trasferimento di tecnologia e di conoscenza che i turchi hanno dichiarato di voler mettere a frutto con un proprio programma nazionale. Successivamente, il Pentagono ha assegnato a Lockheed Martin un contratto &quot;di rimodulazione&quot; di 861,7 milioni di dollari per riacquistare otto F-35A Lot 14, inizialmente destinati alla Turchia, e per finanziare altri sei aerei dello stesso lotto da destinare all'USAF.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Stati Uniti. L'USAF incorpora gli F-35 turchi&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 408 - 10/[[2020]] pag. 80&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Impiego operativo ==<br /> Nel febbraio 2013 il [[Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti|Pentagono]] decideva di sospendere tutti i voli dell'aereo dopo che sulla turbina di uno degli F-35 era stata rilevata una frattura&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=Redazione online|url=http://www.corriere.it/esteri/13_febbraio_22/f35-stop-voli_60050664-7d2e-11e2-a4ef-4daf51aa103c.shtml|titolo=Il Pentagono sospende i voli del F-35Problemi alla turbina, supercaccia a terra|pubblicazione=Corriere della Sera|giorno=22|mese=febbraio|anno=2013|accesso=23 febbraio 2013}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Il 1º marzo 2013 la USAF confermava che tutti i voli sarebbero ripresi, essendo stato appurato in sede d'indagine tecnica che la suddetta rottura era dovuta all'eccesso di esposizione a parametri estremi a cui era stata sottoposta la turbina, che quindi non necessitava una riprogettazione&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/f-35s-cleared-to-resume-flight-operations-382909/|titolo=F-35s cleared to resume flight operations}}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel luglio 2014 il [[Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti d'America|Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti]] ha bloccato tutti i voli degli F35&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=Redazione Online|url=http://www.corriere.it/esteri/14_luglio_04/usa-flotta-f35-terra-non-sono-sicuri-2470812c-0339-11e4-a610-3e4fd1a573b7.shtml|titolo=Usa, la flotta degli F35 a terra: «Non sono sicuri»|pubblicazione=Corriere della Sera|giorno=4|mese=luglio|anno=2014|accesso=4 luglio 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=|url=http://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2014/07/04/news/a_terra_tutti_gli_f35_per_il_pentagono_sono_a_rishio-90645630/|titolo=A terra tutti gli F35: per il Pentagono sono a rischio dopo incidente|pubblicazione=La Repubblica|giorno=4|mese=luglio|anno=2014|accesso=4 luglio 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt; in seguito a un principio d'incendio durante il decollo dalla base di Eglin, in Florida&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|autore=|url=http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2014/06/28/news/f35_nuovi_problemi_pinotti_negli_usa-90193860/|titolo=F-35, caccia a terra negli Usa dopo principio di incendio|pubblicazione=La Repubblica|giorno=28|mese=giugno|anno=2014|accesso=4 luglio 2014}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Il blocco è stato revocato meno di una settimana dopo&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/02/22/esteri/il-pentagono-blocca-i-voli-degli-f-problemi-alla-turbina-del-reattore-QzQ5iOUR99psW5IZjOSZ1K/pagina.html|titolo=''Il Pentagono blocca i voli degli F-35 “Problemi alla turbina del reattore”''}}. La stampa. Esteri. 22 febbraio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel giugno del 2015 l'F-35A partecipava alla &quot;Green Flag&quot;: manovre durante le quali gli aerei testavano la loro capacità di attacco ad aree densamente difese da caccia intercettori e missili terra-aria. Durante la simulazione l'F-35 risultava essere l'unico aereo a non subire abbattimenti&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://theaviationist.com/2015/07/01/f-35s-role-in-green-flag/|titolo=F-35s played the US Army’s primary CAS providers during Green Flag. And were not shot down in the process}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|cognome=|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,732_pubb,2_npp,1_npag,7.html|titolo=RID Portale Difesa|accesso=12 febbraio 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel giugno 2016 effettuava una simulazione di combattimento con gli [[McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle|F-15]] riportando uno score di 0 a 8, nessun F-35 abbattuto contro 8 F-15 abbattuti&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2016/06/27/f-15e-strike-eagles-unable-to-shoot-down-the-f-35s-in-8-dogfights-during-simulated-deployment/|titolo=F-15E Strike Eagles unable to shoot down the F-35s in 8 dogfights during simulated deployment|sito=The Aviationist|data=27 giugno 2016|accesso=22 marzo 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 2 agosto 2016 il gen. [[Herbert J. Carlisle|Hawk Carlisle]] dichiarava l'F-35A Lightning II 'combat ready', la IOC &quot;Initial Operational Capability&quot; e cioè che &quot;aveva raggiunto la capacità operativa iniziale&quot; la FOC &quot;Full Operational Capability&quot; verrà raggiunta dopo i test sul block 3F del software&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.corriere.it/notizie-ultima-ora/Economia/F35-Air-Force-dichiara-nuovo-jet-pronto-combattimento/03-08-2016/1-A_030375290.shtml|titolo=ultimaora - flash news 24 Corriere della Sera|accesso=3 agosto 2016}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel gennaio del 2017 l'F-35A partecipava alla &quot;[[Red Flag (esercitazione)|Red Flag]]&quot;: scontri simulati tra caccia degli USA e quelli dei suoi alleati. Durante i test l'F-35 otteneva il miglior risultato tra gli aerei presenti con un rapporto di 1 a 20 (un aereo perso ogni 20 abbattuti) definito dal Corpo dei Marines e dall'USAF &quot;senza precedenti&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://theaviationist.com/2017/02/05/f-35s-kill-ratio-with-aggressors-stands-at-151-during-red-flag-17-1-most-probably-thanks-to-the-supporting-f-22/|titolo=F-35’s kill ratio with Aggressors stands at 15:1 during Red Flag 17-1 (most probably thanks to the supporting F-22…)}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=http://www.popularmechanics.com/military/aviation/a25078/f-35-red-flag-war-games/|titolo=F-35 Dominates the Air at This Year's Red Flag War Games|pubblicazione=Popular Mechanics|data=7 febbraio 2017|accesso=12 febbraio 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|cognome=Dragon029|data=18 febbraio 2017|titolo=Final F-35 Kill Ratios at Red Flag 17-1 (and USMC Exercises)|accesso=19 febbraio 2017|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgLjNsB_hyM}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.janes.com/article/68301/avalon-2017-f-35-transforming-us-marine-corps-aviation-capabilities|titolo=Avalon 2017: F-35 transforming US Marine Corps' aviation capabilities {{!}} IHS Jane's 360|accesso=28 febbraio 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170301180432/http://www.janes.com/article/68301/avalon-2017-f-35-transforming-us-marine-corps-aviation-capabilities|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Il risultato è stato ottenuto sebbene l'aereo avesse il software in versione &quot;Block 3i&quot; che contiene l'89% del codice previsto per la piena operatività militare che sarà raggiunta con il &quot;Block 3F&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|titolo=F-35 Software Development {{!}} F-35 Lightning II|sito=F-35 Lightning II|accesso=13 febbraio 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20200702032933/https://www.f35.com/about/life-cycle/software|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Fonti giornalistiche, basate su informazioni provenienti dai [[servizi segreti francesi]], riportavano che il primo impiego militare dell'F-35 sarebbe avvenuto nella notte tra il 12 e il 13 gennaio 2017 in un'incursione aerea dell'[[Aeronautica militare israeliana|aviazione militare israeliana]] sul [[guerra civile in Siria|teatro di guerra in Siria]], usando i primi due F-35 consegnati&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|autore=Andrea Mottola|data=5 maggio 2019|titolo=La guerra d'attrito israeliana in Siria|rivista=[[Rivista italiana difesa]]|editore=Giornalistica riviera|città=[[Chiavari]]|numero=5|p=37|lingua=ita|citazione=Il conflitto in Siria ha fatto da cornice al primo impiego operativo degli F-35A-I ADIR. Dopo appena 2 mesi dalla loro consegna, gli aerei del 140º Squadrone sono stati più volte utilizzati in missioni di coordinamento/gestione del campo di battaglia e pattugliamento EW/ELIN accanto ad altri velivoli dedicati (B-200, G-550 SEMA)}}&lt;/ref&gt; appena un mese prima, per colpire obiettivi nell'aeroporto militare di [[Mezzeh]], presso [[Damasco]]: durante l'operazione, che non avrebbe causato alcuna vittima, sarebbero stati distrutti una rampa di missili SAM [[S-300]] e un deposito di missili, al fine di scongiurare il rischio della consegna di questi sistemi d'arma a gruppi [[Hezbollah]] attivi in [[Libano]]&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/|titolo=Have Israel’s new F-35s seen combat? {{!}} Air Forces Monthly|accesso=8 marzo 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170307210142/http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;LRoB&quot;/&gt;. Le stesse fonti di intelligence riferivano di un'azione dimostrativa di uno dei due aeromobili durante il rientro alla base dopo il raid, un passaggio di avvertimento ravvicinato sul [[Palazzo presidenziale (Damasco)|palazzo presidenziale]] di [[Bashar al-Assad]] a [[Damasco]]&lt;ref name=&quot;LRoB&quot;&gt;{{cita news | url = https://www.lrb.co.uk/v39/n07/daniel-soar/the-most-expensive-weapon-ever-built | titolo = The Most Expensive Weapon Ever Built | nome = Daniel | cognome = Soar | rivista = [[London Review of Books]] | lingua = en | volume = 39 | numero = 7 | giorno = 30 | mese = marzo | anno = 2017 |pp=3-5 | accesso = 23 aprile 2017 }}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel luglio del 2017 l'aereo raggiungeva le {{formatnum:100000}} ore di volo senza la perdita di nessun velivolo per incidente, collocandosi tra gli aerei militari più sicuri&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=http://www.popularmechanics.com/military/aviation/a27470/f-35-passes-100000-hour-mark-with-no-crashes/|titolo=F-35 Passes 100,000 Hour Mark with No Crashes|pubblicazione=Popular Mechanics|data=25 luglio 2017|accesso=3 agosto 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/almost-ready-war-f-35-joint-strike-fighter-has-flown-100000-21649|titolo=Almost Ready for War: F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Has Flown 100,000 Hours|autore=Dave Majumdar|sito=The National Interest|lingua=en|accesso=3 agosto 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il primo marzo 2018 l'aeronautica militare italiana attribuisce la capacità operatività iniziale agli F-35 in dotazione al 32º Stormo di Amendola che così entrano a far parte del dispositivo di Difesa Aerea Nazionale in quanto inseriti nel Servizio di Sorveglianza dello Spazio Aereo (S.S.S.A.)&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/gli-f-35-italiani-implementano-sistema-difesa-aerea-nazionale/|titolo=Gli F-35 italiani implementano il sistema di difesa aerea nazionale - Aviation Report|pubblicazione=Aviation Report|data=6 marzo 2018|accesso=8 marzo 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel maggio del 2018 l'[[Zro'a Ha-Yabasha|esercito israeliano]] (IDF) ha dichiarato che gli F-35 sono operativi e sono stati utilizzati in due missioni di bombardamento su due differenti fronti. Israele diventa così la prima nazione ad avere usato gli F-35 in uno scenario di guerra.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.analisidifesa.it/2018/05/battesimo-del-fuoco-in-siria-per-gli-f-35-israeliani/|titolo=Battesimo del fuoco in Siria per gli F-35 israeliani – Analisi Difesa|accesso=22 maggio 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 27 settembre 2018 in Afganistan un F-35B dell'US Marine Corps ha effettuato un attacco su posizioni dei talebani, si tratta della prima operazione militare condotta da questa variante dell'aereo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|nome=Ryan Browne and Barbara Starr,|cognome=CNN|url=https://edition.cnn.com/2018/09/27/politics/airstrike-afghanistan-first-f-35b/index.html|titolo=US F-35 fighter jet conducts first-ever airstrike|pubblicazione=CNN|accesso=29 settembre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 28 settembre 2018 nel sud della California un F-35B di un reparto di addestramento dell'US Marine Corps è precipitato al suolo distruggendosi, diventando il primo F-35 perso per incidente; il pilota eiettatosi è sopravvissuto.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|url=https://www.islandpacket.com/news/local/community/beaufort-news/article219182290.html|titolo=Marine pilot in stable condition after fighter jet crashes near Beaufort air station|pubblicazione=islandpacket|accesso=29 settembre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 20 gennaio 2019 Israele ha effettuato con gli F-35I un attacco in Siria, distruggendo un radar JY-27 di fabbricazione cinese. La particolarità dell'azione militare sta nel fatto che il radar JY-27 è stato progettato specificamente per individuare gli aerei stealth come l'F-35. Secondo alcune testate giornalistiche specialistiche il radar, pur riuscendo ad individuare l'aereo, non sarebbe stato in grado di tracciarlo in modo tale che i missili terra-aria potessero colpirlo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/mondo-militare/neanche-i-radar-cinesi-fermano-gli-f-35|titolo=Neanche i radar cinesi fermano gli F-35|sito=Difesa Online|data=25 febbraio 2019|accesso=26 febbraio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita pubblicazione|cognome=J Francowa|data=23 febbraio 2019|titolo=Israeli F 35 &amp; Chinese made radar JY 27|accesso=26 febbraio 2019|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v6bCI9WZwXU}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.avionews.com/item/1219169-siria-l-f-35-evidenzia-i-limiti-dei-radar-cinesi.html|titolo=Siria. L'F-35 evidenzia i limiti dei radar cinesi?|sito=AVIONEWS - World Aeronautical Press Agency|accesso=26 febbraio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 9 aprile 2019 un F-35A dell'Aeronautica giapponese, decollato dalla base di Misawa, è precipitato nell'Oceano Pacifico durante un'esercitazione al combattimento aereo mentre era in volo a circa 85 miglia a nord-est dell'isola di Honshu. La perdita del velivolo ha dato il via a un'imponente operazione di recupero del relitto. La perdita dell'aereo è stata attribuita ad un errore del pilota per disorientamento.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://thediplomat.com/2019/06/japan-air-self-defense-force-pilot-error-likely-cause-of-f-35a-crash/|titolo=Japan Air Self-Defense Force: Pilot Error Likely Cause of F-35A Crash|autore=Franz-Stefan Gady, The Diplomat|sito=The Diplomat|lingua=en|accesso=27 giugno 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|lingua=en|nome=Reiji|cognome=Yoshida|url=https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/06/07/national/remains-japan-asdf-pilot-found-two-months-f-35a-fighter-crash-off-aomori/|titolo=Remains of Japan ASDF pilot found, two months after F-35A fighter crash off Aomori|pubblicazione=The Japan Times Online|data=7 giugno 2019|accesso=27 giugno 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Nel mese di luglio 2019 l’ayatollah Ali Khamenei, guida suprema della Repubblica islamica, avrebbe rimosso dall'incarico Farzad Ismail, il numero uno dell’Aeronautica militare, per l'incapacità delle forze da lui condotte di intercettare ripetuti voli di F-35 Adir israeliani sull’Iran, in particolare su Teheran, Karajrak, Isfahan, Shiraz e Bandar Abbas.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.notiziegeopolitiche.net/iran-f-35-israeliani-sorvolano-e-fotografano-indisturbati-obiettivi-militari/|titolo=Iran. F-35 israeliani sorvolano e fotografano indisturbati obiettivi militari {{!}} Notizie Geopolitiche|autore=Ng|accesso=27 luglio 2019}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> In Europa, tre aeronautiche militari hanno dichiarato a tutto febbraio 2020 la Initial Operation Capability del velivolo: [[Royal Air Force|RAF]], [[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare]] e [[Royal Norwegian Air Force]]&lt;ref name = theaviationist2020&gt;{{cita web | url=https://theaviationist.com/2020/02/21/norwegian-f-35s-have-deployed-to-iceland-for-nato-air-policing-mission/ |titolo= Norwegian F-35s Have Deployed To Iceland for NATO Air Policing Mission | accesso = 28 febbraio 2020}}&lt;/ref&gt;; a fine febbraio la RNoAF ha ridispiegato quattro velivoli in Islanda nell'ambito della NATO [[Icelandic Air Policing]]&lt;ref name = theaviationist2020/&gt;; gli F-35 norvegesi sono gli unici ad avere un paracadute frenante, per abbreviare i tempi di rallentamento durante gli atterraggi su piste ghiacciate e ventose, ma vi sono stati vari problemi nell'uso di questa capacità&lt;ref name = theaviationist2020/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;https://www.defensenews.com/air/2019/06/12/the-pentagon-is-battling-the-clock-to-fix-serious-unreported-f-35-problems/ The Pentagon is battling the clock to fix serious, unreported F-35 problems - June 12, 2019&lt;/ref&gt;. Sempre nell'ambito Nato Iceland Air Policing nel giugno 2020 sei velivoli F-35 dell'Aeronautica Militare Italiana sono stati dispiegati in Islanda. Altri F-35 italiani sono stati dispiegati in Estonia nel maggio 2021. Gli F35A del 32º Stormo dell'Aeronautica Militare sono stati impiegati per la prima volta nell'Operazione ''Northern Lightning I'' in Islanda nel 2019.<br /> <br /> Nella seconda metà di novembre 2021 un F-35B della Royal Navy, decollato dalla portaerei [[HMS Queen Elizabeth (R08)|Queen Elizabeth]], durante esercitazioni con la USNAVY e Marina/Aeronautica italiana nel Mediterraneo centro orientale, è precipitato in mare&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.startmag.it/innovazione/f-35-precipita-nel-mediterraneo-cosa-e-successo/|titolo=F-35 precipita nel Mediterraneo, ecco cosa è successo|accesso=24 novembre 2021}}&lt;/ref&gt; in fase di decollo, il pilota si è eiettato ed è sopravvissuto. Il veicolo è stato recuperato dalla Royal Navy nei giorni successivi. Secondo indiscrezioni della stampa specializzata e in attesa di conferme ufficiali, l'incidente sarebbe dovuto ad errore umano per la mancata rimozione, prima del decollo, del telo antipioggia che copriva il motore.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/recuperato-relitto-velivolo-stealth-f35b-inglese-precipato-in-mare-durante-decollo-da-portaerei-hms-queen-elizabeth/|titolo=Recuperato il relitto del velivolo stealth F-35B inglese precipato in mare durante il decollo dalla portaerei HMS Queen Elizabeth|autore=Redazione di Aviation Report News Militari 2 min read|sito=Aviation Report|data=7 dicembre 2021|lingua=it|accesso=6 gennaio 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/pubblicato-su-twitter-video-incidente-velivolo-da-combattimento-f35b-britannico/|titolo=Pubblicato su Twitter il video dell'incidente del velivolo da combattimento F-35B britannico|sito=Aviation Report|data=30 novembre 2021|lingua=it|accesso=6 gennaio 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Versioni ==<br /> * '''F-35A''': versione di base ad atterraggio e decollo convenzionale destinata all'USAF, per la sostituzione della flotta di [[General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon|F-16]] e [[Fairchild-Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II|A-10 Thunderbolt II]], ed altri acquirenti tra cui l'[[Aeronautica Militare italiana]]. Questa è la versione leggera ed è l'unica a montare un cannone interno GAU-22/A da 25&amp;nbsp;mm che sostituirà l'[[M61 Vulcan]] da 20&amp;nbsp;mm finora montato su i caccia dell'[[United States Air Force|USAF]].<br /> [[File:F-35B Joint Strike Fighter (thrust vectoring nozzle and lift fan).PNG|miniatura|L'immagine raffigura il funzionamento degli ugelli nella versione &quot;B&quot;, cioè in caso di atterraggio verticale]]<br /> * '''F-35B''': versione a decollo corto e atterraggio verticale ([[STOVL]]). Questa versione è destinata in particolar modo al [[United States Marine Corps|Corpo dei Marines]], alla [[Royal Navy]], alla [[Royal Air Force|RAF]], alla [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare Italiana]] e all'[[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare italiana]]. Il BF-6, primo modello di produzione per il corpo dei Marines, ha effettuato il volo inaugurale il 25 ottobre 2011. Il 31 luglio 2015 è stata dichiarata la IOC (Capacità Operativa Iniziale) per il corpo dei Marines. L'F-35B è quindi la prima versione a entrare in servizio attivo.<br /> Differisce dalla versione base per:<br /> <br /> ::* 1x [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135|Pratt &amp; Whitney F135-PW-600]] da 128,1kN a secco e 191,3kN (con [[postbruciatore]])&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35a&quot; /&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;pwf35b&quot; /&gt;, ed ugello di scarico orientabile verso il basso;<br /> ::* 1x [[Rolls-Royce LiftSystem|Lift Fan]] da 89kN della [[Rolls-Royce plc|Rolls-Royce]], con flabelli mobili inferiori che permettono di orientare la spinta di 15º-30º in avanti o all'indietro rispetto alla verticale, installato dietro l'abitacolo&lt;ref name=&quot;rr-liftsystem&quot; /&gt;:<br /> ::* 2x ugelli per la stabilizzazione laterale posti nelle ali;<br /> ::* riduzione della capacità interna di carburante a {{TA|6 045 kg;}}<br /> ::* riduzione del volume utile della stiva armi interna;<br /> ::* assenza del cannone interno (previsto in un pod sotto la fusoliera);<br /> ::* sonda retrattile per il [[rifornimento in volo]];<br /> ::* tettuccio accorciato per la presenza del Lift Fan.<br /> ::* struttura riprogettata/alleggerita nella parte posteriore dell'abitacolo al fine di posizionare la ventola aggiuntiva;<br /> <br /> * '''F-35C''': versione imbarcata del Lightning, operante da portaerei tutto-ponte dotate di catapulta. Dovrebbe sostituire nella US Navy le prime versioni degli [[McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet|F-18 Hornet]]. Differisce dalla versione base per:<br /> ** 1x [[Pratt &amp; Whitney F135|Pratt &amp; Whitney F135-PW-400]];<br /> ** capacità interna del carburante di {{TA|8 901 kg;}}<br /> ** assenza del cannone interno (previsto in un pod sotto la fusoliera);<br /> ** sonda retrattile per il [[rifornimento in volo]];<br /> ** carrello a doppio ruotino anteriore con annessa barra di aggancio alla catapulta;<br /> ** incremento delle dimensioni alari (apertura: 13,11&amp;nbsp;m; superficie: 57,6&amp;nbsp;m²);<br /> ** lunghezza: di 14,48&amp;nbsp;m;<br /> ** incremento della superficie dei piani di coda;<br /> ** estremità alari ripiegabili per facilitare lo stivaggio.<br /> <br /> == Utilizzatori ==<br /> [[File:F-35_Operators_Updated_2021.svg|alt=|thumb|upright=1.4|{{legend|#00aa00|Opera varianti F-35A, F-35B e F-35C (Stati Uniti d'America)}} <br /> {{Legend|#0088aa|Opera varianti F-35A e F-35B (Italia, Giappone e Sud Corea)}}<br /> {{Legend|#0044AA|Opera solo variante F-35A (Australia, Belgio, Danimarca, Finlandia, Paesi Bassi, Norvegia e Polonia)}}<br /> {{Legend|#55DDFF|Opera solo variante F-35B (Regno Unito)}}<br /> {{Legend|#CC00FF|Opera solo variante F-35i (Israele)}}<br /> {{Legend|#FF6600|In attesa di consegna (Finlandia, Singapore &amp; Svizzera)}}<br /> ]] <br /> * [[United States Air Force]]&lt;br /&gt;previsti 1 763 F-35A.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceG&quot;&gt;&quot;Il Pentagono pianifica la produzione su larga scala (FRP, Full Rate Production) dell'F-35 Lightning II&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 380 - 06/[[2018]] pag. 21&lt;/ref&gt; Al settembre 2019 186 esemplari in organico.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;US Air Force: uno sguardo ai numeri&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 395 - 09/[[2019]] pp. 42-47&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** '''[[Air Combat Command]]'''<br /> *** '''[[388th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''HL''', [[Hill Air Force Base]], [[Utah]] - Equipaggiato con 75 F-35A<br /> **** ''4th Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''34th Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''421st Fighter Squadron''<br /> *** '''[[53rd Wing]]''', codice '''OT''', [[Eglin Air Force]], [[Florida]] - Equipaggiato con 14 F-35A<br /> **** ''31st Test and Evaluation Squadron''<br /> **** ''422d Test and Evaluation Squadron''<br /> *** '''[[57th Wing]]''', codice '''WA''', [[Nellis Air Force Base]], [[Nevada]] - Equipaggiato con 16 F-35A<br /> **** ''6th Weapons Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[United States Air Forces in Europe-Air Forces Africa]]'''<br /> *** '''[[48th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''LN''', [[RAF Lakenheath]], [[Regno Unito]] - Equipaggiato con 27 F-35A<br /> **** ''495th Fighter Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[Air National Guard]]'''<br /> *** '''[[158th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''VT''', Vermont Air National Guard, Burlington ANGB - Equipaggiato con 20 F-35A<br /> **** ''134th Fighter Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[Air Education and Training Command]]'''<br /> *** '''[[33rd Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''EG''', [[Eglin Air Force]], [[Florida]] - Equipaggiato con 25 F-35A<br /> **** ''58th Fighter Squadron''<br /> *** '''[[56th Fighter Wing]]''', codice '''LF''', [[Luke Air Force Base]], [[Arizona]] - Equipaggiato con 49 F-35A<br /> **** ''61st Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''62nd Fighter Squadron''<br /> **** ''63st Fighter Squadron''<br /> ** '''[[Air Force Materiel Command]]'''<br /> *** '''[[412th Test Wing]]''', codice '''ED''', [[Edwards Air Force Base]], [[California]] - Equipaggiato con 9 F-35 A/B/C<br /> **** ''412th Flight Test Squadron''<br /> * [[United States Navy]]<br /> *: 273 F-35C.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceG&quot;/&gt;<br /> ** COMOPTEVFOR, [[Edwards Air Force Base]], [[California]] (parte del Joint Operational Test Team) - su F-35C<br /> *** Distaccamento del VX-9 &quot;''Vampires''&quot; <br /> ** NAWDC [[Patuxtent River Naval Air Station]], [[Maryland]], con un distaccamento a [[Fallon Air Force Base]], [[Nevada]] - su F-35B e F-35C<br /> *** VX-23 <br /> ** COMSTRKFIGHTWINGPAC, [[Leemore Naval Air Station]], [[California]] - su F-35C<br /> *** {{simbolo|VFA125 NJ.png|200px}} VFA-125 (FRS) &quot;''Rough Riders''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|VFA97 NE.png|200px}} VFA-97 &quot;''Warhawks''&quot;<br /> *** {{simbolo|VFA147 NE.png|200px}} VFA-147 &quot;''Argonauts''&quot;<br /> * [[United States Marine Corps Aviation]]<br /> *: 353 F-35B e 67 F-35C ordinati.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceG&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35C AI MARINES&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;L'aviazione dei Marines&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 379 - 05/[[2018]] pp. 50-55&lt;/ref&gt; &gt; Due F-35B sono stati persi, uno il 27 settembre 2018, l'altro un anno prima, si è incendiato, ma non ancora considerato fuori inventario in quanto si è provato a recuperarlo, operazione, poi, non eseguita.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://defence-blog.com/news/marine-corps-f-35-fighter-jet-crashed-in-south-carolina.html/|titolo=&quot;MARINE CORPS F-35 FIGHTER JET CRASHED IN SOUTH CAROLINA&quot;}}, su defence-blog.com, 28 settembre 2018, URL consultato il 3 ottobre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.marinecorpstimes.com/news/your-marine-corps/2018/06/21/the-corps-has-lost-its-first-f-35/|titolo=&quot;THE MARINE CORPST HAS LOST ITS FIRST F-35&quot;}}, su marinecorpstimes.com, 21 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 3 ottobre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; Il primo F-35C risulta consegnato al giugno 2019.&lt;ref name=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35C AI MARINES&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,3086.html/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35C AI MARINES&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 10 giugno 2019, URL consultato il 10 giugno 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** MAG-11, [[Miramar Marine Corps Air Station]], [[California]] - su F-35C<br /> *** {{simbolo|VMFA314 NG.png|200px}} VMFA-314&quot;''Blue Knights''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-12, [[Iwakumi Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Giappone]] - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA121 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-121 &quot;''Green Knights''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA242 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-242 &quot;''Bats''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-13, [[Yuma Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Arizona]] - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA122 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-122 &quot;''The Flying Leathernecks''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA211 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-211 &quot;''Wake Island Avenger''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFA225 2022.png|200px}} VMFA-225 &quot;''Vikings''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-14, [[Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Nord Carolina]] - su F-35C<br /> *** VMFA-251 &quot;''Thunderbolts''&quot; <br /> ** MAG-31, [[Beaufort Marine Corps Air Station]], [[Sud Carolina]] - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFAT501 2022.png|200px}} VMFAT-501 &quot;''Warlords''&quot; <br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMFAT502 2022.png|200px}} VMFAT-502 &quot;''Nightmares''&quot;<br /> ** MAWTS, [[Edwards air Force Base]], [[California]] (parte del Joint Operational Test Team) - su F-35B<br /> *** {{simbolo|F35 VMX1 2022.png|200px}} VMX-1 <br /> ;<br /> <br /> === Paesi Partner ===<br /> [[File:RAF F-35B.jpg|miniatura|F-35B, [[Royal Air Force|RAF]]]]<br /> ;{{GBR}}<br /> * [[Royal Air Force]] - [[Fleet Air Arm]] ([[Royal Navy]])<br /> : 48 F-35B ordinati inizialmente (fabbisogno di 138 esemplari), più ulteriori 26 esemplari ordinati il 26 aprile 2022, che hanno portato il numero degli esemplari ordinati a 74 &lt;ref name=&quot;ADDITIONAL LIGHTNING IIs FOR RAF&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/additional-lightning-iis-for-raf/|titolo=&quot;ADDITIONAL LIGHTNING IIs FOR RAF&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 29 aprile 2022, URL consultato il 12 maggio 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;GLI F-35B BRITANNICI COMPLETANO LE PRIME MISSIONI OPERATIVE SU SIRIA E IRAQ&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/gli-f-35b-britannici-completano-le-prime-missioni-operative-su-siria-e-iraq/|titolo=&quot;GLI F-35B BRITANNICI COMPLETANO LE PRIME MISSIONI OPERATIVE SU SIRIA E IRAQ&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 27 giugno 2019, URL consultato il 9 luglio 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/uk-orders-next-batch-of-17-f-35b-lightning-jets/?no_cache=1/|titolo=&quot;UK ORDERS NEXT BATCH OF 17 F-35B LIGHTNING JETS&quot;}}, su ukdefencejournal.org.uk, 15 novembre 2018, URL consultato il 16 novembre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/riformato-il-famoso-617-squadron-dambusters-della-raf-per-volare-con-i-nuovi-f-35/|titolo=&quot;RIFORMATO IL FAMOSO 617 SQUADRON DAMBUSTERS DELLA RAF PER VOLARE CON I NUOVI F-35&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 18 aprile 2018, URL consultato il 2 maggio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/majority-of-british-f-35b-fleet-to-arrive-in-uk-this-summer/|titolo=&quot;MAJORITY OF BRITISH F-35B FLEET TO ARRIVE IN UK THIS SUMMER&quot;}}, su ukdefencejournal.org.uk, 20 aprile 2018, URL consultato il 2 maggio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Un ripensamento (al ribasso) sul numero complessivo degli F-35B Lightning II per le forze aeree britanniche?&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 375 - 01/[[2018]] pag. 19&lt;/ref&gt; ed assegnati:<br /> * n.3 al Air Warfare Center - 17 Squadron (Edwards Air Force Base) California;<br /> * 207 Squadron, RAF Marham;<br /> * 617 Squadron, RAF Marham.<br /> [[File:Il primo F-35B della Marina Militare in volo.jpg|miniatura|Il primo F-35B della [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare]] in volo]]<br /> ;{{ITA}}<br /> * [[Aeronautica Militare (Italia)|Aeronautica Militare]]<br /> : 60 F-35A + n.15 F-35B ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.geopoliticalcenter.com/attualita/laeronautica-militare-entra-ufficialmente-nella-5-generazione-con-lf-35/amp/|titolo=&quot;L’AERONAUTICA MILITARE ENTRA UFFICIALMENTE NELLA 5 GENERAZIONE CON L’F-35&quot;}}, su geopoliticalcenter.com, 8 marzo 2018, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; 17 F-35A + 2 F-35 B consegnati al marzo 2022.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/primo-volo-per-f35-32-12-destinato-aeronautica-militare/|titolo=Primo volo per l'F-35A 32-12 destinato all'Aeronautica Militare|autore=Gianluca Conversi|sito=Aviation Report|data=1º febbraio 2020|lingua=it|accesso=21 luglio 2020}}&lt;/ref&gt; al Reparto:<br /> *[[32º Stormo]] &quot;[[Armando Boetto]]&quot;, [[Aeroporto di Amendola|Amendola]] 13º Gruppo operante sia F-35A che F-35B.<br /> * [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare]]<br /> : 15 F-35B ordinati, 4 consegnati al marzo 2022.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Il primo F-35B italiano consegnato alla Marina Militare&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 377 - 03/[[2018]] pp. 22-23&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2111.html/|titolo=&quot;LA MARINA MILITARE RICEVE IL PRIMO F-35B&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 25 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.fromtheskies.it/consegnato-primo-f-35b-alla-marina-militare/#jp-carousel-12784/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35B ALLA MARINA MILITARE&quot;}}, su fromtheskies.it, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.airpressonline.it/29469/f35b-difesa-consegna-velivolo-cameri/|titolo=&quot;F-35, CONSEGNATO ALLA DIFESA IL PRIMO VELIVOLO A DECOLLO CORTO&quot;}}, su airpressonline.it, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/consegnato-alla-marina-militare-italiana-primo-f-35b-realizzato-cameri/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO ALLA MARINA MILITARE IL PRIMO F-35B&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 25 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.analisidifesa.it/2018/01/consegnato-il-primo-f-35b-alla-marina-militare-italiana/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATO IL PRIMO F-35B ALLA MARINA MILITARE ITALIANA&quot;}}, su analisidifesa.it, 26 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/industria/il-primo-f-35b-realizzato-italia-è-stato-consegnato-al-ministero-della-difesa-italiano/|titolo=&quot;IL PRIMO F-35B REALIZZATO IN ITALIA È STATO CONSEGNATO AL MINISTERO DELLA DIFESA ITALIANO&quot;}}, su difesaonline.it, 26 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.airpressonline.it/29601/f35-consegna-wilhelm-lockheed-martin/|titolo=&quot;ITALIA? ECCELLENZA GLOBALE DELL’AERONAUTICA. PAROLA DI WILHELM (LOCKHEED MARTIN)&quot;}}, su airpressonline.it, 27 gennaio 2018, URL consultato il 27 gennaio 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Alla Marina Militare il primo F-35B STOVL&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 3 - 03/[[2018]] pag. 9&lt;/ref&gt; al Reparto:<br /> * [[Aviazione Navale#Gruppo aerei imbarcati|Gruppo Aerei Imbarcati]], [[Grottaglie]] - solo F-35B.<br /> [[File:F-35 Open Dag KLU 2016 191.jpg|miniatura|F-35, [[Koninklijke Luchtmacht]]]]<br /> ;{{NLD}}<br /> * [[Koninklijke Luchtmacht]]<br /> : 37 F-35A ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Il libro bianco della difesa olandese&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 6 - 06/[[2018]] pag. 28&lt;/ref&gt; Dei 37 aerei, 8 sono stati consegnati direttamente dalla linea di montaggio Lockheed Martin, 29 invece, saranno costruiti in [[Italia]] da [[Leonardo (azienda)|Leonardo]] nella FACO di [[Cameri]].&lt;ref&gt;&quot;In montaggio a Cameri il primo F-35 olandese&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 381 - 07/[[2018]] pag. 16&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2403.html/|titolo=CAMERI: IN PRODUZIONE PRIMO F-35 OLANDESE&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 15 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 15 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; Ad ottobre 2019 la difesa olandese ha confermato l'acquisto di ulteriori 9 aerei, che porterà il totale degli F-35 da consegnare a 46.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,3260.html/|titolo=&quot;ALTRI 9 F-35 PER L’OLANDA, BUONE NOTIZIE PER L’ITALIA&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 9 ottobre 2019, URL consultato il 9 ottobre 2019.&lt;/ref&gt; Un ordine di ulteriore 6 aerei, approvato a giugno 2022, ha portato a 52 il totale dei velivoli ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;[https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/more-lightning-iis-for-the-dutch/ &quot;MORE LIGHTNING IIs FOR THE DUTCH&quot;], su scramble, 3 ottobre 2022, URL consultato il 3 ottobre 2022.&lt;/ref&gt; I velivoli sono stati assegnati ai seguenti Reparti:<br /> * 308 Squadron, [[Luke Air Force Base]], [[Arizona]];<br /> * 313 Squadron, [[Uden|Volkel]];<br /> * 322 Squadron, [[Leeuwarden]];<br /> * 323 Squadron, [[Luke Air Force Base]], [[Arizona]].<br /> ;{{TUR}}<br /> * [[Türk Hava Kuvvetleri]]<br /> : 30 F-35A ordinati (più opzione per altri 70), il primo dei quali ha volato il 10 maggio 2018.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Vola il primo F-35 turco e si apre un dibattito&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 380 - 06/[[2018]] pag. 21&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/mondo-militare/f-35-la-turchia-acquista-secondo-lotto/|titolo=&quot;F-35: LA TURCHIA ACQUISTA SECONDO LOTTO&quot;}}, su difesaonline.it, 2 novembre 2016, URL consultato il 2 novembre 2016.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il primo esemplare è stato presentato (ne sono stati consegnati 2) il 21 giugno 2018.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2416.html/|titolo=&quot;CONSEGNATI I PRIMI 2 F-35 PER LA TURCHIA&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 21 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 21 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.janes.com/article/81259/us-delivers-first-f-35-to-turkey-as-congressional-opposition-to-further-deliveries-grows/|titolo=&quot;US DELIVERS FIRST F-35 TO TURKEY AS CONGRESSIONAL OPPOSITION TO FURTHER DELIVERIES GROWS&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20180622140735/http://www.janes.com/article/81259/us-delivers-first-f-35-to-turkey-as-congressional-opposition-to-further-deliveries-grows/ }}, su janes.com, 21 giugno 2018, URL consultato il 21 giugno 2018.&lt;/ref&gt; I due esemplari consegnati, che non avevano mai lasciato gli Stati Uniti, verranno girati ad altri acquirenti poiché la Turchia, '''con l'acquisto dei sistemi missilistici russi [[S-400]], è stata esclusa dal programma, e nessuna consegna ulteriore dovrebbe avere luogo e, oltre all'esclusione della fornitura dei mezzi finiti, sono stati esclusi dal programma anche i fornitori turchi della componentistica'''&lt;ref name=&quot;analisidifesa.it&quot; /&gt;.<br /> * 7° Base Principale Jet (''7’inci Ana Jet Üs’sü''), [[Malatya]]:<br /> ** 171º Gruppo &quot;Corsari&quot; (''171 Filo &quot;Korsan&quot;'');<br /> ** 172º Gruppo &quot;Falchi&quot; (''172 Filo &quot;Sahin&quot;'').[[File:Royal Australian Air Force F-35 at Luke AFB 14 May 2015.JPG|miniatura|F-35, [[Royal Australian Air Force]]]]<br /> ;{{AUS}}<br /> * [[Royal Australian Air Force]]<br /> : 72 F-35A ordinati.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceF&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Il futuro della difesa australiana&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 364 - 02/[[2017]] pp. 52-55&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 81st Wing, [[Base aerea di Williamston|Williamston]] ([[Nuovo Galles del Sud]]), con distaccamenti a [[Butterworth (Malaysia)|Butterworth]] ([[Malesia]]) - su F-35A<br /> *** 3 Squadron<br /> *** 77 Squadron (in fase di attivazione)<br /> [[File:Norwegian F-35 Lightning II.jpg|miniatura|F-35 Lightning II, [[Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret]]]]<br /> ;{{NOR}}<br /> * [[Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret]]<br /> : 52 F-35A ordinati.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Test del paracadute freno dell'F-35 in Norvegia&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 378 - 04/[[2018]] pag. 18&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;La Norvegia dichiara operativo l'F-35&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 398 - 12/[[2019]] pag. 23&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{DNK}}<br /> * [[Flyvevåbnet]]<br /> : 27 F-35A ordinati a giugno 2016.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Danimarca&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 391 - 05/[[2019]] pag. 70&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/mondo-militare/f-35-ufficiale-la-danimarca-è-lundicesimo-paese-scegliere-il-jsf/|titolo=&quot;F-35, UFFICIALE: LA DANIMARCA È L'UNDICESIMO PAESE A SCEGLIERE IL JSF&quot;}}, su difesaonline.it, 12 maggio 2016, URL consultato il 9 aprile 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.avionslegendaires.net/2019/07/actu/le-parc-aerien-de-la-flyvevabnet-en-2019-et-en-images/|titolo=&quot;LE PARC AÉRIEN DE LA FLYVEVABNET EN 2019 ET EN IMAGES&quot;}}, su avionslegendaires.net, 2 luglio 2019, URL consultato il 5 luglio 2019.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;OFFICIAL HAND-OVER FIRST RDAF F-35A&quot;/&gt; Il primo aereo è stato consegnato il 7 aprile 2021.&lt;ref name=&quot;OFFICIAL HAND-OVER FIRST RDAF F-35A&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/official-hand-over-first-rdaf-f-35a/|titolo=&quot;OFFICIAL HAND-OVER FIRST RDAF F-35A&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, <br /> 7 aprile 2021, URL consultato il 7 aprile 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{CAN}}<br /> * [[Air Command|Canadian Forces Air Command]]<br /> :Il 28 marzo 2022 il Canada ha selezionato l’F-35A della Lockheed Martin come offerta per il nuovo aereo da combattimento che prevede l’acquisto di 88 velivoli per sostituire i suoi Boeing CF-18 Hornet con una spesa prevista di 19 miliardi di dollari canadesi (15 miliardi di dollari USA).&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2022/03/f-35-anche-per-il-canada/|titolo=&quot;F-35 ANCHE PER IL CANADA&quot;}}, su analisidifesa.it, 30 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/lightning-ii-for-canada/|titolo=&quot;LIGHTNING II FOR CANADA&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 29 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.avionslegendaires.net/2022/03/actu/le-lockheed-martin-f-35a-lightning-ii-volera-sous-la-cocarde-a-feuille-derable/|titolo=&quot;LE LOCKHEED-MARTIN F-35A LIGHTNING II VOLERA SOUS LA COCARDE À FEUILLE D’ÉRABLE&quot;}}, su avionslegendaires.net, 29 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> ===Security Cooperative Partecipants===<br /> [[File:IAF-F-35I-2016-12-13-nf.jpg|miniatura|F-35I, [[Heyl Ha'Avir]]]]<br /> ;{{ISR}}<br /> * [[Heyl Ha'Avir]]<br /> : 50 F-35I ordinati al marzo 2017.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceE&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/|titolo=&quot;Have Israel’s new F-35s seen combat?&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170307210142/http://www.airforcesmonthly.com/2017/03/07/have-israels-new-f-35s-seen-combat/ }}, su airforcesmonthly.com, 7 marzo 2017, URL consultato il 8 marzo 2017.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Israele&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 425 - 3/[[2022]] pag. 68&lt;/ref&gt; In fase di consegna, 9 consegnati all'agosto 2018.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;F-35I Adir: il battesimo del fuoco&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 382 - 08/[[2018]] pp. 42-45&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 28ª Base Aerea (''באצ'ה 28 - Bacha 28''), [[Nevatim]] - su F-35i<br /> *** 116º Gruppo &quot;Leoni del Sud&quot; (''116 טייסת - Tayeset 116'')<br /> *** 117º Gruppo &quot;Primo Gruppo Jet&quot; (''117 טייסת - Tayeset 117'') - in fase di attivazione<br /> *** 140º Gruppo &quot;Aquila d'Oro&quot; (''140 טייסת - Tayeset 140'')<br /> ;{{SGP}}<br /> * [[Aeronautica militare della Repubblica di Singapore]]<br /> : 12 F-35B selezionati nel 2019, accordo siglato nel marzo 2020 per soli 4 F-35B (più un'opzione per ulteriori 8 aerei) con consegne previste tra il 2025 e il 2026.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;L'Aeronautica di Singapore&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 1 - 01/[[2022]] pp. 40-50&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2021/01/23/f35-la-crisi-non-ferma-la-produzione-ma-i-difetti-e-le-carenze-sono-moltissimi/6072636/amp/|titolo=F35: la crisi non ferma la produzione, ma i difetti e le carenze sono moltissimi}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2766.html|titolo=Anche Singapore sceglie l'F-35}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-eyes-f-35-jets-to-replace-ageing-f-16-fighters|titolo=Singapore eyes F-35 jets to replace ageing F-16 fighters|lingua=en}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> ===Altri utilizzatori===<br /> ;{{BEL}}<br /> * [[Componente aerea dell'armata belga]]<br /> : 34 F-35A ordinati&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.hln.be/nieuws/binnenland/-keuze-voor-f-35-is-gemaakt-regering-zoekt-naar-beste-communicatie~ab30ee1d/?referer=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2Fi%2Fcards%2Ftfw%2Fv1%2F1054029411203325958%3Fcardname%3Dsummary%26autoplay_disabled%3Dtrue%26forward%3Dtrue%26earned%3Dtrue%26edge%3Dtrue%26lang%3Dit%26card_height%3D130%26scribe_context%3D%257B%2522client%2522%253A%2522web%2522%252C%2522page%2522%253A%2522home%2522%252C%2522section%2522%253A%2522home%2522%252C%2522component%2522%253A%2522tweet%2522%257D%26bearer_token%3DAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAPYXBAAAAAAACLXUNDekMxqa8h%25252F40K4moUkGsoc%25253DTYfbDKbT3jJPCEVnMYqilB28NHfOPqkca3qaAxGfsyKCs0wRbw|titolo=“Keuze voor F-35 is gemaakt, regering zoekt naar beste communicatie”|lingua=nl}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2018/10/22/belgium-reportedly-chooses-f-35-stealth-jets-over-eurofighter-typhoons-to-replace-its-aging-f-16s/|titolo=Belgium Reportedly Chooses F-35 Stealth Jets over Eurofighter Typhoons To Replace Its Aging F-16s|lingua=EN}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> ;{{KOR}}<br /> * [[Republic of Korea Air Force]]<br /> : 40 F-35A ordinati nel dicembre 2017, e consegnati tra il 2018 ed il gennaio 2022.&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceF&quot;&gt;&quot;Opportunità per l'F-35 nel Sud-est Asiatico?&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 354 - 04/[[2016]] pag. 21&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://theaviationist.com/2022/03/25/rokaf-f-35-elephant-walk/amp/|titolo=&quot;SOUTH KOREA STAGES ‘ELEPHANT WALK’ WITH ITs F-35As A DAY AFTER NORTH KOREA TEST-FIRED A LARGE ICBM&quot;}}, su theaviationist.com, 25 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 31 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.janes.com/amp/south-korea-says-f-35a-fleet-operational/ZnlJK3dHVU9mZ28xajRJVkc5dVI5VFp1cVMwPQ2/|titolo=&quot;SOUTH KOREA SAYS F-35A FLEET OPERATIONAL&quot;}}, su janes.com, 30 marzo 2022, URL consultato il 30 marzo 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Corea del Sud&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 386 - 12/[[2018]] pag. 72&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.aviationtoday.com/2018/03/28/south-korea-gets-first-forty-f-35s-fort-worth/|titolo=&quot;SOUTH KOREA GETS FIRST OF 40 F-35s&quot;}}, su aviationtoday.com, marzo 2018, URL consultato il 29 marzo 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;[https://www.f35.com/global/participation/republic-of-korea Republic of Korea]&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 17º Stormo Caccia (''제17전투비행단 - je17jeontubihaengdan''), [[Cheongju]] - su F-35A<br /> *** 151º Gruppo Caccia (''제151전투비행대대 - je151jeontubihaengdaedae'')<br /> *** 152º Gruppo Caccia (''제152전투비행대대 - je152jeontubihaengdaedae'')<br /> *** 156º Gruppo Caccia (''제156전투비행대대 - je156jeontubihaengdaedae'') - in fase di attivazione<br /> ;{{FIN}}<br /> * [[Suomen ilmavoimat]]<br /> : Il 10 dicembre 2021, la Finlandia ha selezionato l'F-35A quale nuovo caccia, con un fabbisogno di 64 esemplari da consegnarsi a partire dal 2026.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/finland-chooses-lightning-ii/|titolo=&quot;FINLAND CHOOSES LIGHTNING II&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 10 dicembre 2021, URL consultato il 10 dicembre 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.rid.it/shownews/4603/|titolo=&quot;LA FINLANDIA SCEGLIE L’F-35A&quot;}}, su rid.it, 10 dicembre 2021, URL consultato il 10 dicembre 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;La Finlandia ha scelto l'F-35A Lightning II per sostituire gli FA-18 Hornet dell'Ilmavoimat&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 424 - 2/[[2022]] pag. 67&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;FINLAND SIGNS FOR F-35s&quot;/&gt; Il contratto per 64 F-35A da consegnarsi tra il 2026 e il 2030 è stato firmato l'11 febbraio 2022.&lt;ref name=&quot;FINLAND SIGNS FOR F-35s&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.janes.com/defence-news/air-platforms/latest/finland-signs-for-f-35s/|titolo=&quot;FINLAND SIGNS FOR F-35s&quot;}}, su janes.com, 11 febbraio 2022, URL consultato il 11 febbraio 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{DEU}}<br /> * [[Luftwaffe (Bundeswehr)|Luftwaffe]]<br /> ** [[Tactical Air Wing 33]]<br /> : Il 28 luglio 2022, il Dipartimento di Stato americano ha dato il via libera alla vendita di 35 F-35A alla Germania per 8,4 miliardi di dollari (incluse munizioni, logistica e apparecchiature), con entrata in servizio prevista per il 2030.&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Gli USA approvano la vendita di 35 F-35A alla Germania&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 9 - 09/[[2022]] pag. 13&lt;/ref&gt; Tali velivoli sostituiranno, nei compiti di deterrenza nucleare, la flotta di Tornado del Tactical Air Wing 33 a Büchel.&lt;ref name=caccia&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2022/07/la-grecia-punta-a-raddoppiare-gli-f-35-la-repubblica-ceca-ne-vuole-ordinare-24/|titolo=Germani, Grecia e Repubblica Ceca: il trionfo dell’F-35 in Europa|data=29 luglio 2022|accesso= 31 luglio 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{JPN}}<br /> * [[Japan Air Self-Defense Force]]<br /> [[File:USMC_F-35B_conducting_a_vertical_landing_aboard_the_JS_Izumo.jpg|thumb|Il 3 ottobre 2021, i primi F-35B hanno effettuato atterraggi e decolli da JS Izumo]]<br /> *: 42 F-35A ordinati (13 consegnati al giugno 2019), con previsione di ordini per 105 esemplari, compresi una quarantina a decollo verticale che dovrebbero andare alla [[Kaijō Jieitai|Marina]].&lt;ref name=&quot;ReferenceF&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Le forze aeree del mondo. Giappone&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 409 - 11/[[2020]] pag. 66&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;Alla ricerca del caccia perduto&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,2721.html/|titolo=&quot;ALTRI 105 F-35 PER IL GIAPPONE&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 18 dicembre 2018, URL consultato il 19 dicembre 2018.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.f35.com/news/detail/first-japanese-assembled-f-35a-components-mate-at-nagoya-faco/|titolo=&quot;FIRST JAPANESE-ASSEMBLED F-35A COMPONENTS MATE AT NAGOYA FACO&quot;}}, su f35.com, 15 dicembre 2015, URL consultato il 7 maggio 2017.&lt;/ref&gt; Uno dei 13 aerei consegnati è andato perso ad aprile 2019.&lt;ref name=&quot;Alla ricerca del caccia perduto&quot;&gt;&quot;Alla ricerca del caccia perduto&quot; - &quot;[[Aeronautica &amp; Difesa]]&quot; N. 392 - 06/[[2019]] pp. 48-50&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ** 3º Stormo (''第3航空団 - Dai 3 kōkū-dan''), [[Misawa Air Base|Misawa]], su F-35A<br /> *** 301º Gruppo (''第301飛行隊 - Dai 301 hikō-tai'')<br /> *** 302º Gruppo (''第302飛行隊 - Dai 302 hikō-tai'')<br /> ;{{POL}}<br /> * [[Siły Powietrzne]]<br /> : 32 F-35A ordinati il 31 gennaio 2020, con consegne previste per il 2023-2024.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.janes.com/article/94035/poland-signs-f-35-deal/|titolo=&quot;POLAND SIGNS F-35 DEAL&quot;}}, su janes.com, 31 gennaio 2020, URL consultato il 3 febbraio 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.portaledifesa.it/index~phppag,3_id,3440.html/|titolo=&quot;F-35A PER LA POLONIA&quot;}}, su portaledifesa.it, 31 gennaio 2020, URL consultato il 3 febbraio 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/polonia-firma-accordo-di-4-6-miliardi-di-dollari-per-acquisto-32-f35/|titolo=&quot;LA POLONIA FIRMA UN ACCORDO DI 4,6 MILIARDI DI DOLLARI PER L'ACQUISTO DI 32 F-35&quot;}}, su aviation-report.com, 3 febbraio 2020, URL consultato il 3 febbraio 2020.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> ;{{CHE}}<br /> * [[Schweizer Luftwaffe]]<br /> : Il 30 giugno 2021, il Consiglio federale svizzero ha selezionato l'F-35A come vincitore del programma per un nuovo caccia.&lt;ref name=&quot;BREAKING: F-35A LIGHTNING II FOR SWITZERLAND&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.scramble.nl/military-news/breaking-f-35a-lightning-ii-for-switzerland/|titolo=&quot;BREAKING: F-35A LIGHTNING II FOR SWITZERLAND&quot;}}, su scramble.nl, 30 giugno 2021, URL consultato il 2 luglio 2021.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;SWITZERLAND SELECTS F-35 JETS, PATRIOT MISSILE SYSTEMS&quot;&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.defenseworld.net/news/29928/Switzerland_Selects_F_35_Jets__Patriot_Missile_Systems#.YN7x-WnOM0E/|titolo=&quot;SWITZERLAND SELECTS F-35 JETS, PATRIOT MISSILE SYSTEMS&quot;}}, su defenseworld.net, 30 giugno 2021, URL consultato il 2 luglio 2021.&lt;/ref&gt; A partire dal 2030 saranno consegnati 36 F-35A.&lt;ref name=&quot;BREAKING: F-35A LIGHTNING II FOR SWITZERLAND&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;SWITZERLAND SELECTS F-35 JETS, PATRIOT MISSILE SYSTEMS&quot;/&gt;&lt;ref&gt;&quot;Cieli neutrali: l'Aeronautica Svizzera&quot; - &quot;[[Rivista italiana difesa]]&quot; N. 2 - 02/[[2022]] pp. 76-81&lt;/ref&gt;. Di questi almeno 24 dei complessivi 36 saranno assemblati dalla FACO di [[Cameri]], 8 velivoli negli [[Stati Uniti d'America|USA]] e forse 4 presso gli stabilimenti elvetici della RUAG.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.analisidifesa.it/2022/03/gli-f-35a-svizzeri-verranno-assemblati-a-cameri/|titolo=Gli F-35 svizzeri verranno assemblati a cameri|sito=analisidifesa.it|data=30 marzo 2022}}&lt;/ref&gt; Ordine per 36 F-35A firmato il settembre 2022.&lt;ref&gt;[https://aresdifesa.it/il-parlamento-svizzero-autorizza-lacquisto-dei-caccia-bombardieri-f-35a-e-dei-missili-patriot/ &quot;IL PARLAMENTO SVIZZERO AUTORIZZA L’ACQUISTO DEI CACCIA BOMBARDIERI F-35A E DEI MISSILI PATRIOT&quot;], su aresdifesa.it, 16 settembre 2022, URL consultato il 17 settembre 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;[https://aresdifesa.it/la-svizzera-firma-il-contratto-di-acquisto-degli-f-35a/ &quot;LA SVIZZERA FIRMA IL CONTRATTO DI ACQUISTO DEGLI F-35A&quot;], su aresdifesa.it, 20 settembre 2022, URL consultato il 21 settembre 2022.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> ===Possibili utilizzatori futuri===<br /> ;{{ARE}}<br /> * [[Al-Quwwāt al-Jawiyya al-Imārātiyya]]<br /> ;{{GRC}}<br /> *[[Polemikí Aeroporía]]a<br /> A fine giugno, la Grecia ha inviato una lettera di richiesta (LoR) ufficiale agli Stati Uniti per ordinare 20 caccia F-35. Il primo ministro, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, ha affermato che Atene sta esaminando l’acquisto di un secondo gruppo di jet.&lt;ref name=caccia/&gt;<br /> ;{{MAR}}<br /> *[[Royal Moroccan Air Force]]<br /> ;{{CZE}}<br /> * [[Vzdušné síly armády České republiky]]<br /> Il 20 luglio, Praga ha intavolato i colloqui con gli Stati Uniti per la fornitura dei caccia F-35A Lightning II in sostituzione dei JAS 39 Gripen presi in leasing dalla svedese Saab AB. Lo ha affermato il primo ministro Petr Fiala.&lt;ref name=caccia/&gt;<br /> <br /> == Iter parlamentare e burocratico in Italia ==<br /> In Italia si è iniziato a parlare del progetto nel 1996 e nel 1998 è stato firmato il ''Memorandum of Agreement'' per la fase concettuale-dimostrativa con un investimento di 10 milioni di dollari. Nel 2002, dopo l'approvazione delle Commissioni Difesa di Camera e Senato è stata confermata la partecipazione alla fase di sviluppo. Nel 2009 le Commissioni difesa di Camera e Senato hanno espresso parere favorevole sullo schema di programma trasmesso dal Governo che comprendeva l'acquisto di 131 F-35 al costo di 12,9 miliardi di euro.&lt;ref name=&quot;camera.it&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.camera.it/465?area=13&amp;tema=558&amp;Il+programma+Joint+Strike+Fighter+-+F35|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130131014219/http://www.camera.it/465?area=13&amp;tema=558&amp;Il+programma+Joint+Strike+Fighter+-+F35 |titolo= Temi dell'attività Parlamentare}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Il 15 febbraio 2012 il ministro della Difesa [[Giampaolo Di Paola]], nel quadro delle riduzioni di spesa del suo ministero, ha proposto tra i vari provvedimenti quello di diminuire l'acquisto di F-35 da 131 (69 F-35A e 62 F-35B) a 90 (60 F-35A e 30 F-35B) unità&lt;ref name=F-35-italy&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://cca.analisidifesa.it/it/magazine_8034243544/numero129/article_371438062752515357801484456054_2683573816_0.jsp|titolo=PACE (QUASI) FATTA TRA MARINA E AERONAUTICA PER GLI F-35 STOVL|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130612090724/http://cca.analisidifesa.it/it/magazine_8034243544/numero129/article_371438062752515357801484456054_2683573816_0.jsp }}.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 28 marzo 2012 l'Aula della Camera ha approvato alcune mozioni sulla riduzione e razionalizzazione delle spese militari tra cui quelle che riducono a 90 gli aerei da acquistare&lt;ref name=&quot;camera.it&quot;/&gt;.<br /> <br /> Varie parti politiche hanno mosso critiche al progetto già dai primi giorni del 2012&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2012/01/02/news/spese_difesa-27483358/index.html?ref=search|titolo=''Ora la parola d'ordine è tagliare''}}. Repubblica. Politica. 2 gennaio 2012.&lt;/ref&gt; proprio a causa dell'elevato costo dei 131 caccia ordinati inizialmente che, secondo il giornale [[La Repubblica (quotidiano)|La Repubblica]], è lievitato verso l'alto nel 2011 ed è riportato dal giornale pari a 200 milioni di dollari ad aereo.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.repubblica.it/politica/2012/01/02/news/programma_acquisto-27509860/|titolo=''Costano troppo,il governo non li compri''}}. ''Repubblica. 2 gennaio 2012''.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://temi.repubblica.it/micromega-online/don-renato-sacco-quante-bugie-sullf35/|titolo=''Don Renato Sacco: Quante bugie sull'F-35''}}. Repubblica. MicroMega. 22 febbraio 2012.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Al 22 febbraio 2013 l'Italia ha materialmente ordinato 3 velivoli e si appresta a firmare il contratto per altri 3: il primo F-35 A uscirà dagli impianti di Cameri, in Piemonte, entro il 2015 ed entrerà in servizio l'anno dopo.&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2013/02/22/news/f35_pentagono_sospende_tutti_i_voli_per_problemi_al_motore-53212575/?ref=search]. Repubblica. 22 febbraio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Dopo una polemica inter-istituzionale sviluppatasi ad inizio legislatura&lt;ref&gt;Una &quot;baruffa mediatica&quot; secondo Giampiero Buonomo, {{cita testo|url=https://www.questionegiustizia.it/data/doc/2982/163358983718572.pdf|titolo=''La crescente procedimentalizzazione dell’atto parlamentare di indirizzo politico''}}, Questione giustizia, 7 ottobre 2021 (p. 9).&lt;/ref&gt;, il 30 luglio 2013 il ministro della Difesa ha riferito al parlamento a proposito di un eventuale ritiro dal programma: «Bisogna considerare, oltre ai 700 milioni di euro già spesi per la progettazione e i due miliardi investiti per l'impianto di produzione di [[Cameri]], anche il fatto che la portaerei [[Cavour (550)|Cavour]]&lt;ref&gt;Nel luglio 2013, la [[Cavour (550)|Cavour]] è l'unica portaerei rimasta in Europa insieme alla francese [[Charles de Gaulle (R 91)|Charles De Gaulle]].&lt;/ref&gt; dovrà ospitare gli F-35 a decollo verticale, altrimenti non capiremmo per quale ragione avremmo speso 3 miliardi e mezzo di euro per la nave»&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/07/31/italia/politica/f-mauro-gi-spesi-miliardi-per-modificare-la-portaerei-cavour-yCj5WpIqzQ4ow97d4DbDkK/pagina.html|titolo=Articolo online}} sul sito de ''La Stampa''.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 24 settembre 2014 il Parlamento italiano ha votato a maggioranza di tagliare del 50% il finanziamento sull'acquisto di 90 cacciabombardieri americani F-35, da 13 a 6,5 miliardi di euro, il che comporta una riduzione del numero di velivoli acquistabili&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2014/09/24/f35-la-camera-dimezza-i-fondi-per-i-cacciabombardieri-da-13-a-65-miliardi/1131605/|titolo=''F35, sì a mozione Pd: Camera dimezza i fondi per i caccia: da 13 a 6,5 miliardi''}}. Enrico Piovesana. Il fatto quotidiano. 24 settembre 2014.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> L'11 dicembre 2014 [[Roberta Pinotti]], ministro della Difesa, e John Philips, ambasciatore americano in Italia, hanno annunciato che lo stabilimento della [[Finmeccanica]] di [[Cameri]] a [[Novara]] è stato scelto per la manutenzione di tutti gli F-35 operanti in Europa&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilsole24ore.com/art/notizie/2014-12-11/f-35-sara-italia-polo-europeo-manutenzione-jet-185837.shtml?uuid=ABQWPTPC&amp;fromSearch|titolo=''F-35, sarà in Italia il polo europeo di manutenzione dei jet''}}. Il Sole 24 ore. 11 dicembre 2014.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 21 maggio 2015 il ministro Pinotti ha presentato il documento programmatico pluriennale per il triennio 2015-2017 che conferma la partecipazione dell'Italia al programma, con un budget complessivo di circa 10 miliardi di euro. Il numero di velivoli da acquistare è stato fissato nuovamente a 90 unità, di cui 38 da acquisire entro il 2020&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2015/05/21/spese-militari-nessun-taglio-agli-f35-anzi-il-budget-complessivo-aumenta/1706067/|titolo=''Spese militari, nessun taglio agli F35. Anzi, il budget complessivo aumenta''}}. Enrico Piovesana. Il Fatto Quotidiano. 21 maggio 2015.&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2015/05/26/f35-tre-anni-di-promesse-e-smentite-cosi-la-politica-ha-messo-le-ali-alle-armi/1718994/|titolo=''F35, tre anni di promesse e smentite. Così la politica ha messo le ali alle armi''}}. Thomas Mackinson. Il Fatto Quotidiano. 26 maggio 2015.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> La [[Corte dei Conti]], nella sua ''Relazione speciale sulla partecipazione italiana al Programma Joint Strike Fighter F-35 Lightning II'' del 3 agosto 2017, circa i costi complessivi del programma ha esposto che l'investimento iniziale a carico degli USA è passato da 233 miliardi di dollari a 406 miliardi di dollari, i costi operativi per l'intero ciclo di vita dell'aereo ammontano a {{formatnum:1100}} miliardi di dollari. Tuttavia la Corte precisa che la misura della partecipazione dei partner, Italia compresa, alla fase di sviluppo è fissa e non suscettibile di aumenti. Gli incrementi di costo attribuibili a questa fase vengono pertanto assorbiti dai soli Stati Uniti. Per la fase di produzione è previsto che i partner acquistino i propri velivoli allo stesso prezzo dei velivoli americani appartenenti allo stesso lotto&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.corteconti.it/export/sites/portalecdc/_documenti/controllo/sez_contr_affari_com_internazionali/2017/delibera_15_2017_e_relazione.pdf|titolo=Relazione della Corte dei Conti|accesso=9 agosto 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810011737/http://www.corteconti.it/export/sites/portalecdc/_documenti/controllo/sez_contr_affari_com_internazionali/2017/delibera_15_2017_e_relazione.pdf|urlmorto=sì}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Inoltre i mezzi d'informazione hanno riferito che l'avanzamento del programma è in ritardo di almeno cinque anni sulla tabella di marcia originaria, con costi quasi raddoppiati rispetto alle previsioni iniziali&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2017/08/07/economia/la-corte-dei-conti-sugli-f-ritardi-e-costi-raddoppiati-ma-non-possiamo-ritirarci-8mc9a4Axq3GE8jYUxWz3TP/pagina.html|titolo=''La Corte dei Conti sugli F-35: Ritardi e costi raddoppiati, ma non possiamo ritirarci''}}. La Stampa. Economia. 7 agosto 2017.&lt;/ref&gt;. Su quest'ultimo punto una nota del giornalista e storico dell'aviazione Gregory Alegi riporta che gli 80 milioni al pezzo per il block buy attualmente in discussione sono il 16% in più dei 69 previsti nel 2001 e non il doppio, sottolineando che il costo maggiore dei primi lotti è fisiologico e che, per una valutazione corretta, bisognerebbe fare la media ponderata tenendo in considerazione i valori di spesa con gli impianti a pieno regime di produzione.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=http://formiche.net/blog/2017/08/09/relazione-corte-conti-f-35/|titolo=F-35, vi racconto l'abbaglio mediatico sulla relazione della Corte dei Conti - Formiche.net|pubblicazione=Formiche.net|data=9 agosto 2017|accesso=12 agosto 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Nel gennaio 2018 il primo F-35 è stato consegnato al Ministero della Difesa Italiano e poi assegnato alla [[Marina Militare (Italia)|Marina Militare Italiana]]. Nel dicembre 2018 i primi otto F-35 sono operativi per l'Aeronautica Militare&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=https://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2018/12/01/news/aeronautica_militare_operativi_i_primi_otto_aerei_caccia_f-35-213111682/|titolo=Repubblica}}&lt;/ref&gt;. I velivoli sono stati assegnati al 32º Stormo con sede ad Amendola (Foggia), primo reparto in Europa ad acquisire gli F-35.<br /> Al giugno 2019 del lotto di 28 velivoli previsti entro il 2022, ne sono stati consegnati 13&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/torna-a-volare-il-secondo-esemplare-degli-f-35b-italiani-destinati-alla-marina-militare/|titolo=Torna a volare il secondo esemplare degli F-35B italiani destinati alla Marina Militare}}&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> == Critiche al progetto ==<br /> Il progetto ha attirato su di sé molte critiche da parte di analisti strategici e personale militare.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2013/06/21/f-35-bocciati-e-anti-economici-ma-parlamento-discute-se-acquistarne-altri/632525/|titolo=F-35 bocciati e anti-economici | giornale = [[Il Fatto Quotidiano]] | giorno = 21 | mese = giugno | anno = 2006}}&lt;/ref&gt; Tra i detrattori il mezzo si è da tempo guadagnato il degradante soprannome di &quot;Fiasco 35&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web | titolo = Tories feel the heat over F-35 Fiasco | giornale = The Global and Mail | data =12 dicembre 2012 | url=https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/tories-feel-the-heat-over-f-35-fiasco/article6292008/ }}&lt;/ref&gt;. Tra gli altri, la [[RAND Corporation]], una società di analisi strategiche che collabora a stretto contatto col [[Dipartimento della Difesa]] statunitense, ha apertamente criticato l'F-35: prima è trapelato che, secondo le simulazioni effettuate dalla società statunitense, l'F-35 non sarebbe in grado di competere con il russo [[Su-35]] in un combattimento aereo&lt;ref&gt;Lake 2010, pp. 37–45.&lt;/ref&gt;; poi un analista della stessa società ha dichiarato che l'F-35 &quot;è inferiore nel combattimento in termini di accelerazione, salita e virate sostenute&quot;.&lt;ref name=&quot;critiche1&quot;&gt;Pocock, Chris. {{cita testo|url=http://www.ainonline.com/news/single-news-page/article/lm-defends-f-35-jsf-agility-against-critics-21060/|titolo=&quot;LM defends F-35 JSF agility against critics.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110616214423/http://www.ainonline.com/news/single-news-page/article/lm-defends-f-35-jsf-agility-against-critics-21060/ }} Aviation International News, 15 giugno 2009.&lt;/ref&gt; Tuttavia i dati tecnici e le prove effettuate evidenziano che l'F-35 ha una velocità di punta di mach 1,67 e sostenuta di 1.65 a carico bellico (mentre l'F-16 a carico bellico non raggiunge i mach 1,4), il carico alare è inferiore a quello di un SU-27 e superiore a quello di un F-16, l'accelerazione a carico bellico è simile o superiore a quello di un F-16 e a quello di un'F-18, la virata a carico bellico è pari o migliore rispetto a quella della maggior parte dei caccia Usa e di poco inferiore a quella dell'F-22, tutte caratteristiche in linea con il progetto iniziale. Viene anche evidenziato come queste prestazioni miglioreranno ulteriormente nel corso della vita dell'aereo, come è successo per tutti i suoi predecessori.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.loneflyer.com/?p=551|titolo=L’F-35 Lightning II in combattimento: parte prima|accesso=10 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://aviationweek.com/defense/f-35-demo-pilot-paris-performance-will-crush-years-misinformation|titolo=F-35 Demo Pilot: Paris Performance Will ‘Crush Years Of Misinformation’|sito=aviationweek.com|lingua=en|accesso=10 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt; In realtà la cellula dell'F-35 è progettata per sostenere accelerazioni fino ad un massimo di 6&amp;nbsp;''[[Accelerazione di gravità|g]]'', mentre caccia come il Rafale e l'Eurofighter sono progettati per accelerazioni superiori a 8&amp;nbsp;''g''. La scarsa predisposizione dell'F-35 a manovre estreme è evidente anche dal tipo di ala, trapezoidale e dalla ridotta superficie alare (42 metri quadrati contro i 51 metri quadrati dell'Eurofighter ad esempio) rispetto al peso dell'aviogetto. La manovrabilità ad alta velocità non è il suo punto di forza, ma lo scopo principale di questo aereo non è la superiorità aerea, quanto la ridotta [[Sezione radar equivalente|RCS]]; in effetti un aereo con un peso al decollo tra le 21 e le 30 tonnellate, spinto da un reattore che produce al massimo 19 tonnellate di spinta, nasce evidentemente senza pretese di superiorità aerea.<br /> <br /> È circolata un'intervista al [[produttore discografico]] [[Pierre Sprey]] (titolare della [[Mapleshade Records]]), presentato in veste di progettista aeronautico e definito &quot;padre&quot; degli aerei [[A-10]] e [[F-16]]: nell'intervista, Sprey definiva l'F-35 come &quot;pesante e poco reattivo&quot;&lt;ref name=&quot;sprey&quot;&gt;&quot;Amerikaanse twijfel over JSF&quot;. Nova, 12 luglio 2010. (in [[lingua olandese|olandese]]).&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.presadiretta.rai.it/dl/RaiTV/programmi/media/ContentItem-03052556-4a49-4a6d-8249-7c59169b8890.html#p=0|titolo=Video della puntata}} di ''[[Presa diretta (programma televisivo)|Presa diretta]]'' andata in onda il 3 febbraio 2013, con l'intervista all'ingegnere Sprey; un frammento del video con l'intervista a Pierre Sprey è visibile su {{cita testo|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DwQyjOok-U|titolo=YouTube}}.&lt;/ref&gt;. Secondo quanto riportato da testate specialistiche, Pierre Sprey non è né progettista né il &quot;padre&quot; degli A-10 e F-16, ma solo un ex analista della difesa attivo fino al 1986, poi divenuto [[produttore discografico]] con la [[Mapleshade Records]], famoso per aver fatto parte del gruppo di analisti strategici che, negli [[anni settanta]] e [[anni ottanta|ottanta]] del [[XX secolo|Novecento]], avevano propugnato la dottrina militare detta della &quot;[[Fighter Mafia]]&quot;, mentre a progettare F-16 è stato un team guidato da Robert H. Widmer.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://sobchak.wordpress.com/2015/10/02/pierre-sprey-non-ha-progettato-lf-16/|titolo=Pierre Sprey non ha progettato l’F-16|autore=Aleks|sito=SOBCHAK SECURITY - est. 2005|data=2 ottobre 2015|accesso=10 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Critiche sono state avanzate da un gruppo di piloti statunitensi che, avendo provato in volo l'F-35A, lo hanno definito &quot;per niente stellare&quot;&lt;ref&gt;Gianluca Di Feo, {{cita testo|url=http://espresso.repubblica.it/dettaglio/con-questi-f35-ci-abbattono-subito/2202065|titolo=&quot;Con questi F35 ci abbattono subito&quot;}} - L'Espresso, 7 marzo 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;. Il rapporto ufficiale da loro redatto il 15 febbraio 2013&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://speciali.espresso.repubblica.it/pdf/F35dossier.pdf|titolo=''F 35 dossier''}}, {{pdf}}. Repubblica. Espresso. Speciale.&lt;/ref&gt; offre un ritratto desolante del mezzo: vi sono individuate otto aree di grave rischio (la visibilità, l'interfaccia tra gli apparati di bordo e il pilota, il sistema radar, l'apparato di proiezione dei dati nel [[casco di volo]], l'eventualità di esplosione in caso d'impatto con fulmini, per via delle pareti troppo sottili dei serbatoi&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/01/21/esteri/l-f-esplode-con-i-fulmini-Yibk72WD1PaeNI8Rj9RAVJ/pagina.html|titolo=''L'F-35 esplode con i fulmini''}}. La stampa. Esteri. 21 gennaio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt; e così via), problemi tali da suggerire addirittura una nuova progettazione del velivolo&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/01/23/edizioni/novara/f-il-caccia-dei-guai-ma-il-cantiere-alla-base-militare-di-cameri-non-si-ferma-XrVZIcKLf2bLvCwHK1G3dM/pagina.html|titolo=''F-35, il caccia dei guai: “Ma il cantiere alla base militare di Cameri non si ferma”''}}. La stampa. Novara. 23 gennaio 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;. Le più recenti valutazioni da parte dei piloti, suffragate dai test bellici effettuati come la ''green flag'' o ''red flag'', sono risultate positive.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2016/07/11/f-35-pilot-explains-how-he-dominated-dogfights-against-multiple-a-4-aggressors-every-time/|titolo=F-35 pilot explains how he dominated dogfights against multiple A-4 aggressors. Every time.|sito=The Aviationist|data=11 luglio 2016|accesso=11 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://theaviationist.com/2016/03/01/heres-what-ive-learned-so-far-dogfighting-in-the-f-35-a-jsf-pilot-first-hand-account/|titolo=“Here’s what I’ve learned so far dogfighting in the F-35”: a JSF pilot’s first-hand account|sito=The Aviationist|data=1º marzo 2016|accesso=11 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Secondo un rapporto del Pentagono&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2014/01/30/edizioni/novara/rapporto-del-pentagono-f-fragile-e-inaffidabile-crepe-durante-i-test-oPwrnR4KMudpqxkUmIXH7N/pagina.html|titolo=''Rapporto del Pentagono: “F-35 fragile e inaffidabile, crepe durante i test”''}}. La stampa. Novara. 30 gennaio 2014.&lt;/ref&gt; gli strumenti elettronici del jet non funzionano&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/06/27/italia/cronache/f-pieno-di-guai-ma-difficile-da-eliminare-2tnKEoVCydUAtDlmwAKoaK/pagina.html|titolo=''F35, pieno di guai ma difficile da eliminare''}}. La stampa. Cronaca. 27 giugno 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;, perché il display nel casco di volo non fornisce un [[orizzonte artificiale]] analogo a quello reale, a volte l'immagine è troppo scura o scompare, e il radar in alcuni voli di collaudo si è dimostrato incapace di avvistare e inquadrare bersagli, o addirittura si è spento. Inoltre la manutenzione dell'F-35 è troppo laboriosa e limita l'efficienza operativa, l'affidabilità tecnica generale lascia a desiderare e il dispositivo di carica delle batterie tende a esser colpito da malfunzionamenti alle basse temperature&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2013/03/09/esteri/il-nuovo-f-verrebbe-abbattuto-dai-caccia-che-volano-da-anni-vViOpDmMI9s0q1ElUnfy1O/pagina.html|titolo=''Il nuovo F-35 verrebbe abbattuto dai caccia che volano da 30 anni''}}. La stampa. Esteri. 9 marzo 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;. Sempre riguardo alle presunte prestazioni in combattimento del velivolo, il maggiore Richard Koch dell'[[USAF]], capo dell'ufficio di superiorità aerea del ''USAF Air Combat Command'', ha dichiarato: &quot;mi sveglio la notte con i sudori freddi al pensiero che l'F-35 avrà solo due armi per la superiorità aerea&quot;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita testo|lingua=en|url=http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/blogs/defense/index.jsp?plckController=Blog&amp;plckScript=blogScript&amp;plckElementId=blogDest&amp;plckBlogPage=BlogViewPost&amp;plckPostId=Blog%3a27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7Post%3ab1c3536a-8d96-481f-aef5-d6428ec6f9ca|titolo=&quot;JSF Leaders Back In The Fight&quot;}}. Sweetman, Bill. Aviation Week, 22 settembre 2008.&lt;/ref&gt;. La Lockheed Martin ha contestato le critiche alla sua creatura&lt;ref name=&quot;critiche1&quot;/&gt; dichiarando, tra l'altro, che &quot;la superiorità nell'elettronica di cui gode l'F-35 rispetto agli altri velivoli può risultare più importante della manovrabilità in future missioni&quot;&lt;ref&gt;en {{cita testo|url=http://www.lexingtoninstitute.org/f-35-fighter-confounding-critics-as-flight-tests-ramp-up?a=1&amp;c=1171|titolo=&quot;F-35 Fighter Confounding Critics As Flight Tests Ramp Up&quot;}}. Thompson, Loren B. Lexington Institute, 1º marzo 2011.&lt;/ref&gt;. Dopo la capacità di combattimento, le critiche più diffuse hanno puntato alla scarsa autonomia di volo, da alcuni ritenuta insufficiente per conflitti su larga scala, come un'ipotetica azione contro altri Paesi&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/20/us-china-usa-arms-idUSN1925736420070920?sp=true|titolo=&quot;Air Force chief links F-35 fighter jet to China&quot; |urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924123559/http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/20/us-china-usa-arms-idUSN1925736420070920?sp=true|cognome= Wolf|nome= Jim|data= 19 settembre 2007|accesso= 12 settembre 2011}}&lt;/ref&gt;. L'autonomia dell'aereo è in linea con i modelli che andrà a sostituire e il suo raggio di azione è aumentabile grazie ai serbatoi supplementari o tramite il rifornimento in volo con aerocisterne.&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/14103/lets-talk-about-the-usafs-plan-for-fully-combat-capable-f-35s?xid=fbshare]&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;[https://foxtrotalpha.jalopnik.com/how-israel-wants-to-soup-up-its-fleet-of-f-35s-1769644978]&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Con l'allungarsi dei tempi di sviluppo non sono potute mancare le critiche ai costi del progetto, che la rivista specialistica ''World Military Affair'' ha imputato alla discutibile scelta di voler creare un unico aereo per tre differenti ruoli operativi&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|lingua=en|url=http://opinion.globaltimes.cn/commentary/2010-03/515744.html|titolo=&quot;F-35 fighter has become a clumsy white elephant&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20120317091704/http://opinion.globaltimes.cn/commentary/2010-03/515744.html|data=24 marzo 2010 }}&lt;/ref&gt;. I dubbi sugli elevati costi di progetto si sono aggiunti a quelli sui costi unitari di produzione&lt;ref name=&quot;sprey&quot; /&gt; e di manutenzione, che la [[United States Navy|marina statunitense]] ha stimato essere del 30%-40% superiori a quelli dei caccia attualmente in uso&lt;ref&gt;Clark, Colin. {{cita testo|url=http://www.dodbuzz.com/2011/01/27/af-worries-jsf-costs-may-soar/|titolo=&quot;AF Worries JSF Costs May Soar.&quot;|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20110130053956/http://www.dodbuzz.com/2011/01/27/af-worries-jsf-costs-may-soar/ }} DoD Buzz 27 gennaio 2011.&lt;/ref&gt;. Nel 2013 il [[tenente generale]] dell'[[USAF]] Christopher Bogdan ha apertamente accusato l'azienda di voler &quot;spremere ogni centesimo&quot; dal [[governo]] degli [[Stati Uniti]] per questa commessa.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita testo|lingua=en|url=http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/article-xml/awx_03_04_2013_p0-554940.xml|titolo=''U.S. General's Australian Outburst Could Undermine F-35 Program''|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20130520142533/http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=%2Farticle-xml%2Fawx_03_04_2013_p0-554940.xml }}. Aviation Week. 4 marzo 2013.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> A febbraio 2014 il Pentagono ha reso nota la decisione di acquistare otto aeromobili meno del previsto nel corso dell'anno successivo, dovuta a tagli al bilancio della difesa e non ad una valutazione delle prestazioni dell'F-35.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://www.lastampa.it/2014/02/26/edizioni/novara/f-il-pentagono-taglia-il-budget-e-riduce-a-jet-gli-ordini-del-n3mHOfpX6IXftuHn3WkpEM/pagina.html|titolo=''F-35, il Pentagono taglia il budget e riduce a 34 jet gli ordini del 2015''}}. La stampa. Novara. 26 febbraio 2014.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> In una audizione davanti all’Assemblea parlamentare nell'agosto del 2017 il generale André Lanata, Capo di stato maggiore dell’aeronautica francese, ha dichiarato che l’F-35 sarà presto lo standard di riferimento per i velivoli da combattimento in tutto il mondo e la Francia, che non è tra i paesi finanziatori del progetto e non prevede l'acquisto degli aerei, sarà surclassata dai partner ad oggi alla pari che acquisiranno il veicolo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=http://formiche.net/blog/2017/09/07/f-35-francia/|titolo=Così il capo dell'aeronautica francese elogia gli F-35 - Formiche.net|pubblicazione=Formiche.net|data=7 settembre 2017|accesso=7 settembre 2017}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> La vita del veicolo è stata predeterminata in 8.000 ore di volo, la Lockheed Martin, a seguito del superamento di specifici test a terra corrispondenti a 24.000 ore di volo, ha dichiarato di voler portare la vita operativa del velivolo a 16.000 ore di volo.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/f-35-i-test-a-terra-indicano-la-possibilita-di-unestensione-della-durata-di-vita-del-caccia-stealth-di-quinta-generazione/|titolo=F-35: i test a terra indicano la possibilità di un’estensione della durata di vita del caccia stealth di quinta generazione - Aviation Report|pubblicazione=Aviation Report|data=19 settembre 2018|accesso=23 settembre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> In una intervista alla rivista specializzata &quot;Difesa Online&quot; il comandante del 32º Stormo, il colonnello Davide Marzinotto, che ha seguito il programma per anni, in Italia e negli USA sin da quando sono stati definiti i requisiti operativi della macchina, ha dichiarato che: «''La rivoluzione che rappresenta l’F-35 è dovuta al suo DNA “omnirole”: il velivolo può assolvere a più missioni simultaneamente, senza bisogno di tornare alla base per essere riconfigurato. Forse non è immediatamente comprensibile a tutti il valore in termini operativi di tutto questo. Posso assicurare che si tratta di un qualcosa di rivoluzionario''» e «''Quando si è in volo impressiona la percezione della consapevolezza espansa fornita dai sensori: si apre un mondo e si resta a bocca aperta. In un confronto aereo un tempo si facevano considerazioni del tipo “Qui me la cavo...”, “Qui me la gioco...” o “Qui devo stare attento”. A bordo di un F-35 il pensiero non può essere altro che “Povero colui che si trova dall’altra parte!!!”''»&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita news|url=http://www.difesaonline.it/evidenza/interviste/rivoluzione-f35|titolo=Rivoluzione F35|pubblicazione=Difesa Online|data=1º ottobre 2018|accesso=1º ottobre 2018}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Cultura di massa ==<br /> * In particolare la versione C dell'F-35 compare tra i velivoli della serie di [[videogiochi]] ''Ace Combat''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita testo|url=http://acecombat.wikia.com/wiki/F-35C_Lightning_II|titolo=F-35C Lightning II - Acepedia, the Ace Combat wiki&lt;!-- Titolo generato automaticamente --&gt;}}.&lt;/ref&gt; e nella serie ''[[Tom Clancy's H.A.W.X.]]''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url= http://forums-it.ubi.com/showthread.php/13496-INFO-La-LISTA-AEREI-di-Tom-Clancy-s-HAWX!-Forums |titolo= La LISTA AEREI di Tom Clancy's HAWX! {{!}} Forums }}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> * La versione B compare invece in ''Deadly Skies III''&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url= https://www.gamefaqs.com/ps2/914994-airforce-delta-strike/faqs/28646 |editore= GameFQS |titolo= AirForceDelta Aircraft List }}&lt;/ref&gt; e nel simulatore di guerra [[ArmA II]], come principale velivolo pilotabile.<br /> * La versione sperimentale dello stesso, al tempo denominata X-35, compare come velivolo pilotabile nel videogioco di [[Eidos Interactive]] per computer dal titolo ''[[Joint Strike Fighter]]''.<br /> * È presente nei seguenti titoli videoludici: [[Battlefield 2]], DLC Back to Karkand di [[Battlefield 3]], [[Battlefield 4]], [[Empire Earth]] sotto il nome fittizio di &quot;Caccia Jackal&quot;, [[Call of Duty: Black Ops II]] e [[MetalStorm: Wingman]].<br /> * In ambito cinematografico l'aereo compare anche nel film ''[[Lanterna Verde (film)|Lanterna verde]]'', in alcune scene di ''[[Die Hard - Vivere o morire]]'', in ''[[The Avengers (film 2012)|The Avengers]]''&lt;ref&gt;{{YouTube|id=tgwW_hxmZAU|titolo=McClane vs F35}}&lt;/ref&gt; e in ''[[Transformers - L'ultimo cavaliere|Transformers: L'ultimo cavaliere]]''.<br /> * Nel film ''[[L'uomo d'acciaio]]'' i caccia multiruolo scortano un [[Boeing C-17 Globemaster III|C-17]].<br /> * Nel simulatore di volo [[Digital Combat Simulator]] si può volare su un modello gratuito creato da un utente.<br /> *Nel simulatore &quot;Alliance Air War&quot; compare la versione F-35 C<br /> <br /> == Note ==<br /> &lt;references/&gt;<br /> <br /> == Voci correlate ==<br /> * [[Boeing X-32]]<br /> * [[Aerei X]]<br /> * [[Lockheed Martin-Boeing F-22 Raptor]]<br /> <br /> == Altri progetti ==<br /> {{interprogetto}}<br /> <br /> == Collegamenti esterni ==<br /> * {{collegamenti esterni}}<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://www.jsf.org.uk/|titolo=JSF UK Team|lingua=en|accesso=13 febbraio 2009|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20010521143853/http://www.jsf.org.uk/|urlmorto=sì}}<br /> * {{cita web|url=https://www.f35.com/|titolo=F-35 Lightning II|lingua=en}}<br /> * {{cita web | url = http://www.leonardocompany.com/-/f-35-jsf/ | titolo = F-35 JSF | accesso = 11 luglio 2016 | urlarchivio = https://web.archive.org/web/20160808151754/http://www.leonardocompany.com/-/f-35-jsf | urlmorto = sì }}<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://www.aereimilitari.org/Aerei/F-35.htm|titolo=Il Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II}}<br /> * {{cita testo|url=http://www.aviazione.org/f35.shtml|titolo=Descrizione tecnica dell'F-35 Lightning II|accesso=10 maggio 2018|dataarchivio=6 aprile 2009|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20090406095945/http://www.aviazione.org/f35.shtml|urlmorto=sì}} su www.aviazione.org<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://www.difesanews.it/archives/scheda-tecnica-f-35-lightning-ii-joint-strike-fighter|titolo=Scheda Tecnica del Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II}}<br /> * {{cita web|url=http://multimedia.lastampa.it/multimedia/in-italia/lstp/107557/|titolo=video da lastampa.it}}<br /> * {{cita pubblicazione | url = http://www.heritage.org/defense/report/operational-assessment-the-f-35a-argues-full-program-procurement-and-concurrent | titolo = Operational Assessment of the F-35A Argues for Full Program Procurement and Concurrent Development Process | nome = John | cognome = Venable | rivista = Backgrounder | lingua = en |numero= 3014 | editore = [[The Heritage Foundation]] | giorno = 4 | mese = agosto | anno = 2016 | accesso = 12 ottobre 2016}}<br /> *{{cita web|url=https://www.aviation-report.com/tag/f-35-jsf-lightning-ii/|titolo=Tutte le notizie sempre aggiornate sui velivoli Lockheed Martin F-35}} su www.aviation-report.com<br /> <br /> {{Lockheed}}<br /> {{Caccia USA}}<br /> {{Aerei X}}<br /> {{Controllo di autorità}}<br /> {{Portale|aviazione|guerra|marina|stati Uniti d'America}}<br /> <br /> [[Categoria:Aeromobili stealth]]<br /> [[Categoria:Aerei militari Lockheed Martin|F-35 Lightning II]]<br /> [[Categoria:Aerei militari dal 1992 a oggi]]<br /> [[Categoria:Caccia multiruolo]]<br /> [[Categoria:Aerei militari Leonardo|F-35 Lightning II]]</div> 2022-12-10T16:16:04Z 2022-12-10T16:16:04Z Lucamauri https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discussione:Lockheed_Martin_F-35_Lightning_II //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Discussioni_progetto:Filosofia&diff=129966210 Discussioni progetto:Filosofia <p>Lucamauri: /* Ipotesi della simulazione */ nuova sezione</p> <hr /> <div>{{Titolo errato|titolo=La botte di Diogene}}<br /> {{bar tematici|scienze umanistiche}}<br /> &lt;div class=&quot;toccolours&quot; style=&quot;padding:16px;background:#ffffff&quot;&gt;<br /> [[File:Diogene nella botte.jpg|150px|left]]<br /> Benvenuti nella '''Botte di Diogene''', il '''Bar di Filosofia''', dove si ritrovano i [[Wikipedia:Wikipediani|wikipediani]] interessati alla [[filosofia]]. <br /> Questo luogo è un punto d'appoggio del [[Progetto:Filosofia]], in cui si possono porre domande, inserire comunicazioni e coordinare il lavoro intorno alle voci di filosofia presenti in Wikipedia.<br /> <br /> Per argomenti di carattere più generale è meglio rivolgersi al [[Wikipedia:Bar]].<br /> <br /> &lt;div style=&quot;text-align: center&quot;&gt;'''[http://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Discussioni_Progetto:Filosofia&amp;action=edit&amp;section=new Clicca qui] per inserire una nuova domanda o osservazione'''&lt;/div&gt;<br /> &lt;/div&gt;<br /> <br /> {{Portale|Filosofia}}<br /> {{/Archivio}}<br /> __TOC__<br /> {{clear}}<br /> &lt;!-----------------------------------------------&gt;<br /> &lt;!-- SCRIVETE QUI SOTTO PER PIACERE!! GRAZIE!! --&gt;<br /> &lt;!-----------------------------------------------&gt;<br /> <br /> == Margaret Cavendish ==<br /> <br /> [[Discussione:Margaret_Cavendish#meccanicista o no?|Segnalo]].--&lt;small&gt;&lt;b&gt;&lt;span style=&quot;font-family: Papyrus&quot;&gt;[[Utente:Patafisik|&lt;span style=&quot;color:#dfa37f;&quot;&gt;Pątą&lt;/span&gt;]][[Discussioni utente:Patafisik|&lt;span style=&quot;color:#7fbbdf;&quot;&gt;fişiķ&lt;/span&gt;]]&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/b&gt;&lt;/small&gt; 14:32, 12 gen 2022 (CET)<br /> <br /> == Ipazia ==<br /> <br /> Noto che sulla pagina è presente il template P. Ma siamo sicuri che sia necessario? Ho dato un occhio anche alla voce inglese e sinceramente non vedo tutte accuse fatte da chi ha messo il template. --'''[[Discussioni utente:AccendiLaLuce|&lt;span style=&quot;color:#20FF30;background:#4050B0&quot;&gt;AccendiLaLuce&lt;/span&gt;]]''' 03:42, 22 gen 2022 (CET)<br /> <br /> == Autoconcetto ==<br /> <br /> Ciao, vi chiedo un parere sul collegamento della voce [[Autoconcetto]] all'elemento wikidata [https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1860557#sitelinks-wikipedia Q1860557]. A mio parere si tratta di una definizione completamente diversa di &quot;autoconcetto&quot;, che attiene più alla psicologia e che in italiano è più spesso espresso come &quot;concetto di Sè&quot;. In attesa di avere la voce sul significato psicologico io toglierei il collegamento, ma magari mi sfugge qualcosa e i due termini sono in qualche modo assimilabili. Opinioni? --[[Utente:Agilix|'''''Agilix''''']] ([[Discussioni utente:Agilix|msg]]) 11:00, 2 feb 2022 (CET)<br /> :Sinceramente non vedo la necessità di una voce che tratti del &quot;concetto di sè&quot; in psicologia, non mi pare che sia un lemma così in voga tra gli psicologi italiani al punto da meritare una voce a parte rispetto a quelle già esistenti tipo &quot;Io (psicologia)&quot;, &quot;Sè (coscienza)&quot;, &quot;Sé (psicologia analitica)&quot; ... e via discorrendo, ci manca solo l'ennesima variante. Una nuova voce chiamata &quot;concetto di sè&quot; a mio avviso si configurerebbe già nel titolo come una ricerca originale.--[[Speciale:Contributi/151.47.172.32|151.47.172.32]] ([[User talk:151.47.172.32|msg]]) 18:57, 17 apr 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == &quot;Popolo&quot; o &quot;gruppo etnico&quot;? ==<br /> <br /> Segnalo questa discussione: [[Wikipedia:Bar/Discussioni/&quot;Popolo&quot; o&quot;gruppo etnico&quot;?]] --[[user:ripepette|Ripe]] &lt;small&gt;([[user talk:ripepette|msg]])&lt;/small&gt; 10:49, 13 feb 2022 (CET)<br /> <br /> == katekon, kathekon o kathekonta e catechon ==<br /> <br /> Non è uno scioglilingua. Segnalo [[Discussione:Katékon|questa proposta]] sull'opportunità di spostare la voce sul concetto stoico di [[Katékon]] alla voce &quot;Kathekon&quot; o (meglio, io credo) &quot;Kathekonta&quot;, al fine di correggere un errore di traslitterazione e di diminuire i rischi di confusione con la voce sul [[catechon]] di San Paolo. --[[Utente:Tacito75|Tacito]] ([[Discussioni utente:Tacito75|msg]]) 01:42, 4 mar 2022 (CET)<br /> <br /> == Associazione Svizzera dei Liberi Pensatori ==<br /> <br /> {{cancellazione|Associazione Svizzera dei Liberi Pensatori}}--[[Utente:Mauro Tozzi|Mauro Tozzi]] ([[Discussioni utente:Mauro Tozzi|msg]]) 15:14, 5 apr 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == proposta voce Roberto Rossi (filosofo) ==<br /> <br /> Il sottoscritto Zero079 dichiara di contribuire a questa voce in conflitto di interessi per interesse personale gratuito<br /> <br /> Salve a tutti, <br /> <br /> prima di tutto mi scuso per la mia ignoranza wikipediana, poi finalmente sono stato indirizzato qui, per chiedere aiuto.<br /> <br /> Vorrei creare la voce Roberto Rossi (filosofo), poiché mi è stato chiesto da diversi suoi alunni e professori universitari suoi colleghi, ed io ho accolto con entusiasmo. Riteniamo infatti che il suo pensiero debba essere in qualche modo conosciuto, e che pertanto sia enciclopedico. <br /> Di seguito vi giro il materiale a mia disposizione riguardo la sua vita professionale e il suo pensiero, alcune parti possono essere rintracciate da fonti certe, altre purtroppo no:<br /> Dal 1991 svolge attività di docenza, tuttora svolta, presso l’Istituto Superiore di Scienze Religiose “Ecclesia Mater” della [[Pontificia Università Lateranense]] (http://www.ecclesiamater.org/Docenti.aspx?ind=Q-Z) e dal 2007 presso l’[[Istituto Superiore di Scienze Religiose “Fides et Ratio”]] di L’Aquila, come docente stabile, negli insegnamenti di Filosofia della religione, Il problema di Dio nella filosofia del ‘900, Problemi e questioni di filosofia contemporanea, Introduzione alla filosofia, Le ideologie del Novecento. Nel 1997, per un quinquennio, è stato anche docente di Teologia fondamentale e Teologia dogmatica presso la [[Libera Università Maria Santissima Assunta|LUMSA]] (purtroppo per queste due università non riesco a trovare fonti da internet, a parte questo http://www.aracneeditrice.it/aracneweb/index.php/autori.html?auth-id=305011 e altri simili di case editrici che lo hanno pubblicato).<br /> Poi è membro del Comitato scientifico della “Rivista Rosminiana” e socio fondatore della Società Internazionale per l’Unità delle Scienze “L’Arcipelago” (con [[Maria Adelaide Raschini]]). E’ stato membro scientifico dell’organizzazione del Congresso Internazionale di Napoli, per il bicentenario della morte di [[Antonio Rosmini]], tenuto presso l’Istituto di Filosofia di Napoli, dal 22 al 25 ottobre 1997 (Membro del Gruppo di Consulenza del Comitato Nazionale per le Celebrazioni del Bicentenario della nascita di Rosmini, cfr. AA.VV., Rosmini e l’Enciclopedia delle Scienze, Atti del Congresso internazionale, a cura di M. A. Raschini, Napoli 22-25 ottobre 1997, Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze 1998, p. VIII).<br /> Collaboratore stabile alla rivista “Filosofia Oggi” per la quale ha scritto recensioni e saggi, membro del Comitato scientifico di El uno y lo mùltiple, “Rivista Internacional de Filosofia”, ha collaborato con la Radio Vaticana nel 1980 e con RAI TRE dal 1981 al 1985 per la presentazione di libri e riviste di filosofia, di cui ho solo l'anno 1982 come fonte certa per quanto riguarda radiotre (http://www.radiocorriere.teche.rai.it/Fascicoli.aspx?data=1982, 4 - 10 lugl; 18- 24 lugl; 1 - 7 ag; 15-21 ag; 29 ag- 4 sett; 12 -18 sett ; 10-16 ott 1982 (24-30 ott) &quot;Rassegna delle Riviste: filosofia&quot;, martedì ore 21, p. 229, (7-13 nov 1982) &quot;Rassegna Riviste: filosofia&quot; martedì ore 21 p. 229, (21-27 nov 1982) p. 229; (5-11 dic) p. 189; (19-25 dic) p. 205, .<br /> Ha collaborato con il professor Giorgio Penzo al volume Nietzsche. Atlante della sua vita e del suo pensiero, curandone le voci: “J. Burckhardt” e “F. C. Overbeck”. Il volume è uscito per i tipi della Rusconi nel 1999. <br /> Suoi testi hanno avuto introduzione di autori (filosofi e teologi) importanti come [[Antonio Livi]] (''Fondamento e Storia'', con introduzione di Antonio Livi , Roma 2001, 2005 (4° edizione), [http://www.teologialugano.ch/krienke-markus.html Markus Krienke] (''Lineamenti per una filosofia della intersoggettività'', con introduzione di Markus Krienke, 2018 Roma); collabora con lo scienziato Corrado Giannantoni (che ha una pagina wikipedia in inglese ma non in italiano, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corrado_Giannantoni) con cui ha scritto un libro (''Dal multi-verso all’Uni-verso'', finanziato dall’Ordine degli Ingegneri di Pescara, Pescara 2014); che due suoi libri sono stati scritti con il finanziamento del [[Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche|CNR]]: Tempo e sacralità in Nietzsche e Overbeck, Abete, 1985, Roma (primo lavoro in Italia sul pensiero di [[Franz Camille Overbeck]]), Nietzsche e Burckhardt, Tilgher, 1987 Genova; è stato recensito su LaFeltrinelli (''Maria Adelaide Raschini. L’intelligenza della carità'', Marsilio, 2003 Venezia), e LibreriaRizzoli.it, ''Introduzione alla filosofia. Storia e sistemi'', EDB, Bologna 1993, 2001 (tradotto in portoghese). E’ autore infine di una sessantina tra conferenze, saggi e relazioni.<br /> Per quanto riguarda il suo pensiero, di seguito un breve riassunto di mia opera (tratto da ''Sull’ateismo. Aforismi'', 1983 Genova; ''Ragione e intelligenza'', Tau, 2009 Todi), Con C. Giannantoni, ''Dal multi-verso all’Uni-verso''). <br /> Lungo la tradizione platonico-agostiniano-rosminiana e fedele all’insegnamento di Michele Federico Sciacca, autore avvicinato nella frequentazione del nucleo sciacchiano dell’Università di Genova (proff. Maria Adelaide Raschini, Pier Paolo Ottonello, Tomaso Bugossi, Carlo Lupi) ha rivisitato alcuni nodi problematici della storia della filosofia occidentale, ancorando metafisicamente ogni ricerca storica intesa come risposta e non come causa o origine delle idee o dei valori, perché già il porre domande è indicazione di apertura metafisica.<br /> L’uomo è un angelo mancato, ma è anche un animale mancato. Ciò che definisce l’uomo, è ciò che è assente in lui. A definirlo non è ciò che c’è, ma ciò che manca, giacché l’uomo deve arrivare ad essere: l’uomo fa storia per questo, secondo dopo secondo. Non è compiuto come lo è un verme, né come lo è un angelo. Sul piano naturale egli è meno di un verme: la natura lo ha lasciato privo di risposte che invece ha riversato in quell’invertebrato.<br /> Negli ultimi anni, sulla base dell’amicizia preesistente ha progressivamente intensificato un assiduo scambio di idee con l’ingegnere nucleare Corrado Giannantoni in relazione al suo nuovo metodo matematico , con una breve introduzione a C. Giannantoni, ''The Maximum Em-Power Principle as the basis for Thermodynamics of Quality'', University of Florida, Gainesville 2002, pp. XIV- XV. La collaborazione è orientata alla proposta comune di una &quot;compossibile&quot; altra concezione della scienza e della sua metodologia, di cui è conseguenza, ''Dal multi-verso all’Uni-verso''. La teoria della &quot;compossibilità&quot; vuole evitare ogni contrapposizione che la renderebbe parziale e dunque ideologica, non c'è dunque un aut-aut, ma un et-et, cioè un punto di vista di una scienza qualitativa, altrettanto possibile come quello quantitativa. <br /> <br /> Grazie infinite per la disponibilità<br /> <br /> Attendo fiducioso<br /> <br /> [[Utente:Zero079|Zero079]] ([[Discussioni utente:Zero079|msg]])<br /> <br /> :A me pare un autore di nicchia, ma comunque rispetto ad altre voci su Wikipedia che non hanno senso almeno questo si capisce che è un autore che ha fatto qualcosa.--[[Speciale:Contributi/151.47.172.32|151.47.172.32]] ([[User talk:151.47.172.32|msg]]) 19:12, 17 apr 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Orfanizzazione della diaambigua Strutturalismo ==<br /> <br /> Da molto tempo la pagina di disambigua [[Strutturalismo]] necessita di essere orfanizzata correggendo i wikilink errati di una trentina di voci che vi puntano. Spero che gli utenti attivi di questo progetto possano dare il loro contributo. --[[Utente:No2|No2]] ([[Discussioni utente:No2|msg]]) 15:57, 21 apr 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Segnalo procedura di cancellazione voce Andrea Zhok ==<br /> <br /> Visto che non compare automaticamente nel progetto Filosofia segnalo ad utenti potenzialmente interessati alla discussione [[Wikipedia:Pagine da cancellare/Andrea Zhok/2|questa procedura di cancellazione]] della voce sul filosofo [[Andrea Zhok]]. --[[Utente:MNepi|MNepi]] ([[Discussioni utente:MNepi|msg]]) 07:41, 10 mag 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Virginia Volterra ==<br /> <br /> {{Cancellazione|Virginia Volterra}} --[[Utente:Mariachiara-www|Mariachiara-www]] ([[Discussioni utente:Mariachiara-www|msg]]) 17:08, 29 mag 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Carlo Petrini (bioeticista) ==<br /> <br /> Desidero sottoporre all’attenzione la proposta [[Utente:Vesasp/Sandbox|https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utente:Vesasp/Sandbox]] .<br /> <br /> Essa riguarda la voce “Carlo Petrini (bioeticista)”. Essa è stata presente in Wikipedia per oltre 10 anni, per poi essere bloccata perché ritenuta non enciclopedica. Reputo il blocco un accanimento ingiusto. Il motivo per cui la pagina fosse simile più a un CV che a una voce enciclopedica è contraddetta dai fatti: in Wikipedia vi è una miriade di voci che si presentano come CV in modo ben più marcato di ciò che fosse la voce &quot;Carlo Petrini (bioeticista)&quot; attiva per oltre 10 anni. Ne cito un paio tra le moltissime: [[Alberto Maria Gambino|https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Maria_Gambino]] [[Giorgio Marengo|https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgio_Marengo]]<br /> <br /> Un tutor mi ha suggerito di sottoporre la proposta al progetto “Filosofia”. Sono grato per l’attenzione che vorrete dedicare. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 15:38, 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> : Ciao {{Ping|Vesasp}} in primis non bisogna andare di [[WP:ANALOGIA]] . Accanimenti non credo ci sono giuste procedure vagliate dalla comunità che decidono se una voce è enciclopedica o meno , e in questo caso è stato deciso di no. Al momento il problema a mio avviso non è tanto il tono curriculare ma la mancanza di [[WP: FONTI]] che ne attestino [[WP:E]] assoluta, tipo da dimostrarsi tutte e 100 le pubblicazioni che potrebbero dare enciclopedicità alla voce , un saluto -- [[Utente:Il buon ladrone|Il buon ladrone]] ([[Discussioni utente:Il buon ladrone|msg]]) 15:46, 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> :: Il fatto che su Wikipedia ci sia di peggio non è un argomento utile, e nemmeno il fatto che sia stato su wp per 10 anni. Bisogna concentrarsi su valore enciclopedico della singola voce, qui e ora. A me Petrini sembra un professionista che fa bene il suo lavoro, il che però non lo rende automaticamente enciclopedico. In cosa si è particolarmente distinto? Ha all'attivo molte pubblicazioni, ma qualcuna di essa è particolarmente rilevante nel suo campo? Rientra in qualcuno dei criteri proposti in [[WP:BIO]]? --[[Utente:Agilix|'''''Agilix''''']] ([[Discussioni utente:Agilix|msg]]) 15:58, 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :::Grazie. La proposta attuale contiene, in poche righe di testo, 4 fonti: 2 tra i maggiori database di pubblicazioni scientifiche al mondo; 2 istituzioni che afferiscono al Governo italiano. Numerose altre fonti di informazioni sono facilmente reperibili: sarei grato se, oltre le 2 tipologie indicate (database internazionali di pubblicazioni scientifiche e istituzioni del Governo) suggeriste altre tipologie di fonti utili per rendere accettabile la proposta. Per esempio: i testi delle audizioni parlamentari di Carlo Petrini (su temi quali: eutanasia, consenso informato, ricerca biomedica) disponibili nei siti della Camera dei Deputati e del Senato sono fonti adatte? Continuo a ritenere che il blocco della pagina, sul quale si è espresso un numero esiguo di persone) non sia equo. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 16:10, 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :::{{Fuori crono}}Per quanto riguarda la rilevanza delle pubblicazioni, il Presidente emerito della Corte Costituzionale,  Prof. Francesco Paolo Casavola, nella prefazione da lui scritta al libro “Bioetica nella sanità” di Petrini, dice quanto segue: “Si incontrano in questo libro passaggi che lo abilitano a presentarsi come il più aggiornato contributo alle conoscenza della recente evoluzione delle interconnessioni tra i progressi della ricerca medica e la loro utilizzazione nella terapia e nella pratica clinica, insieme alla acquisizione di una cultura bioetica da parte di tutti, autori ed attori coinvolti nell’impegno della salvaguardia della salute dell’uomo”. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 16:19, 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> ::Nella proposta è stato aggiunto ciò che scrive il Presidente emerito della Corte Costituzionale a porposito del libro &quot;Bioetica nella Sanità&quot; di Petrini: secondo il Presidente emerito dela Corte Cosituzionale il volume è &quot;il più aggiornato contributo alle conoscenza della recente evoluzione delle interconnessioni tra i progressi della ricerca medica e la loro utilizzazione nella terapia e nella pratica clinica, insieme alla acquisizione di una cultura bioetica da parte di tutti&quot;. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 16:30, 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> ::il testo è stato integrato non solo con ciò che scrive il Presidente emerito della Corte Costituzionale, il quale definisce l'ultimo libro di Petrini come &quot;il più aggiornato contributo alla conoscenza della recente evoluzione&quot; della materia, ma anche con la fonte del Portale di Bioetica nazionale SIBIL, nel quale Petrini risulta l'autore italiano con il maggior numero di pubblicazioni nel settore della Bioetica. Ringrazio coloro che vorranno giudicare ed esprimersi sulla pubblicazione della voce. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 22:26, 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> ::Sono state fatte ulteriori modifiche: [[Utente:Vesasp/Sandbox]]. Sarei grato se si potesse valutare la versione corrente al fine di proporre un'eventuale sblocco della voce. Grazie. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 22:46, 10 ago 2022 (CEST)<br /> :@[[Utente:Il buon ladrone|Il buon ladrone]] La proposta di voce è stata integrata con autorevoli fonti istituzionali (Presidente Corte Costituzionale, database nazionale) che attestano la rilevanza delle opere. --[[Utente:21se61|21se61]] ([[Discussioni utente:21se61|msg]]) 16:43, 3 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :::: {{Ping|Vesasp}} porta le fonti che ne dimostrano rilevanza senza pensare a numeri e altro, grazie --[[Utente:Il buon ladrone|Il buon ladrone]] 16:12 , 2 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> La proposta è stata integrata con autorevoli fonti istituzionali che attestano la rilevanza delle opere.<br /> <br /> {{Rientro}} Bene ma la voce rimane a tratti curriculare è da aggiustare ancora. Invito ad aspettare anche altri pareri , saluti e buon lavoro -- [[Utente:Il buon ladrone|Il buon ladrone]] ([[Discussioni utente:Il buon ladrone|msg]]) 17:03, 3 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> :Caro Buon Ladrone, grazie. Poiché non arrivano pareri, potresti potresti per favore indicare i punti in cui &quot;rimane a tratti curriculare&quot;, in modo da proporre una formulazione diversa? Cordialità. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 22:35, 10 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> ::Caro Buon Ladrone, non ricevendo né da te, né da altri, indicazioni su dove “la voce riman[ga] a tratti curriculare&quot;, ho provato a introdurre modifiche, sperando che ora il testo sia accettabile. Grazie per l’attenzione che tu o altri vorrete dedicare. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 22:44, 18 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :Si attendono indicazioni su quali sioano i punti in cui &quot;rimane a tratti curriculare&quot;, in modo da poter trarre le conclusioni della discussione. Grazie. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 23:45, 15 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> Si attendono indicazioni su quali siano i punti in cui &quot;rimane a tratti curriculare&quot;, in modo da poter trarre una conclusione. {{Non firmato| 23:44, 15 giu 2022‎ Vesasp }}<br /> :A parte il problema di essere curriculare, alcune parti abbastanza ampie delle voce trattano più gli enti/comitati diretti, che la persona in sé. --[[Utente:Meridiana solare|Meridiana solare]] ([[Discussioni utente:Meridiana solare|msg]]) 12:53, 25 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> ::Grazie. Le informazioni relative alla persona in sé sono state eliminate il più possibile proprio perché costituiscono l'oggetto della critica. Si sono mantenuti riferimenti soltanto alle responsabilità di livello nazionale (privilegiando i contenuti delle responsabilità ed evitando informazioni sulla persona) e alle opere (il soggetto è l'autore italiano con maggior numero di contributi nelle pubblicazoni nazionali e internazionali di bioetica) . Sarebbe utile se venissero indicati precisamente i punti che, nella proposta attuale, dovrebbero essere modificati. Grazie ancora. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 15:32, 25 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> {{at|Vesasp}} rileggendo la discussione, mi prendo la responsabilità di dirti che probabilmente secondo la comunità di Wikipedia Carlo Petrini non ha un profilo enciclopedico, e che quindi il suo profilo non sarà pubblicato. Ovviamente è la mia opinione, ma mi sento di fornirtela per evitarti di continuare a postare domande qui e allo sportello informazioni e attendere risposte. --[[Utente:Agilix|'''''Agilix''''']] ([[Discussioni utente:Agilix|msg]]) 15:58, 25 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> :Grazie per la gentile attenzione. Sarebbe molto utile, e assai gradito, avere indicazioni precise e puntuali su quali siano i motivi per cui manca il profilo enciclopedico: leggendo le regole generali, i requisiti sembrerebbero tutti rispettati, dati i ruoli di livello nazionale e internazionale della persona e la rilevanza dei temi decritti (bioetica, comitati etici; normativa sulla ricerca biomedica). --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 16:06, 25 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :Mi permetto di aggiungere: sono consapevole che l’insistenza sia spiacevole, ma altrettanto spiacevole è ricevere una sentenza di rifiuto senza che alcuno indichi precisamente i punti alla base del rifiuto, ma soltanto con un’indicazione generica di non accettabilità. Grazie ancora. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 16:20, 25 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :: Ti è già stato detto: prima era una voce curriculare, che non evidenziava i motivi per cui Carlo Petrini dovrebbe stare in un'enciclopedia. Ora è una voce più generica, ma che ancora una volta non evidenzia particolari motivi di enciclopedicità del biografato. Se non l'hai già fatto, leggi [[wp:Enciclopedicità]]. --[[Utente:Agilix|'''''Agilix''''']] ([[Discussioni utente:Agilix|msg]]) 16:38, 25 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :::Nella versione attuale, ulteriormente modificata (cfr. [[Utente:Vesasp/Sandbox#Biografia|Testo]]), tutti i requisiti di [[Wikipedia:Enciclopedicità|Enciclopedicità]] sono rispettati:<br /> :::- Le fonti inserite sono istituzionali, internazionali e nazionali: PubMed, AIFA, ISS;<br /> :::- Il concetto è permanente: la bioetica è una disciplina autonoma da oltre cinquanta anni;<br /> :::- La rilevanza è non solo nazionale, ma internazionale (in particolare per gli incarichi attribuiti dal Ministro della Salute alla persona, che presiede prestigiose istituzioni di rilevanza nazionale e ha responsabilità cruciali nel settore);<br /> :::- Per oltre due terzi il contenuto della voce riguarda non la persona e la sua attività, bensì la disciplina e le istituzioni. --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 12:10, 28 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :::Per rafforzare l’autorevolezza delle fonti, ho aggiunto le fonti Lancet, JAMA; BMJ: Petrini ha pubblicato nelle riviste di biomedicina più autorevoli al mondo. --[[Utente:Bieet|Bieet]] ([[Discussioni utente:Bieet|msg]]) 13:26, 29 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> :::Sono state fatte ulteriori modifiche: [[Utente:Vesasp/Sandbox]]. Sarei grato se si potesse valutare la versione corrente al fine di proporre un'eventuale sblocco della voce. Grazie --[[Utente:Vesasp|Vesasp]] ([[Discussioni utente:Vesasp|msg]]) 09:48, 11 ago 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Riccardo Dal Ferro (avviso procedura di cancellazione) ==<br /> <br /> {{Cancellazione|Riccardo Dal Ferro}}--[[Utente:TrinacrianGolem|TrinacrianGolem]] ([[Discussioni utente:TrinacrianGolem|msg]]) 00:35, 30 giu 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == avviso dubbio voce: Accademia Pitagorica ==<br /> <br /> {{AiutoE|Accademia Pitagorica|filosofia}}--&lt;b&gt;&lt;i&gt;[[Utente:SurdusVII|&lt;span style=&quot;color:#FF9933; font-family:Times New Roman;&quot;&gt;SurdusVII&lt;/span&gt;]] &lt;small&gt;[[Discussioni utente:SurdusVII|&lt;span style=&quot;color:#C80815; font-family:Times New Roman;&quot;&gt;(wikicollega dal 2012)&lt;/span&gt;]]&lt;/small&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/b&gt; 11:45, 1 ago 2022 (CEST)<br /> : {{ping|SurdusVII}} Ho [[Bozza:Accademia Pitagorica|spostato in bozza]] perché, allo stato - mancando anche fonti - non si riesce a valutare correttamente l'eventuale enciclopedicità.--[[Utente:TrinacrianGolem|TrinacrianGolem]] ([[Discussioni utente:TrinacrianGolem|msg]]) 12:41, 1 ago 2022 (CEST)<br /> ::@[[Utente:TrinacrianGolem|TrinacrianGolem]] non sono io l'autore.. pingo il [[Utente:Ingcelsi|wikicollega]].. --&lt;b&gt;&lt;i&gt;[[Utente:SurdusVII|&lt;span style=&quot;color:#FF9933; font-family:Times New Roman;&quot;&gt;SurdusVII&lt;/span&gt;]] &lt;small&gt;[[Discussioni utente:SurdusVII|&lt;span style=&quot;color:#C80815; font-family:Times New Roman;&quot;&gt;(wikicollega dal 2012)&lt;/span&gt;]]&lt;/small&gt;&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/b&gt; 12:43, 1 ago 2022 (CEST)<br /> :::{{ping|SurdusVII}} Si, lo so. Avevo avvisato anche il wiki-collega a riguardo sulla sua talk.;-)--[[Utente:TrinacrianGolem|TrinacrianGolem]] ([[Discussioni utente:TrinacrianGolem|msg]]) 15:39, 1 ago 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Mancanza voce Ente ==<br /> <br /> C'è la voce [[Essere]] ma non quella sull'ente (o essente se la si dice alla Severino). Immagino che Heidegger e compagnia non sarebbero d'accordo ad assimilare ente a essere (o, meglio, gli enti all'essere). È il caso di creare la voce ente o no? --[[Utente:Sistoiv|Sistoiv]] ([[Discussioni utente:Sistoiv|msg]]) 11:58, 10 ago 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Filippo Tarantino (avviso procedura di cancellazione) ==<br /> <br /> {{Cancellazione|Filippo Tarantino}} --[[Utente:TrinacrianGolem|TrinacrianGolem]] ([[Discussioni utente:TrinacrianGolem|msg]]) 01:03, 11 set 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Avviso ==<br /> <br /> {{Cancellazione|Società Italiana di Filosofia Analitica}}--[[Utente:Kirk39|&lt;span style=&quot;color:Blue;&quot;&gt;'''Kirk'''&lt;/span&gt;]] &lt;small&gt;[[Discussioni utente:Kirk39|&lt;span style=&quot;color:Green;&quot;&gt;''Dimmi!''&lt;/span&gt;]]&lt;/small&gt; 10:02, 2 ott 2022 (CEST)<br /> <br /> == Ipotesi della simulazione ==<br /> <br /> Vorrei segnalare la pagina [[Ipotesi della simulazione]]. A mio avviso, e confrontandola con quella Inglese, tutto il paragrafo &lt;code&gt;Le backrooms&lt;/code&gt; ha poca o nessuna attinenza con l'argomento. Inoltre, se c'è un esperto dell'argomento, credo la pagina avrebbe bisogno di una espansione. Grazie per i vostri commenti. --[[Utente:Lucamauri|Luca Mauri]] ([[Discussioni utente:Lucamauri|msg]]) 21:42, 16 ott 2022 (CEST)</div> 2022-10-16T19:42:38Z 2022-10-16T19:42:38Z Lucamauri https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discussioni_progetto:Filosofia //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Discussione:Parley&diff=129309907 Discussione:Parley <p>Lucamauri: /* Spostamento o redirect */ nuova sezione</p> <hr /> <div>{{Progetti interessati<br /> |progetto = Diritto<br /> |progetto2 = Guerra<br /> |progetto3 = <br /> |progetto4 = <br /> |accuratezza = c<br /> |scrittura = c<br /> |fonti = c<br /> |immagini = <br /> |note = <br /> |utente = SurdusVII<br /> |data = settembre 2020<br /> }}<br /> <br /> == Spostamento o redirect ==<br /> <br /> Come scritto nell'incipit di questa voce, il temine italiano equivalente all'inglese &quot;''parley''&quot; è &quot;parlè&quot;. Non sarebbe quindi opportuno spostare questa pagina sotto il titolo di &lt;code&gt;Parlè&lt;/code&gt;, oppure creare almeno un redirect da &lt;code&gt;Parlè&lt;/code&gt; a questa pagina? --[[Utente:Lucamauri|Luca Mauri]] ([[Discussioni utente:Lucamauri|msg]]) 14:44, 11 set 2022 (CEST)</div> 2022-09-11T12:44:37Z 2022-09-11T12:44:37Z Lucamauri https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discussione:Parley //bits.wikimedia.org/favicon/wikipedia.ico #e6e6e6 https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Comunione_e_Liberazione&diff=128922255 Comunione e Liberazione <p>Lucamauri: /* Editoria */ Link alla pianta, non alla città</p> <hr /> <div>{{NN|storia|luglio 2009}}<br /> '''Comunione e Liberazione''' ('''CL''') è un [[Movimento (sociologia)|movimento]] [[cattolico]] fondato dal sacerdote [[Luigi Giussani]] nel 1954 nell'ambiente studentesco [[Milano|milanese]] inizialmente come branca dell'[[Azione Cattolica]]. Si caratterizza per porre il messaggio della [[fede]] cristiana come fondamento di ogni aspetto della vita.&lt;ref name=&quot;:02&quot;&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/comunione-e-liberazione/|titolo=Comunione e liberazione su treccani|accesso=16 novembre 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20181124163335/http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/comunione-e-liberazione/|dataarchivio=24 novembre 2018|urlmorto=no}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref name=&quot;Bibliography&quot;&gt;{{Cita libro|url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1028904627|titolo=The life of Luigi Giussani|cognome=Alberto,|nome=Savorana,|isbn=0-7735-5217-0|città=Montreal|oclc=1028904627}}&lt;/ref&gt; Inizialmente noto come [[Gioventù Studentesca]], dopo alterne vicende e un periodo di crisi nel 1968, venne riorganizzato negli anni settanta quando assunse l’attuale denominazione, riuscendo poi a estendersi in tutta Italia.&lt;ref name=&quot;:02&quot; /&gt; Si stimano circa 300.000 membri.&lt;ref name=&quot;auto5&quot;&gt;{{Cita libro|cognome=Pinotti|nome=Ferruccio|curatore-cognome=Chiarelettere Editore Srl|curatore-nome=Chiarelettere Editore Srl|titolo=La Lobby di Dio|editore=Chiarelettere Editore Srl|data=2011|pp=3–7|capitolo=About this Book|isbn=978-88-6190-170-4}}&lt;/ref&gt; Il movimento è presente in circa settanta paesi in tutto il mondo&lt;ref&gt;[https://it.clonline.org/contatti Il sito web del movimento] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180314162752/https://it.clonline.org/contatti |data=14 marzo 2018 }} riporta l'elenco di 61 paesi dove CL è presente in forma organizzata e riconosciuta. A questi vanno aggiunti paesi, soprattutto africani e asiatici, nei quali la presenza del movimento è limitata in particolare a quella di missionari cattolici o famiglie e singoli residenti o nei quali gli aderenti fanno riferimento alle comunità dei paesi più prossimi.&lt;/ref&gt;. Partendo dai suoi ideali fondativi, il movimento è impegnato in cause sociali, assistenziali, con la [[Compagnia delle Opere]], nella creazione di scuole private e in alcuni progetti caritatevoli come il [[Fondazione Banco Alimentare|Banco Alimentare]]&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.bancoalimentare.it/it/chi-siamo/fondazione|titolo=Banco alimentare fondazione|accesso=16 novembre 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20180827210035/https://www.bancoalimentare.it/it/chi-siamo/fondazione|dataarchivio=27 agosto 2018|urlmorto=no}}&lt;/ref&gt;. Negli anni ha subito accuse di [[conflitti di interesse]] e [[lobbismo]] e alcuni importanti membri e cooperative collegate sono stati condannati per reati di corruzione e frode.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2017/06/20/roberto-formigoni-condannato-giudici-nessuna-attenuante-e-spregiudicato-corrotto-con-almeno-6-milioni/3672672/|titolo=Formigoni condannato|accesso=16 novembre 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20190329112748/https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2017/06/20/roberto-formigoni-condannato-giudici-nessuna-attenuante-e-spregiudicato-corrotto-con-almeno-6-milioni/3672672/|dataarchivio=29 marzo 2019|urlmorto=no}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://it.businessinsider.com/il-sistema-corrotto-degli-appalti-aler-mm-fnm-che-ingrassava-gli-uomini-della-compagnia-delle-opere/|titolo=sistema corrotto appalti|accesso=16 novembre 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20181004203534/https://it.businessinsider.com/il-sistema-corrotto-degli-appalti-aler-mm-fnm-che-ingrassava-gli-uomini-della-compagnia-delle-opere/|dataarchivio=4 ottobre 2018|urlmorto=no}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/conservative-catholic-group-gripped-scandal|titolo=Catholic Group Gripped by Scandal|accesso=16 novembre 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20180724032216/https://www.ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/conservative-catholic-group-gripped-scandal|dataarchivio=24 luglio 2018|urlmorto=no}}&lt;/ref&gt;&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=http://roma.repubblica.it/cronaca/2015/09/22/news/mafia_capitale_-123441947/|titolo=condanna mafia capitale|accesso=16 novembre 2018|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20181211123148/https://roma.repubblica.it/cronaca/2015/09/22/news/mafia_capitale_-123441947/|dataarchivio=11 dicembre 2018|urlmorto=no}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> Don Giussani affermava di non aver mai realmente inteso fondare un movimento. In relazione a una lettera&lt;ref&gt;[https://it.clonline.org/archivio/movimento-papi/lettera-di-giovanni-paolo-ii-a-don-giussani-frat Lettera autografa di papa Giovanni Paolo II a Luigi Giussani] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181116131620/https://it.clonline.org/archivio/movimento-papi/lettera-di-giovanni-paolo-ii-a-don-giussani-frat |data=16 novembre 2018 }} per il ventesimo anniversario della Fraternità di CL (febbraio 2002).&lt;/ref&gt; di [[papa Giovanni Paolo II]], aveva affermato&lt;ref&gt;[https://it.clonline.org/archivio/luigi-giussani/santit%C3%A0 Lettera di Luigi Giussani a papa Giovanni Paolo II] per i 50 anni del movimento di Comunione e Liberazione (aprile 2004).&lt;/ref&gt; a proposito di Comunione e Liberazione: &quot;Non solo non ho mai inteso &quot;fondare&quot; niente, ma ritengo che il genio del movimento che ho visto nascere sia di avere sentito l'urgenza di proclamare la necessità di tornare agli aspetti elementari del cristianesimo, vale a dire la passione del fatto cristiano come tale nei suoi elementi originali, e basta.&quot; La presenza di CL nel mondo della scuola ha ancora il nome di Gioventù Studentesca. La sigla CLU (Comunione e Liberazione - Universitari) definisce invece informalmente l'intera presenza di CL nelle università indipendentemente dalle varie forme di associazionismo. Del movimento fanno parte anche esperienze di vita consacrata quali ad esempio i ''[[Memores Domini]]'', la ''[[Fraternità San Giuseppe]]'' e la ''[[Fraternità Sacerdotale dei Missionari di San Carlo Borromeo]]'', le ''[[Suore di carità dell'Assunzione]]'', oltre a numerose [[Vocazione|vocazioni]] nell'ambito di [[Ordini religiosi|famiglie religiose]] già esistenti ([[Ordine della Beata Vergine del Monte Carmelo|carmelitani]], [[benedettini]], [[francescani]], [[Cistercensi della stretta osservanza|trappisti]], etc). Dopo la morte di don Giussani, avvenuta il 22 febbraio [[2005]], la guida del movimento è passata al sacerdote spagnolo [[Julián Carrón|don Julián Carrón]]. Nel [[2014]] la Diaconia Centrale di Comunione e Liberazione ha rinnovato a Julián Carrón il mandato di Presidente della Fraternità per un sessennio.&lt;ref&gt;Dal sito di ''CL'': {{cita web|url=http://it.clonline.org/julian-carron/default.asp?id=447|titolo=Copia archiviata|accesso=30 aprile 2016|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20160423002304/http://it.clonline.org/julian-carron/default.asp?id=447|dataarchivio=23 aprile 2016|urlmorto=sì}}; da ''Vatican Insider'': [http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/vaticano/dettaglio-articolo/articolo/comunione-e-liberazione-comunion-and-liberation-comunion-y-liberacion-33151/] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150613195552/http://vaticaninsider.lastampa.it/vaticano/dettaglio-articolo/articolo/comunione-e-liberazione-comunion-and-liberation-comunion-y-liberacion-33151/ |data=13 giugno 2015 }}&lt;/ref&gt; Dopo le dimissioni di Carrón, dal novembre 2021 il prof. Davide Prosperi, già vicepresidente, ha assunto il ruolo di presidente ad interim.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web |url=https://www.ilriformista.it/chi-e-davide-prosperi-il-nuovo-presidente-ad-interim-di-comunione-e-liberazione-263835/ |titolo=|accesso=8 aprile 2022 }}&lt;/ref&gt; In una lettera del giugno [[2022]] il [[cardinale]] [[Kevin Farrell]], prefetto del [[Dicastero per i laici, la famiglia e la vita]], conferma Prosperi alla guida del Movimento, segnatamente della Fraternità, per un quinquennio.&lt;ref&gt;[https://www.aldomariavalli.it/2022/06/13/il-cardinale-farrell-a-comunione-e-liberazione-la-dottrina-di-carron-sulla-successione-del-carisma-e-sbagliata-e-fuorviante/ Lettera del card. Farrell del 10 giugno 2022]&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Storia ==<br /> === Periodo di GS (1954-1969) ===<br /> L'origine di Comunione e Liberazione risale al 1954, quando [[Luigi Giussani|Don Giussani]] decise di lasciare il magistero presso il [[Seminario arcivescovile di Milano|seminario di Venegono]] per insegnare religione cattolica al [[liceo classico Giovanni Berchet]] di Milano. In seguito ai quotidiani incontri con gli studenti don Giussani divenne assistente di [[Azione Cattolica]] per il ramo di [[Gioventù Studentesca]] (GS) che in pochi anni si diffuse all'interno e oltre la [[Arcidiocesi di Milano|diocesi di Milano]]. La prima comunità fuori Milano ebbe inizio nel 1960 a Catania, seguirono [[Rimini]], [[Rovereto]], [[Trento]], [[Chiavari]] e [[Forlì]] dove GS, come ricorda don Giussani, compì la &quot;prima storica uscita nel settembre del '61 in [[Campigna]]&quot;&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.sandrodiremigio.com/memoria/don_francesco_ricci.htm Memoria di Don Francesco Ricci] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070929045816/http://www.sandrodiremigio.com/memoria/don_francesco_ricci.htm |data=29 settembre 2007 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, dal gruppo di Forlì ebbe inizio la comunità di [[Diocesi di Sansepolcro|Sansepolcro]] nel '64 prima in Toscana. Solo nei primi anni settanta CL diverrà completamente autonoma dall'Azione Cattolica.<br /> <br /> Già durante la seconda metà degli [[anni 1950|anni cinquanta]] il [[cardinale]] di Milano Giovanni Battista Montini (futuro [[papa Paolo VI]]) riportò a don Giussani le osservazioni di alcuni preti milanesi secondo i quali GS, contrariamente ai metodi dell'[[Azione Cattolica]] in cui era inserita, aveva abolito la tradizionale divisione tra associazioni maschili e femminili e aveva privilegiato l'apostolato d'ambiente rispetto a quello della parrocchia. Montini però concluse: «io non capisco le sue idee e i suoi metodi, ma vedo i frutti e le dico: vada avanti così»&lt;ref&gt;Le notizie riassunte in questo paragrafo e nei successivi vengono dai documenti citati in Massimo Camisasca, ''Comunione e Liberazione: le origini'', indicato nella bibliografia.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Agli inizi degli anni sessanta, il vescovo di [[Crema (Italia)|Crema]] riportava alcune critiche tra cui «GS non è un movimento della Chiesa, ma di un uomo, destinato a scomparire con lui»; mons. [[Franco Costa (vescovo)|Franco Costa]], assistente nazionale della [[FUCI]] (Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana), chiese inutilmente a Montini il drastico ridimensionamento di GS o dello stesso don Giussani. Le pressioni di [[Azione Cattolica]] e [[FUCI]] continuarono, finché nel [[1965]] GS fu finalmente inserita esplicitamente come movimento d'ambiente nelle strutture di AC (avendo come presidente l'allora studente [[Luigi Negri]], oggi [[vescovo]]), e il quarantatreenne Giussani fu inviato &quot;in esilio&quot; negli [[Stati Uniti d'America|USA]] dal cardinale di Milano [[Giovanni Colombo (cardinale)|Giovanni Colombo]] per studiare [[teologia]] [[protestante]]. Giussani fu costretto a rientrare dopo appena cinque mesi per un [[chirurgia|intervento chirurgico]] alla [[cistifellea]], e fu quindi incaricato di insegnare &quot;introduzione alla teologia&quot; all'[[Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore]] di Milano (cattedra che tenne fino al [[1990]]). Nel frattempo l'allora studente [[Angelo Scola]] (futuro [[Patriarcato di Venezia|patriarca di Venezia]] e arcivescovo di Milano), veniva chiamato alla presidenza della FUCI milanese.<br /> <br /> Nel numero di luglio del [[1966]] della ''Rivista Diocesana Milanese'' il cardinale Colombo annunciò di aver stabilito che i vertici di GS fossero i vicepresidenti di [[Azione Cattolica]], e che i ragazzi avviati in GS proseguissero la loro formazione nella [[Federazione universitaria cattolica italiana|FUCI]]. Nello stesso anno [[Giuseppe Lazzati]]&lt;ref&gt;Fino alla fine degli anni cinquanta la polemica tra AC e GS riguardava solo il metodo: [[Giuseppe Lazzati]] e Luigi Giussani si alternavano spesso in conferenze e lezioni sia per GS che per AC. La polemica con l'[[Azione Cattolica]] prima e la [[FUCI]] poi si era accesa perché mentre GS insisteva su un'educazione &quot;unitaria&quot;, da parte dell'AC e della [[FUCI]] si voleva una distinzione netta tra i rami religioso, culturale e sociale. L'Azione Cattolica, inoltre, aveva suoi schemi e metodi (rigida divisione tra gruppi maschili e femminili, collocazione nelle parrocchie, etc.) nei quali GS non si riconosceva.&lt;/ref&gt; chiedeva le dimissioni di tutta la presidenza della GIAC (Gioventù Italiana Azione Cattolica) in quanto troppo legati a GS&lt;ref&gt;La lettera di Lazzati è citata dal [[Gesuiti|gesuita]] Piersandro Vanzan, ''Pazienza e dialogo in «bonum ecclesiae»'', in ''Vita Pastorale'', n.8-9 (1988), pp.127-130. La polemica tra Lazzati e CL proseguì «anche dopo la morte dello stesso Lazzati», con la pubblicazione postuma di un inedito di Lazzati contenente critiche alla gerarchia ecclesiastica ed a CL.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Nel febbraio 1966 vengono denunciati da GS gli autori dell'inchiesta pubblicata da &quot;[[La zanzara (periodico)|La zanzara]]&quot;, giornale studentesco del [[Liceo Parini]] di Milano, intitolata &quot;Che cosa pensano le ragazze d'oggi&quot;, un dibattito sulla condizione femminile e sulla posizione della donna nella nostra società, condotta criticando la famiglia tradizionale e la morale sessuale in termini forti per quell'epoca.<br /> GS ribatté con un volantino firmato &quot;Pariniani Cattolici&quot;, che pur accusando &quot;la gravità dell'offesa recata alla sensibilità e al costume morale comune&quot;, era intitolato ''Protestiamo! Valori fondamentali della nostra tradizione sono la libertà e la democrazia''.&lt;ref&gt;Sulla stampa, il tema della democrazia emerso dal caso &quot;La Zanzara&quot; fu riconsiderato solo diverse settimane dopo (cfr. ad esempio ''Le associazioni studentesche centri di vita democratica'', [[Avanti!]], 22 aprile 1966).&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> Il caso de ''la zanzara'' rimbalzò sulle cronache nazionali, dividendo il paese. [[Democrazia Cristiana]] e [[Movimento Sociale Italiano]] costituirono il &quot;partito della colpevolezza&quot;, mentre la sinistra e i cattolici progressisti intervennero in difesa degli studenti. Ne nacque un caso simbolo nella società italiana (seguito anche da ''[[Le Monde]]'' e da ''[[The New York Times]]''), presentato come una questione di sesso tra studenti e rapidamente ripresa dalla stampa di sinistra e dai consiglieri comunali comunisti&lt;ref&gt;Cfr. per esempio ''Solleva un putiferio &quot;La Zanzara&quot; del Parini'' ([[Avanti!]] 23 febbraio 1966); ''Mobilitata la macchina giudiziaria contro un giornale di studenti liceali'' (''[[l'Unità]]'', 23 febbraio 1966). I consiglieri comunali comunisti di Milano intervennero in difesa de &quot;La Zanzara&quot; insieme ad alcuni professori del liceo.&lt;/ref&gt;. Un gruppo di genitori firmò un telegramma di solidarietà al preside della scuola, mentre altri genitori denunciarono alla magistratura gli autori dell'inchiesta, che vennero assolti, così come il preside del Liceo dall'accusa di stampa oscena e corruzione di minorenni.<br /> <br /> I rappresentanti di GS presentarono le proprie ragioni il 24 marzo successivo, in una sede del [[Pontificio istituto missioni estere|PIME]], dove furono raccolte 4.500 firme a sostegno della posizione di GS, inviate ai giornali e alle autorità di Milano.<br /> <br /> Il 17 novembre [[1967]] esplose il [[Sessantotto]] italiano, proprio con un'occupazione all'Università Cattolica milanese, a cui parteciparono anche molti aderenti di GS, AC, FUCI, addirittura passando in alcuni casi a [[Lotta Continua]] e al [[Movimento Studentesco (organizzazione)|Movimento Studentesco]] di [[Mario Capanna]]: la crisi che il Sessantotto accese in tutto il mondo cattolico cambiò profondamente la fisionomia di tutte le aggregazioni della Chiesa in Italia.<br /> <br /> === Progressiva distinzione fra Azione Cattolica e CL (1965-1972) ===<br /> [[Gioventù Studentesca]] era inserita nell'Azione Cattolica ma la differenza nel metodo ne provocò, attraverso gli anni, il distacco e la crisi. Nel periodo del [[Il Sessantotto|'68]] molti aderenti abbandonarono il movimento ma altri, più fedeli a don Giussani, si riorganizzarono.<br /> <br /> Nonostante la tensione con l'[[Azione Cattolica]], fino ai primissimi anni settanta ai vertici dell'AC vi erano ancora giovani provenienti da GS. Per esempio, nel giugno 1970 [[Massimo Camisasca]] venne eletto vicepresidente per il Settore giovani dell'Azione Cattolica della diocesi di Milano, carica che avrebbe mantenuto fino al [[1972]].&lt;ref&gt;Camisasca, successivamente ordinato [[sacerdote]], fondò nel 1985 la [[Fraternità Sacerdotale dei Missionari di San Carlo Borromeo]], di cui è tuttora [[Superiore (religioso)|superiore]].&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> La realtà da GS da tempo comprendeva anche universitari e adulti; i primi si organizzavano all'interno della FUCI, i secondi in comunità che si davano localmente nomi diversi. All'inizio degli anni '70 si cercò una denominazione nuova per l'intero movimento, e si iniziò a usare Comunione e Liberazione (quindi CLU per gli universitari e CLL per i lavoratori). Il nome deriva da un volantino diffuso da alcuni universitari nel [[1969]] e rimanda al contrasto col mondo culturale del tempo: mentre la cultura dichiarava che lo spirtito rivoluzionario era il cammino della liberazione dell'uomo, gli aderenti al movimento affermavano che tale cammino è possibile solo nella ''comunione cristiana'', da cui la ''liberazione''; la Salvezza è Gesù Cristo e la liberazione della vita e dell'uomo, qui e nell'aldilà, è legata continuamente all'incontro con Lui. Il 18 giugno [[1971]] la presidenza nazionale della [[FUCI]] emise un comunicato in cui diceva: «Preso atto che CL ha una sua organizzazione e un suo discorso su scala nazionale [...] è risultato più realistico considerare la [[FUCI]] e CL come due realtà distinte»; nell'ottobre successivo il cardinale Colombo andò anche oltre, affermando che «i gruppi di CL non sono un'alternativa all'AC ma sono solo un libero e legittimo movimento di apostolato». Queste prese di posizione portarono in meno di un anno al distacco definitivo di CL da AC, un distacco certamente non voluto da Giussani che fino all'ultimo dichiarò al cardinale Colombo di non aver mai voluto creare una struttura accanto ad altre strutture, ma solo sviluppare la propria opera all'interno delle strutture ecclesiastiche esistenti.<br /> <br /> Dal rapporto epistolare tra il cardinale Colombo e Giussani emergerà poi la necessità di dotare CL di una qualche forma statutaria.<br /> <br /> === Dall'accusa di «integrismo» al riconoscimento (1972-1982) ===<br /> [[File:CL manifestazione.JPG|miniatura|Manifestazione di CL durante gli anni '70]]<br /> Negli anni immediatamente successivi al 1968, un periodo in cui tutte le associazioni ecclesiastiche erano in crisi, presso alcuni ambienti si vedeva con perplessità l'espansione di un movimento che faceva capo non ai vescovi ma a un sacerdote. Il vescovo [[Franco Costa]], incaricato dalla [[Conferenza Episcopale Italiana|CEI]] di tracciare un documento su CL, formulò un'accusa di «integrismo»&lt;ref&gt;Mons. [[Franco Costa (vescovo)|Costa]] utilizzò deliberatamente il termine ''[[integrismo]]'' anziché il termine [[Fondamentalismo|integralismo]]; comunemente i due termini sono considerati sinonimi.&lt;/ref&gt; che a causa dell'importanza dell'estensore rimase a lungo come etichetta di CL. Nel documento di Costa, l'accusa di «integrismo» coesisteva con un'accusa diametralmente opposta (quella di essere un [[movimento carismatico]]) a causa della rapida diffusione di CL in tutta Italia. Giussani ha sempre spiegato tale diffusione nei termini di propagazione di un'[[amicizia]] cristiana. CL veniva criticata gruppi di ispirazione cristiana come [[ACLI|Gioventù ACLIsta]] e [[Cristiani per il Socialismo]].<br /> <br /> Un primo informale incoraggiamento pontificio al movimento venne il 23 marzo [[1975]] da parte di [[papa Paolo VI]]. Dopo un incontro in piazza san Pietro, in cui erano presenti diciottomila ciellini&lt;ref&gt;''Giovani di tutto il mondo in Piazza San Pietro'', L'Osservatore Romano, 24 marzo 1975.&lt;/ref&gt;, Paolo VI fermò Giussani per dirgli «questa è la strada: vada avanti così! Coraggio, coraggio, lei e i suoi giovani, perché questa è la strada buona», ripetendo lo stesso incoraggiamento di vent'anni prima&lt;ref&gt;Papa Montini rivelò poi la sua delusione per il comportamento ambiguo di Azione Cattolica e FUCI in occasione del referendum contro il divorzio del 1974, in contrasto con la presa di posizione netta di CL. Cfr. Massimo Camisasca, ''Comunione e Liberazione. La ripresa (1969-1976)'', San Paolo, pagg. 308-309.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Paolo VI incaricò esplicitamente l'allora segretario della CEI mons. [[Enrico Bartoletti]] di seguire CL. Con Bartoletti sembrò che il riconoscimento fosse vicino, ma la sua morte improvvisa nel marzo 1976 riportò tutto in alto mare per altri quattro anni.<br /> <br /> Papa Paolo VI, nell'udienza del 28 dicembre [[1977]], disse agli universitari di CL presenti: «siamo molto attenti all'affermazione che andate diffondendo del vostro programma, del vostro stile di vita, dell'adesione giovanile e nuova, rinnovata e rinnovatrice, agli ideali cristiani e sociali che vi dà l'ambiente cattolico in Italia», ricordando anche il loro «fondatore» don Giussani. Pochi anni dopo, CL avrebbe ottenuto il riconoscimento pontificio.<br /> <br /> Durante gli anni settanta, con la progressiva crescita del movimento, ne aumentò l'esposizione mediatica tanto che nel marzo [[1973]] ''[[L'Espresso]]'' pubblicò una serie di articoli evidenziando la consistenza numerica di CL e qualificandola come «gli extraparlamentari della [[Democrazia Cristiana|DC]]». Dal febbraio del [[1974]] si registrarono a Milano le prime aggressioni agli aderenti di CL sia nella scuola (nello stesso liceo Berchet e all'ITIS Molinari) che all'università (alla Statale) da parte di organizzazioni di estrema sinistra (come [[Avanguardia Operaia]] e [[Movimento Studentesco (organizzazione)|Movimento Studentesco]]) e in qualche isolato caso di estrema destra ([[FUAN]] e [[Avanguardia Nazionale]]). In vista del referendum sul [[divorzio]] (maggio 1974), a causa della posizione del movimento dichiaratamente contraria al divorzio e alla campagna per il &quot;Sì&quot;, le organizzazioni ostili a CL la definirono «organizzazione giovanile della DC», «organizzazione squadristica di CL», «gruppo reazionario clerico-fascista al soldo di DC e padronato», e aumentarono le aggressioni tese a impedire assemblee e volantinaggi di CL. Nel giugno successivo gli universitari ciellini vennero aggrediti da esponenti del Movimento Studentesco durante una funzione religiosa nella chiesa della [[Università degli Studi di Milano|Statale di Milano]]; nei volantinaggi del Movimento Studentesco si chiedeva sempre di «togliere agibilità politica a CL» poiché «CL non ha il diritto di parlare in università». Nel dicembre successivo ''[[il manifesto]]'' afferma che sarebbero presenti nel movimento «alcuni squadristi di [[Ordine Nuovo (movimento)|Ordine Nuovo]]», notizia smentita da [[Roberto Formigoni]], allora leader nazionale di CL. «È una colpa sociale essere [[cristianesimo|cristiani]]», commenterà amaramente il cardinale [[Ugo Poletti]] sulle pagine de ''[[L'Osservatore Romano]]''.<br /> <br /> Un volantino delle [[Brigate Rosse]] nel dicembre [[1975]] indica CL come uno strumento della «campagna clerico-fascista scatenata dal [[Vaticano]] contro il pericolo [[comunismo|comunista]]» e i ciellini come «provocatori di professione al soldo dell'imperialismo». Il 14 febbraio [[1976]] appare su ''[[La Stampa]]'' e ''[[il manifesto]]'' la notizia che CL sarebbe «un'organizzazione politica creata dalla [[Central Intelligence Agency|CIA]] e foraggiata con due miliardi di [[Lira italiana|lire]]». Nonostante le smentite e la pubblicazione dei dati sull'autofinanziamento di CL e la querela ai due giornali, la notizia viene amplificata dalla stampa. Nello stesso febbraio ci furono diversi attacchi con [[Bomba Molotov|bombe Molotov]] contro sedi di CL, con lo [[slogan]] «le sedi di CL si chiudono col [[fuoco]]», devastazioni o distruzioni di locali usati da ciellini, auto, proprietà, aggressioni con spranghe (il 17 giugno 1979 ''La Stampa'' e ''Il manifesto'' smentiranno quelle che erano state definite 'assurde calunnie'). Un attentato con bombe Molotov devasterà anche la sede della [[Jaca Book]], la casa editrice creata da CL.<br /> <br /> Nel luglio [[1977]] le Brigate Rosse gambizzano Mario Perlini, in quanto «segretario regionale dell'organizzazione di Comunione e Liberazione» (volantino BR del 14 luglio 1977)&lt;ref&gt;Tessandori Vincenzo, ''&quot;Qui Brigate Rosse&quot;: il racconto, le voci'', Baldini Castoldi Dalai, Milano 2009, pag. 36; [http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1994/giugno/10/con_caso_Moro_non_entro_co_0_94061015475.shtml Il brigatista Etro Raimondo «Con il caso Moro non c'entro nulla»] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151105095229/http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/1994/giugno/10/con_caso_Moro_non_entro_co_0_94061015475.shtml |data=5 novembre 2015 }}, ''Corriere della Sera'', 10 giugno 1994.&lt;/ref&gt;, il 23 ottobre 1977 gambizzano Carlo Arienti, in quanto «uomo di punta di Comunione e Liberazione»&lt;ref&gt;Tessandori Vincenzo, ''&quot;Qui Brigate Rosse&quot;: il racconto, le voci'', Baldini Castoldi Dalai, Milano 2009, pag. 36.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> === Anni ottanta ===<br /> Il desiderio di proseguire l'esperienza del movimento in una forma più stabile, da parte degli ex studenti che avevano incontrato don Giussani attraverso la [[scuola]] e l'[[università]], si condensò nei primi [[Anni 1970|anni settanta]] nella ''Fraternità di Comunione e Liberazione'', riconosciuta l'11 febbraio [[1982]] dalla [[Chiesa cattolica]] quale associazione laicale di diritto pontificio. La Fraternità di Comunione e Liberazione si incontra annualmente per gli [[esercizi spirituali]] a [[Rimini]].<br /> <br /> Con un decreto dell'11 luglio 1980, infatti, l'[[abate]] di [[Abbazia territoriale di Montecassino|Montecassino]], [[Martino Matronola]], conferì la personalità giuridica all'[[associazione laicale]] denominata &quot;Comunione e liberazione&quot; ed eresse la ''Fraternità di Comunione e Liberazione'', invitando gli altri Ordinari diocesani a che venisse &quot;accolta, aiutata e incoraggiata&quot;. Nel novembre successivo il cardinale [[Ugo Poletti]] la riconobbe a [[Roma]], e prima della fine dell'anno fu riconosciuta anche a [[Catania]] e in numerose altre [[diocesi]] italiane.<br /> Il 30 gennaio 1982 una nota del [[Pontificio Consiglio per i Laici]] considerò l'approvazione pontificia della Fraternità un fatto compiuto, «anche perché il Santo Padre ha manifestato la sua augusta ''mens'', favorevole alla concessione della personalità giuridica pontificia»&lt;ref&gt;Giovanni Paolo II era notoriamente favorevole a CL. «Wojtyla arrivò a dire parlando ai ciellini: &quot;Il mio modo di vedere le cose è simile al vostro, anzi è lo stesso&quot;. Una volta gli scappò un &quot;noi ciellini&quot; che non era una battuta» (da ''{{collegamento interrotto|[http://www.fscb.org/UserFiles/File/pdf_scaricabili/200602Famiglia_Cristiana.pdf Il dono di una vita]|data=febbraio 2018|bot=InternetArchiveBot}}'', su [[Famiglia Cristiana]] n. 9/2006; cfr. anche [http://www.et-et.it/articoli2005/a05b23.htm scheda su Don Giussani] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060515093225/http://www.et-et.it/articoli2005/a05b23.htm|data=15 maggio 2006}} di [[Vittorio Messori]]).&lt;/ref&gt;; il decreto pontificio di papa Giovanni Paolo II seguì poco meno di due settimane dopo, l'11 febbraio 1982. Come presidente della [[Fraternità di Comunione e Liberazione]] fu nominato don [[Luigi Giussani]].<br /> <br /> === Anni novanta ===<br /> {{...|religione}}<br /> <br /> === Anni 2000 ===<br /> L'11 febbraio 2002 lo stesso Giovanni Paolo II scrisse a Giussani una lettera per i vent'anni di riconoscimento pontificio, in cui affermò che CL «ha voluto e vuole indicare» all'uomo di oggi «non ''una'' strada, ma ''la'' strada», e tale strada «è Cristo»&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.clonline.org/it/testi/Art_dett.asp?Autore=Giovanni+Paolo+II&amp;offset=30&amp;ID=172 Lettera di papa Giovanni Paolo II] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927024929/http://www.clonline.org/it/testi/Art_dett.asp?Autore=Giovanni+Paolo+II&amp;offset=30&amp;ID=172 |data=27 settembre 2007 }} a don Luigi Giussani per il ventesimo anniversario della Fraternità di CL (11 febbraio 2002). La lettera è stata inviata eccezionalmente per il ventesimo anniversario, contrariamente alla tradizione pontificia dei venticinquesimi, cinquantesimi e centesimi anniversari.&lt;/ref&gt;.<br /> <br /> Il 24 marzo 2007 papa Benedetto XVI ha voluto ricevere in udienza in Piazza S.Pietro l'intera comunità di CL in occasione del venticinquesimo anniversario della Fraternità. Agli oltre centomila presenti ha ricordato le parole del predecessore e rinnovato la stima e la benedizione nel cammino verso Cristo.<br /> <br /> == Caratterizzazione dell'associazione ==<br /> {{F|associazioni cattoliche| febbraio 2013}}<br /> [[File:Comunione e liberazione.jpg|thumb|Striscione di Comunione e liberazione]]<br /> Fin dalle sue origini come Gioventù Studentesca, la vita del movimento di Comunione e Liberazione è centrata sulla preghiera svolta nella [[liturgia]].<br /> L'esperienza di vita proposta all'interno di CL valorizza i tre aspetti che don Giussani indicava come fondanti l'esperienza cristiana: cultura, carità e missione.<br /> <br /> * '''Scuola di comunità:''' Un'attività tipica del movimento è la [[catechesi]] detta ''scuola di comunità'' generalmente sui testi di don Giussani o del Magistero organizzata dalle singole comunità e aperta a tutti. Fin dai primi tempi di Gioventù Studentesca, don Giussani aveva stabilito come scopo primario l'[[educazione]] alla maturità cristiana e la collaborazione alla missione della Chiesa in ogni aspetto della vita. La scuola di comunità intende essere in primo luogo un metodo per verificare la presenza di [[Cristo]] nella propria vita, approfondendo il rapporto Fede-ragione e come la ragione umana possa approcciarsi al mistero di Dio e dell'[[Incarnazione]], aiutando chi vi partecipa a prendere coscienza di come possa nascere dalla comunione con Cristo attraverso la Chiesa un'umanità nuova. Ogni [[comunità]] comincia il raduno con una preghiera o un canto; c'è quindi una lettura di un testo di don Giussani. Segue una breve discussione, confrontando quanto letto con la propria esperienza personale, e si conclude con un canto, una preghiera e gli avvisi, ritenuti le &quot;gambe su cui può camminare la comunità&quot;.{{Senza fonte}}<br /> * '''Liturgia e preghiera:''' Don Giussani ha sempre utilizzato per sé e per il movimento semplicemente le preghiere e la [[liturgia]] della Chiesa, senza aggiunte o modifiche (a eccezione dell'[[Angelus]] che viene recitato in forma abbreviata con un solo [[Ave Maria]]). Nella Messa si utilizzano spesso canti della tradizione della Chiesa ([[Canto gregoriano|gregoriani]], laude medievali, polifonici, etc.). Le celebrazioni eucaristiche, aperte a tutti, sono ridotte all'essenziale: senza &quot;segni&quot; (cioè senza applausi, senza arredi sacri particolari, etc.), senza &quot;monizioni&quot; (né interventi spontanei), secondo quanto permette il [[Messale|Messale Romano]]. Don Giussani ha sempre promosso la [[liturgia delle Ore]], che è recitata quasi sempre in gruppo e in ''recto tono''. Agli inizi degli anni settanta fu compilata una versione semplificata&lt;ref&gt;''Il libro delle Ore'', edizioni Jaca Book (ultima ristampa aprile 2006), con ''[[imprimatur]]'' di [[Giuseppe Martinoli]], [[vescovo]] di [[Lugano]], maggio 1975. Il volume, originariamente inteso per gli studenti delle scuole superiori, è stato poi utilizzato in tutto il movimento.&lt;/ref&gt; del [[Breviario romano|breviario]] [[Rito ambrosiano|ambrosiano]], racchiusa in un ciclo di una sola &quot;settimana&quot; anziché quattro, che è in uso ancora oggi; i consacrati (''Memores Domini'', etc.) utilizzano invece il breviario della Chiesa cattolica. Sulla scia della [[devozione]] [[Maria, madre di Gesù|mariana]] di don Giussani, la recita del [[rosario]] è frequente, e sono raccomandati in modo particolare anche l'[[Angelus]], il [[Regina Coeli]], il [[Memorare]], la preghiera di san Bernardo (presente nel canto XXXIII della [[Divina Commedia]]) e l'invocazione allo Spirito (''Veni Sancte Spiritus, veni per Mariam'').<br /> * '''Canto e musica:''' La passione di don Giussani per la musica e il canto sono un aspetto essenziale del movimento; secondo don Giussani il canto è &quot;l'espressione più alta del cuore dell'uomo&quot;,&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web |url=http://www.tracce.it/detail.asp?c=1&amp;p=0&amp;id=2327 |titolo=''La massima espressione'' - Intervista a don Luigi Giussani a cura di Renato Farina, in ''Litterae Communionis-Tracce'', n°4, 1994, inserto |accesso=8 novembre 2013 |urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20160313102720/http://tracce.it/detail.asp?c=1&amp;id=2327&amp;p=0 |dataarchivio=13 marzo 2016 |urlmorto=no }}&lt;/ref&gt; &quot;la carità più grande di tutte perché il canto rende vicino e visibile il mistero&quot;.&lt;ref&gt;Massimo Camisasca, ''Comunione e liberazione: le origini (1954-1968)'', ed. San Paolo, 2001, pag. 123&lt;/ref&gt; Giussani stesso racconta che fin «dalla prima Messa di GS, la prima in assoluto» insegnò ai suoi ragazzi i classici della ''devotio moderna'', a cui seguiranno poi canti solisti, popolari o polifonici del [[XVI secolo|Cinquecento]] e del [[XVII secolo|Seicento]]. Inizialmente circoscritti all'ambito della sola liturgia, i [[Coro (musica)|cori]] di CL si sono poi formati anche su altri generi (dagli ''spirituals'' ai canti degli alpini, dai canti brasiliani al [[Laudario di Cortona]], dai canti gregoriani e ambrosiani ai canti tradizionali spagnoli, irlandesi, sudamericani). Già nei primissimi tempi dell'insegnamento al Berchet don Giussani faceva ascoltare in classe, nelle sue lezioni di religione, dischi di [[Ludwig van Beethoven|Beethoven]], [[Fryderyk Chopin|Chopin]], [[Johannes Brahms|Brahms]], e altri: l'ascolto e il commento di musica e canti è rimasto poi come uno dei fattori fondamentali della vita del movimento. Negli ultimi anni della sua vita don Giussani ha fondato e diretto la collana di [[CD]] ''[[Spirto gentil]]'' con i pezzi che riteneva meglio eseguiti, non solo di musica classica (tra cui [[Ludwig van Beethoven|Beethoven]], [[Franz Joseph Haydn|Haydn]], [[Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart|Mozart]], [[Sergej Vasil'evič Rachmaninov|Rachmaninov]], [[Giovanni Battista Pergolesi|Pergolesi]]) ma anche canti e musiche di altre tradizioni (ad esempio laudari [[Medioevo|medievali]], canti popolari [[Russia|russi]], canti popolari [[Napoli|napoletani]], canti baschi). Non per questo CL rinnega la canzone moderna in quanto tale: anzi, il movimento ha accolto anche compositori, come il cantautore [[Claudio Chieffo]], che don Giussani chiamava semplicemente &quot;il poeta&quot;. L'attenzione alla musica è tale che negli [[esercizi spirituali]], a eccezione dei momenti degli incontri, c'è sempre l'esecuzione di un canto o di un pezzo di musica classica.<br /> * '''Cultura:''' La preoccupazione di don Giussani di presentare la lettura di alcuni testi di personalità cristiane e non cristiane che potessero favorire una migliore comprensione dell'esperienza cristiana cominciò con la proposta del &quot;libro del mese&quot; che continua ancora oggi sotto forma di una collana della [[BUR Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli|BUR]], denominata ''I libri dello spirito cristiano''. La proposta sull'ascolto della musica è invece nella collana di CD denominata ''[[Spirto gentil]]''. In CL si presta grandissima attenzione all'arte, intesa come una delle espressioni più alte dell'uomo.<br /> * '''Carità:''' Gli aderenti al movimento sono educati alla carità attraverso la &quot;caritativa&quot;. Questo impegno settimanale affonda le sue radici nell'abitudine dei primi giessini di riversarsi nel fine settimana nella povera Bassa Milanese per fare compagnia ai bambini, giocare con loro e fare catechismo. La caritativa non è intesa come volontariato o come gesto di solidarietà, ma come strumento di educazione del cuore alla gratuità. Attualmente le forme sono le più disparate: per esempio, dedicare un'ora della settimana a fare compagnia ai carcerati, ai malati, a fare doposcuola ai bambini, ecc.<br /> * '''Missione:''' Tutto il movimento di CL è missionario, nel senso che si propone di portare a ogni uomo la persona viva di Gesù. L'attenzione alla realtà missionaria propriamente detta è grandissima e affonda le sue radici negli anni sessanta, quando alcuni giessini milanesi partirono per il Brasile (paese cui il movimento sarebbe sempre stato legato) come missionari. In realtà quasi tutti i ragazzi di GS partiti dopo il '68 passarono nelle file dei movimenti marxisti, abbandonando il movimento,&lt;ref&gt;Alberto Mazzuca, ''Angeli tra noi'', Genova-Milano, Casa editrice Marietti, 2005, pp. 222-223.&lt;/ref&gt; a eccezione di don Pigi Bernareggi e di Rosetta Brambilla, ancora attualmente in Brasile a Belo Horizonte.&lt;ref&gt;{{cita web|url=https://it.clonline.org/news/attualit%C3%A0/2017/06/13/don-pigi-bernareggi-testimonianza-milano-2017|titolo=Un dito puntato al cuore: testimonianza di Pigi Bernareggi|data=13 giugno 2017|accesso=12 novembre 2017|urlarchivio=https://web.archive.org/web/20171113003322/https://it.clonline.org/news/attualit%C3%A0/2017/06/13/don-pigi-bernareggi-testimonianza-milano-2017|dataarchivio=13 novembre 2017|urlmorto=no}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> == Organizzazione ==<br /> * Nell'insegnamento di don Giussani, la fede ha a che fare con ogni aspetto della vita, da cui la nascita in seno al movimento di circoli culturali, opere educative, cooperative di lavoro, attraverso cui Comunione e Liberazione si è diffusa assai più che per il tradizionale ambiente delle parrocchie. Al movimento è legata, ad esempio, l'associazione [[Compagnia delle Opere]], nata nel [[1986]] e che riunisce migliaia tra imprenditori e opere di carattere assistenziale ed educative.<br /> * Dal [[1980]] ogni anno, in una settimana della seconda metà di agosto, si svolge a [[Rimini]] il [[Meeting per l'amicizia fra i popoli]], manifestazione in cui tramite incontri, eventi, mostre e dibattiti con esponenti del mondo della cultura, della politica, dell'industria e della finanza (sia italiani che stranieri), è evidenziato il coinvolgimento di CL con le più varie realtà religiose, politiche e sociali. Nel 1981 nasce a Milano il Centro Culturale San Carlo dietro un invito rivolto direttamente a don Giussani (oggi CMC Centro Culturale di Milano), per dare vita a un luogo di incontro e cultura, dove potesse emergere il contributo che la ragione può portare all'esperienza della fede, attraverso la condivisione e il dialogo tra diverse esperienze di vita. Da lì nascono, negli stessi anni e in diverse città numerosi Centri Culturali che si riuniscono nell'Associazione Italiana Centri Culturali&lt;ref&gt;Cfr. pp 124 e seguenti di Comunione e Liberazione Il riconoscimento, ed. San Paolo&lt;/ref&gt;. A Milano aderirono subito numerosi intellettuali, tra cui [[Giovanni Testori]] e oggi docenti, professionisti, scrittori, come Luca Doninelli, Silvano Petrosino, Giulio Sapelli, Salvatore Carrubba.<br /> * Dall'ambiente di CL è nata la [[Fondazione Banco Alimentare]], una [[ONLUS]] per la raccolta e la redistribuzione delle eccedenze alimentari (a cui si è poi aggiunto il [[Banco Farmaceutico]]) e l'[[AVSI]] (Associazione dei Volontari per il Servizio Internazionale).<br /> * Da CL nasce nel 1982 il Sindacato delle Famiglie (SIDEF&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.sindacatodellefamiglie.org SIDEF - Sindacato delle famiglie] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190816053850/http://www.sindacatodellefamiglie.org/ |data=16 agosto 2019 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;), per la promozione dei diritti delle famiglie e il riconoscimento della loro soggettività sociale, ipotizzando che l'Italia sia uno dei paesi europei che più penalizza le esigenze delle famiglie.<br /> * Da CL sono nate anche numerose altre iniziative dei più diversi ambiti: Club Papillon&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.clubpapillon.it Club Papillon] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160321213058/http://www.clubpapillon.it/ |data=21 marzo 2016 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Teatro de Gli Incamminati&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.incamminati.it Teatro de Gli Incamminati] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191102002859/http://www.incamminati.it/ |data=2 novembre 2019 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Consorzio Pan (progetti asili nido)&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.consorziopan.it Consorzio PAN] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191201052424/http://www.consorziopan.it/ |data=1 dicembre 2019 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Famiglie per Accoglienza&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.famiglieperaccoglienza.it Famiglie per Accoglienza] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20191203103156/http://www.famiglieperaccoglienza.it/ |data=3 dicembre 2019 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Associazione Cilla&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.cilla.it Associazione Cilla] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190811114724/https://www.cilla.it/ |data=11 agosto 2019 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Euresis&lt;ref&gt;[http://euresis.ispp.it Euresis] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060509143820/http://euresis.ispp.it/ |data=9 maggio 2006 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Teatro Elsinor&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.elsinor.net Teatro Elsinor] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190514055029/http://www.elsinor.net/ |data=14 maggio 2019 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Federazione Opere Educative&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.foe.it Federazione Opere Educative] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180919135223/http://www.foe.it/ |data=19 settembre 2018 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, Arcipelago Musica&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.arcipelagomusica.it Arcipelago Musica] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180819001625/http://www.arcipelagomusica.it/ |data=19 agosto 2018 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, ecc. L'associazione di fedeli [[Russia cristiana]], d'altra parte, pur con posizioni vicine a CL e annoverando tra i propri aderenti molti ciellini, ha avuto genesi ed evoluzione propria e gode tuttora di una propria fisionomia non direttamente dipendente da CL&lt;ref&gt;L'associazione [http://www.russiacristiana.org Russia Cristiana] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130106152722/http://www.russiacristiana.org/ |data=6 gennaio 2013 }}, fondata da padre Romano Scalfi, promuove la rinascita spirituale e religiosa in Russia, attraverso un intenso dialogo con le [[Chiesa ortodossa|chiese ortodosse]] e la pubblicazione di libri religiosi in [[lingua russa]].&lt;/ref&gt;,<br /> <br /> === Nell'ambiente universitario ===<br /> * Il movimento di Comunione e Liberazione è presente nelle scuole e nelle [[Università]]. Alcuni aderenti al movimento partecipano attivamente alla politica universitaria mediante liste universitarie, così come alla politica locale, nazionale ed europea. Questo per seguire l'insegnamento della Chiesa di portare Cristo in tutti gli ambienti della società (cfr. ''[[Gaudium et Spes]]''). La presenza di CL nelle università inizia a partire dalla fine degli [[anni 1960|anni sessanta]] con la sigla informale CLU (Comunione e Liberazione - Universitari) ancora oggi utilizzata per indicare tutti i gruppi universitari ispirati a CL. Tale presenza è stata spesso però vista, soprattutto negli anni 70, solo come un elemento politico, tanto che Giussani stesso, nel febbraio 1976, richiamò i suoi sottolineando che «CL in università è un fatto politico più che un fatto ecclesiale, e questo ci strozza» e indicando un nuovo modo di stare in Università più aderente al messaggio cristiano. La storia delle liste universitarie nate da aderenti a Comunione e Liberazione ha conosciuto negli anni successi e insuccessi legati soprattutto al radicamento di CL sul territorio e nelle singole Università e attualmente fa riferimento a sigle come [[Student Office]], [[Obiettivo Studenti]], [[Lista Aperta per il Diritto allo Studio]], [[Ateneo Studenti]], Universitas o [[ListOne]] riunite in una federazione nata negli [[Anni 1990|anni novanta]] e denominata [[Coordinamento Liste per il Diritto allo Studio]] (CLDS). Negli atenei italiani il movimento di CL ha fatto sentire la sua voce con nette prese di posizione, dimostrazioni, volantinaggi, manifestazioni durante incontri pubblici su alcuni temi scottanti della politica italiana ed europea, esprimendosi contro l'[[aborto]], l'utilizzo delle [[Cellule staminali|cellule staminali embrionali]] e a sostegno della [[legge 40/2004]] sulla procreazione assistita (cfr. [[#Politica italiana e CL|Politica italiana e CL]]), opponendosi al [[divorzio]] e al [[Unione civile|riconoscimento legale]] di coppie [[Omosessualità|omosessuali]] e sostenendo la parità dei diritti tra scuole statali e [[Scuola privata|private]] e per l'[[Insegnamento della religione cattolica in Italia|insegnamento della religione cattolica]]. Recentemente, anche negli atenei, CL ha preso posizione per quanto riguarda l'inserimento nel testo della Costituzione Europea del riferimento alle [[Cristianesimo in Italia|radici cristiane]]. Nei mesi di settembre, ottobre e novembre [[2008]], ovvero nei momenti di tensione tra governo da una parte e studenti, ricercatori e professori dall'altra, a causa della [[legge 133]] (che prevedeva tagli orizzontali nell'ambito dell'università pubblica, della ricerca e del settore lavorativo universitario) il movimento di CL ha assunto una posizione generalmente poco critica rispetto alla situazione, assumendo posizioni in parte favorevoli al decreto, in parte contrarie; gli esponenti di CL si sono generalmente astenuti dalle manifestazioni di piazza.{{Senza fonte}} Nell'ultimo decennio diversi studenti provenienti dall'esperienza di CL hanno aderito a partiti, buona parte a [[Forza Italia (1994)|Forza Italia]], militando nelle sue file e presentando candidati nelle sue liste. Per esempio, a Milano, Lorenzo &quot;Lollo&quot; Malagola, studente di Comunione e Liberazione e rappresentante degli studenti con il [[Coordinamento liste per il diritto allo studio]] in seno al [[Consiglio Nazionale degli Studenti Universitari]], è stato eletto nel [[2006]] come consigliere comunale nelle liste di Forza Italia, seguendo le orme di Carlo Masseroli, che è stato assessore all'urbanistica del comune di Milano, passando dagli organi universitari fino ai banchi del consiglio comunale. Dallo stesso percorso è passato anche Giulio Gallera, che è arrivato a ricoprire ruoli significativi nell'amministrazione comunale di Milano sin dagli anni '90, in Forza Italia e Regione Lombardia, di cui è stato Assessore al Welfare dal 2016 al 2021.&lt;ref&gt;{{Cita web|url=https://www.giuliogallera.com/chi-sono |titolo= Autobiografia Giulio Gallera |citazione=Sono stato rappresentante degli studenti nel Consiglio di Facoltà di Giurisprudenza e nel Consiglio d’Amministrazione dell'Università Statale di Milano e Segretario cittadino dei Giovani Liberali di Milano nel biennio 1992-1993.}}&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> La posizione delle liste vicine al movimento di CL per quanto riguarda la [[riforma Moratti]] sullo stato giuridico della docenza e la struttura dei corsi di laurea è stata di un sostanziale appoggio al Ministro (sia pure con alcuni distinguo), in opposizione ad alcuni settori del mondo accademico (all'interno della CRUI, tra i professori, parte della conferenza dei ricercatori e dei dottorandi) e della [[Unione degli universitari|sinistra studentesca]] all'epoca maggioranza in seno al [[CNSU]]. Un altro aspetto rilevante della presenza di CL in Università è rappresentato dalle iniziative cooperative. Nel [[1977]] alcuni studenti di CL fondarono infatti la ''[[Cooperativa Universitaria Studio e Lavoro]]'' (CUSL&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.cusl.it Cooperativa Universitaria Studio e Lavoro] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190928075801/http://cusl.it/ |data=28 settembre 2019 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;) per offrire servizi di [[fotocopia|fotocopisteria]], libri, materiale di cancelleria, convenzioni con negozi, oltre a gestire con i propri proventi iniziative legate al diritto allo studio con [[Borsa di studio|borse]] e facilitazioni. Alla fine degli anni settanta le cooperative del Movimento Studentesco (di tradizione comunista) erano le uniche realtà organizzate a usufruire degli spazi universitari per offrire servizi agli studenti e la CUSL, che per diversi anni aveva operato con &quot;banchetti volanti&quot;, acquisì la prima sede stabile solo nell'agosto del 1982, con l'occupazione, la pulizia e l'allestimento in uno scantinato abbandonato del [[Politecnico di Milano]]&lt;ref&gt;«Nelle università italiane alla fine degli anni settanta le cooperative del Movimento Studentesco godevano di fatto del monopolio degli spazi. Per questo la CUSL non ebbe vita facile, specialmente nel suo sorgere [...] Gli ingegneri organizzarono una raccolta di firme cui aderirono ben centosessanta docenti, nel luglio 1982»; secondo la testimonianza di uno di quelli che occuparono lo scantinato, «il locale aveva delle grate e dei finestroni, da cui abbiamo introdotto i materiali. [...] Appendemmo anche una croce in legno, grande, che la sera prima avevamo trovato in una pattumiera del Politecnico» (citazioni da Massimo Camisasca, ''Comunione e Liberazione. Il riconoscimento (1976-1984)'', San Paolo, 2006, pagg. 91-92).&lt;/ref&gt;. Sempre alla sfera di CL appartiene l'associazione culturale ''Universitas University'', con base a Milano e che raccoglie un ampio numero di docenti universitari facenti parte del movimento. Tra i documenti degni di nota si trova la difesa degli estensori della &quot;Lettera a una professoressa&quot; (vedi [[CLDS]]) firmata da 18 docenti dell'Università degli Studi di Milano.&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.universitas-university.org/UUdoc_u&amp;u/A_proposito_di_lettere_aperte.htm A proposito di lettere aperte e porte chiuse. È una questione della ragione] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930072641/http://www.universitas-university.org/UUdoc_u%26u/A_proposito_di_lettere_aperte.htm |data=30 settembre 2007 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> <br /> === Editoria ===<br /> * La rivista ufficiale del movimento è il mensile ''Tracce''&lt;ref&gt;[http://www.tracce.it Tracce (Litterae Communionis)] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100109220753/http://www.tracce.it/ |data=9 gennaio 2010 }}.&lt;/ref&gt;, pubblicato in undici lingue, tra cui il [[Lingua russa|russo]] e il [[Lingua giapponese|giapponese]]. All'esperienza di CL si rifaceva il settimanale ''[[Il Sabato]]'' (pubblicato tra il 1978 e il [[1993]]). Fino agli anni ottanta la casa editrice dei testi legati al movimento è la [[Jaca Book]] (che prende nome da una pianta sudamericana, la [[Artocarpus heterophyllus|jaca]] nota come &quot;pianta del pane&quot;); dalla fine degli anni ottanta i libri di Giussani e di altri autori legati a CL vengono pubblicati da diverse case editrici (principalmente [[Marietti editore]] e [[RCS MediaGroup]]).<br /> <br /> == Impegno politico ==<br /> [[File:Co lib.jpg|thumb|Manifestazione di CL, anni settanta]]<br /> Il movimento si è interessato in vari casi rivolti anche alla sfera politica, come per esempio la questione dell'[[aborto]]. Un episodio particolarmente significativo avvenne durante un'assemblea alla [[Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore|Cattolica]] nel 1973, quando il coro di CL cantò ''La ballata del potere'' di [[Claudio Chieffo]]. Il [[giornalista]] [[Walter Tobagi]] riporta che nel momento in cui il coro intonò la [[strofa]] «''forza compagni: rovesciamo tutto e costruiamo un mondo meno brutto''», i membri del [[Movimento Studentesco (organizzazione)|Movimento Studentesco]], inizialmente stupiti e cominciarono ad applaudire; l'applauso però si trasformò in fischi di disapprovazione quando il coro arrivò all'ultima strofa: «''Ora tu dimmi, come può sperare un uomo, se ha in mano tutto, ma non ha il [[perdono]]?''».&lt;ref&gt;Walter Tobagi, ''Sì, rovesciamo tutto, ma in nome di Cristo'', in ''Corriere d'informazione'', 31 marzo 1973. Il ''Corriere d'informazione'' era il quotidiano pomeridiano del ''[[Corriere della Sera]]''; cessò le sue pubblicazioni il 15 dicembre 1981.&lt;/ref&gt; <br /> <br /> L'impegno politico risale all'inizio degli anni settanta, generalmente in appoggio alla [[Democrazia Cristiana]]. La prima vera battaglia politica fu il [[referendum abrogativo in Italia del 1974|referendum sul divorzio]] del 12 maggio [[1974]], in cui il fronte cattolico si presentava diviso: per esempio le [[Associazioni Cristiane Lavoratori Italiani|ACLI]] furono favorevoli, l'[[Azione Cattolica]] non prese una posizione ufficiale, altre formazioni ecclesiali&amp;nbsp;– fra cui CL&amp;nbsp;– si dichiararono contrarie. CL organizzò manifestazioni e incontri pubblici per promuovere le ragioni del &quot;sì&quot; all'abrogazione della legge sul divorzio ma il referendum fu vinto dai &quot;no&quot;; ciò portò a una lunga riflessione all'interno di CL sull'efficacia delle manifestazioni e degli incontri. <br /> ===Il Movimento Popolare===<br /> Un anno dopo, il 29 maggio [[1975]], nacque il ''Movimento Popolare'' a opera di [[Roberto Formigoni]] e altri membri di CL, che tradussero in forza elettorale l'impegno politico di ispirazione cattolica di CL.&lt;ref&gt;[https://www.huffingtonpost.it/oscar-nicodemo/cl-un-movimeto-spirituale_b_8048522.html hffingtonpost.it]&lt;/ref&gt;<br /> E già alle amministrative del 15-16 giugno 1975 la formazione guadagnò cinque eletti al comune di Milano, e diversi altri nel resto dell'Italia. Il 27 giugno 1975 il primo comunicato stampa di CL sulle elezioni affermava: «''nonostante il calo percentuale della DC, un nuovo movimento cattolico è nato''». Il movimento fu denominato ''Movimento Popolare'', senza l'aggettivo &quot;cattolic